Crime Statistics - a study of a crime Sample
Get free samples written by our Top-Notch subject experts for taking assignment help services.
The crime rate in the UK is continuously increasing and more people are facing a different type of criminal activities in a different part of the UK. All the criminal cases that are recorded in the UK in recent years can be a divide into different categories (Kaufman, 2017). The most common type of crimes that are recorded in the United Kingdom is theft, burglary, possession of drugs and possession with intent to supply drugs, affray and assault occasioning actual bodily harm. In all these categories, knife crime is most common in the UK. This study will be providing an overview of knife crimes that are recorded in the United Kingdom in past few years. The case study of Alison Hunt will be considered to explain the type of knife crimes that are available in the police records.
These type of crime are mainly observed in the UK in the last few years. In the United Kingdom till the end of March 2019, there was a total of 259 homicides were recorded. In all these homicides sharp objects like knife, sharp instruments and broken bottles were used to physically assault the victim. Knife crime is a common type of crime that is recorded in the UK. Till the end of March 2020 total, 46000 offences were involving knife or sharp object in England and Wales. In the past 10 years, highest knife crimes were recorded in the UK. From the below data, rate of knife crime can be explained for some of the well-known areas of the UK.
Figure 1 Record of Knife Crime
(Source: Knife crime statistics, 2020)
As per the above record, the highest number of knife crimes has been recorded by UK police in the year 2020. These type of cases are continuously increasing in some of the highest populated areas in the UK. In the yearend total of 259 homicides recorded till March 2019 which was 39 % of all the cases that are recorded in the UK. In this 39 % of cases, sharp objects like knives, sharp instrument, and broken bottles were used.
Figure 2 Age of Perpetrators in Knife Crimes
(Source: Ten charts on the rise of knife crime in England and Wales, 2019)
Most of the perpetrators of knife crime are over 18. Till year ending March 2019, 16855 perpetrators are aged over 18 years and only 4306 were aged 10 to 17. As per the records it can be said that knife crimes are continuously increasing in the UK and most of the perpetrators in the knife crimes are over 18. As per the case study of Alison Hunt, on 16 January 2019, her ex-partner Vernon Holmes, (47) stabbed her 18 times on the doorstep at her home in Swinton. Later the accused was sentenced to life imprisonment with a minimum term of 25 years in prison. In this case, Vernon Holmes killed his ex-partner after 18 times stabbed her in head, chest and neck with severe force. Controlling and Jealous behaviour was the major reason for assault and killing in this case.
There are different theories can be considered to understand the crimes that are performed for different purposes. This is important for the authorities to understand the crimes and implement various methods to prevent crime in the country (Wilcox and Cullen, 2018). Main theories that can be used to understand the crime are- Classical, Biological, sociological and interactionist. These theories are considered the most effective theories to understand the reason for the crime. The reasons for violence and crime can be considered to impose some changes in legal and social systems to reduce the crime rate in the country. The theories that are used to define the reason for crime can be used to understand and analyse the mind-set of criminal. This process can be used to reduce the crime rate in country. The countries that are facing severe criminal cases are deeply analysing reason for crime to reduce criminal activity and provide better solution to the people who are living at risk. Various theories can be considered by the government and authorities to understand the crime in country and develop proper procedures to keep people safe from homicides and other criminal cases in country.
Classical Theory of Crime
This is considered as the oldest theory which was used to explain the crimes that are committed by different criminals. This theory was mainly considered during late 1700 and 1800s. According to this theory, criminals are rational human beings who pursue their interest, all they are doing is to maximise pleasure and minimise their pain. They can stop their criminal activities unless they face the threat of swift, certain and appropriately severe punishment. They can commit crimes to meet their self-interests (Thornberry, 2018). As per this theory, reason for crime is related to the force of nature and force of the world. Absence of effective punishment can be considered as the reason for the crime. The classical theory was developed as the reaction against the harsh, corrupt and often arbitrary nature of the legal system at that time. Main solutions that are provided in the classical theory of crime are related to suggest and impose some change in the system for the reform of the legal system. This theory is based on the thought that people have the freedom to take decision and punishment can be a deterrent for crime. People will tend to commit crime until the punishment is proportional. This theory argues that people are rationale and they commit crime to avoid pain the sorrow that is developed by the forces that are beyond the control. This main target of this theory is to blame harsh, arbitrary and corrupt system that makes the people commit crime (Karstedt, Brehm and Frizzell, 2020). The classical theory states that crime that is performed by the criminals are mainly dependent on the swiftness, certainty and appropriateness of the punishment faced by them. As per this theory, this is important to have an effective and specific system or punishment in response to the crime. The main purpose of the criminal justice system is to prevent and reduce crime by deterrence.
