Critical management studies simply refers to a loose but extended grouping of empirically informed critical review of business and corporation, management and is grounded earlier in a critical hypothesis perspective (Kothari, 2016). Now a days, it is encompassing a vast range of views that are captious of conventional philosophies of management and business schools that is used for generating these theories. The present report is based on a case study and it also contains relevant information about critical management studies. In this project, various theories like Marxist theory, Habesmas concepts regarding ideal of speech, etc. Apart from this, some of the information is also added from provided case study.
2.0 Case study
According to the given case study, exploitation of workers from the IT sector has been increasing day on day. Video game designers or software developers are being hired and are forced to do long working hours. Large amount of work are taken from them without giving them proper pay. This is creating rhetorical effects and making the working environment so stressful as overtime working is examined and there is no assurance of any compensation. This phenomena is named as death march. This is the reason of both workers and capital mobility. Investigator has focused on (de)regulation of working time only, but this evaluation opens up a way to theoretically or the (de) regulation of work more narrowly in an growing work force that is new professionals in working sector. Video game developers and software designers are not portion of a big pool of exchangeable labour either as a neo- Marxit model will suggest; on the other hand, they comprise a strategic asset for their for their managers, a captious success factor, specially so in terms of absence of skilled work force (Lunney, 2013).
This case report is designed by taking interviews of around 88 extensive employees involving project manager, computer analyst, testing engineers, managers and so on. From both cases, the researcher said that managerial staff and senior mangers are not viewed as subject to the provisions in respect to payment of extra time working hours. The samples consist of equal number of male and female, neglecting the low proportion of female employees in organisation. In context of educational qualification, approx 98 % of video game designers has done many forms post secondary education, while 60 % are university degree holder and around 26 % owns a technical diploma degree. This has been investigated that software developers are commonly put in overtime at their homes in night or at weekends. After taking interviews of 46 % of female and 83 % of male, researcher found that approx 49 % respondents worked extra 40 hours in a week and 13.6 % work around over 50 hours within seven days (Grey and et. al., 2016). Thus, it can be said that women are less probable to work extra hours in comparison to their males associates as they also have to complete their duty regarding children and domestic works.
Researcher also explained about the issues of crunch time and has done work on associated burnout as well. In practice, yet, overtime is more the regulation than the exception, as per the Online quality of Life International Survey of the International game developers association, a survey of 994 members, amounting to around 10 % of company's overall membership. Coming to legal framework, Act of Respecting Labour Standards clearly stated that a manager who ask their employees to work overtime have to provide wages at premium rate. If any employer does not want to pay for overtime, the they should not provide extra work to their work forces. But this has been examined that most of the IT companies are not following this rule made by government.
Reputation plays a major role in Information technology sector. It is very essential to understand the working of enterprises who work on project based. Reputation plays a big role and largely affect the decision. Basically design of every products give rise to a contract which later becomes a project and is manage as per the set principles. Major elements of a project are its scope, budget and deadlines. In case of video games, competitions is always international as in this location does not play a significant role. Failures are high and very common in video games that's why companies invest more in risk analysis (Guest, 2011). Due to copycat rivals, increase distribution of products in an illegal way, IT sector faces a number of challenges. Number of commercial games are there which are not producing any kind of profit. Game publisher acquire IP rights to games under which designer get compensation against royalties, that totally based on sales. Basically games are funded by publishers and this take number of years to develop. Further, publisher do all efforts to manage the risk with help of producers in order to monitor the success. Strategy of HRM (Human resource management) must be combine with business model as this help in increase the return on investment. Management of projects as per the set standards and project based working offer an adequate HRM approach.
If an enterprises wants to offer innovative and better quality products to its customers then it requires to do lot of improvements. One of the major challenge which managers face is that control the business operations and at the same time maintain a culture of innovation and creativity. One of the main advantage of project based working is that it helps managers to manage and perform flexible roles that helps them in manage changes and get a control over all business operations. Uncertainty is one of the major issue that always lies with project management. As per the core theory, project based organisation is replace by relentless challenges of continuous innovation.
Project life cycle is another cornerstone of project management in which production of product is broken down into smaller operations. This helps manager in identify the resources and budgets require to complete the project. In practical life, both software and video game developers carry out activities of entrepreneurs. In order to avoid and remove bureaucracy, basic managerial functions such as research and development, human resources, finance and production require to be coordinated (Foss and Knudsen, 2013). Project managers manage every aspect related with project such as HRM and at the same time formulate effective policies and encourage individuals to work with given time period. It is very essential that this should not be misunderstood. Overall, project based enterprises does not only allow control to team members but also gives control to clients. This is the main reason why project based enterprises are popular and are beyond the limits of IT industry. Due to this, there is an increase in the members of management profession.