Stan Theory of Crime
This theory is also considered a moral panic theory. According to this theory, moral panic occurs at condition when someone or something defines the media as threat to the values or the interest of the society. As per this theory situation of moral panic created when situations, episodes, person, or group of people are defined as threat to societal values and interests. This type of situation can create moral panic situation (Natarajan, 2017). Moral panic could be created by any action. For example, just reading particular news can be considered as origin of creating moral panic. In normal condition this is the media must present news and make people aware of surrounding situation and major concerns that are needed to be considered by the people. In some cases, media used to publish news as sensation and try to create moral panic situation in society. By this attempt, people can be enforced to create situation that can create moral panic among the people. There are five stages of moral panic are defined in the theory. These stages of moral panic are- someone or something is defined as threat to the values of interest, the threat is depicted in easy to recognizable form by media platforms, this threat is build up as major public concern, response is generated from the authorities and opinion makers and the last stage of the moral panic theory is, panic recedes or results as change in the society or their values. This is how complete process of moral panic can be defined.
Sociological Theory of Crime
In the social theory of crime, various social structural factors are analysed for the generation of criminal activities and criminal behaviour of people. In this theory main reason for criminal activity and behaviour of people in society. In the study, various factors are considered that make impact on the socialization in which criminal behaviour is conventional. For the analysis of these social factors both explicitly and implicitly processes are analysed by the people to understand the impact of social factors that can lead to development of criminal mind-set. The major concept that is considered in this process is related to the environment and surrounding condition of people. For example, a person is surrounded by criminally minded people then they will learn and adopt the criminal mind-set (Walters, 2020). The impact of the social environment is major reason for change in the behaviour of people. The values that are gained by the person can be analysed to predict their behaviour in future. In the sociological theory, it is stated that criminal activities and behaviour are shaped by various external factors to a person. The experience that is gained by the person in neighbourhood, social group, peers and family can be considered as external factor that can develop criminal mind-set in people. The strain between goals and means can result in frustration in behaviour and resentment. This condition can encourage or motivate some people to use illegal processes to achieve success quickly. Pressure from social values and structures can force a person to commit crime. This is how social pressure on person can force the person to commit crime.
Interactionist Theory of Crime
The perception that is used in the Interactionist Theory of Crime is quite different from the theories that are explained above. As per this theory, deviance and crime are constructed by the agencies of social control. There are different powerful agencies are present in the society that promotes criminal activities in people. For example, media can be considered as social control agency that can control the behaviours of people. As per this theory, people see the crimes that are committed by powerless groups as dangerous activities and the crimes that are committed by the powerful people are avoided by the people. There is huge role of media in amplifying deviance by the way they report the criminal activity. The role of the media and other powerful agencies in this theory to understand deviance that is created in the general people and the impact of this deviance is also considered to evaluate the impact on behavioural changes in people.
The case study of Alison Hunt is directly related to the sociology theory of crime and biological theory of crime. These theories can be used to explain the crime that is committed by Vernon Holmes. The horrific act performed by Vernon is related to biological predisposition and situation he was facing. Less control over anger and current situations has made him commit crime.
Notion of Moral Panic
Notion of moral panic can be explained as problem or challenge that is faced by public as a response to the threatening the moral factors and standards in society. Generally, it can be explained as condition where entire public is affected by come conditions and challenges that are present in society. This type of situation where large group in public is affected by the social or administrative issue. The case study that is considered in the report cannot be considered as result of moral panic. The act that is performed by the perpetrator can be explained with help of biological theory of crime. Act which was performed by the Vernon Holmes was result of his thinking and personal situations that are faced by him in past. Along with this major reason for crime was related to the biological situation where lack of control on emotion has made him stab Alison Hunt on doorstep. The notion of the moral panic can be explained based on the moral panic theory that can be used to explain the notion of public panic situation that is led by specific people or group of people. Development of oral panic can be explained to reduce such situation in country to provide better and safer conditions to the people.
This report is providing analysis of case study of Alison Hunt 42-year-old women who was stabbed by her ex-partner on doorstep of her home. Brief overview of crime has been provided in the report. Various theories that are related to the criminal behaviour of people has been explained in report to explain the criminal activities that are performed by people. The concept of each theory has been provided in report. On bREFERENCESasis of these theories, proper explanation has been provided for the case study that is considered in the report. Through this study effective understanding of criminal activities has been developed.
Books and Journals
Karstedt, S., Brehm, H.N. and Frizzell, L.C., 2020. Genocide, Mass Atrocity, and Theories of Crime: Unlocking Criminology's Potential. Annual Review of Criminology. 4.
Kaufman, J.M., 2017. Anomie, strain and subcultural theories of crime. Routledge.
Natarajan, M. ed., 2017. Crime opportunity theories: Routine activity, rational choice and their variants. Routledge.
Thornberry, T. ed., 2018. Developmental theories of crime and delinquency. Routledge.
Walters, G.D., 2020. Positive Peers—The Neglected Stepchildren of Social Influence Theories of Crime. Journal of abnormal child psychology, pp.1-14.
Wilcox, P. and Cullen, F.T., 2018. Situational opportunity theories of crime. Annual Review of Criminology. 1. pp.123-148.
Knife crime statistics, 2020. [Online]. Available Through.< https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/sn04304/#:~:text=In%20the%20year%20ending%20March,area%20prior%20to%202018%2F19.>.
Ten charts on the rise of knife crime in England and Wales, 2019. [Online]. Available Through.< https://www.bbc.com/ne