3.1 Marxist theory to CMS
Marxist theory works in the sector of philosophy that is powerfully influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory. Most of history and pre – history of critical management studies is concerned with reckoning out the evinces of the text signed with name of Marx. This history can be broadly summarised in three moments (Elwood, 2017). First moment is one of the regulation that after some time became famous as labour process theory and what is regarded as the forerunner to CMS. He said that the value of things have to measured in context of labour that went into their manufacture. But historical economics does not do the same as they calculate value in terms of whatever earned after selling products or services in market place. Marx was incorrect in putting so much importance for developing a economic theory on the basis of labour as the unit of measurement. It is tough to describe several things this way, like prices person pay for things, and it is not essential for his critical review of capitalism. Thus, a great time period has get wasted on debating in this belief only.
The second moment is one of caesura, in which more of what is being granted in a Marxist analysis of organisation and management is tangled overboard. In specific this happens through a conceptuality of the comparative independence of management vis a vis capital. Here calculation of the employer and its position within venture is viewed in relation to a structural evaluation of the functioning of management within capitalistic relations of production. On the other hand, the third moment correctly comprises a return to Marx, in many ways in spite of the first two moments (Cardoso. Meireles and Ferreira Peralta, 2012). Scholar try to rejuvenate a special early 20th century version of Paleo – Marxism is possibly much more prominent, but also the less innovation based, move to think a Marxist future for CMS. This moment also objected on theory of labour process and challenge it to once more execute a turn to the invisible abode of production, this time in social industrial plant. Most of the analysis of management and associated functioning like accounting is here once more thought as part of a capitalist machine of capture. Some of the key criticism of this theory are listed below :
- Too much importance is provided to the economic factor in describing social order and modifications.
- Marx ' theory of value stated that the value of production is considered to the amount of labour in it. Employees are creating that value but are getting it all in their salary or payments. On the other hand, private enterprise sell the goods in more revenue than they pay to their workers and hence gains the part of the value made by them (Child, 2012). Therefore, to Marx, the main fault in capitalism is this unfairness or injustice that is also said as theft and exploitation that is being done ion the mode of manufacturing.
3.2 Habermas theory
Jurgen Habermas is a German philosopher of critical theory. Theoretical model of habermas is dedicated to reveal the possibility of reason. Currently Jurgen Habermas get ranks as one of the most powerful philosophers in world.
- Habermas's theory of politics, morality and law: Habermas's interest in rationality and political theory come deliberative democracy. Under this Habermas do struggle to show his idealised discourse theory. He concludes his conception of practical disclosure in disclosure principle. Each discourse consists specification content for the issue. Basically, he has been concerned with two major specifications that is legal political and moral discourse. During differentiating between these two, he also tackle the problem of relationship between morality and law.
Under disclosure theory of morality, Habermas's consider the element the morality as a matter of moral obligations, the positive obligations that ensure interactions among individuals. Further, he also did efforts to give discourse ethics by consider social anthropology and empirical foothold. As per the point views of Habermas, moral maturation consists the growing ability to merge the interpersonal perspectives given with the personal pronouns (Cacciabue , 2013).
Main aim of Habermas's democratic theory was to provides a normative account for the law. Further, the demand on the legitimation of law varies with functional realignment.
- Theory of communicative action: Habermas develop a social theory of two level that consists analysis of communicative rationality. On the basis of this theory, he hopes to to able to examine the losses and gains of modernisation in order to overcome with one sided version of rationalization. Critical theories make two assumptions is that there is one preferred mode of expiations and there is one goals of social criticism. Correctness and incorrectness of this theory is largely depend on its rejection and acceptance. Habermas's attitude towards these different modes is somewhat uncertain but he has gave good reasons to accept the pluralist approach. He accepts that all theories and modes of inquiry have a legitimacy.
- Habermas's discourse theory: Theory of communicative action rely on the idea that social order largely depend on the capacity of individuals to recognise the validity of various claims on which social cooperation depends. Habermans highlights cognitive and rational character to recognise the validity of claims (Habermas theory, 2017). He proposes a multi dimensional conception that express itself in various form of validity and not only in just truth claims but also in empirical world.
Discourse theory of Habermas assumes that specific type of validity claim only single aim to justify and that's why this theory is known as pragmatic analysis of argumentation. From logical point of view, individuals are concerned with arguments as services, products that supports conclusions. Strength of these type of arguments largely depend on the how an individual take account all the relevant information. The term called logical not only consider formal logics but also give consideration to informal logics. In all this strengths depends on the meaning of terms and information that complete formalization. Some discourses depend on various types which are moral, most obvious and ethical party.
Habermas concluded that an ideal speech situation is a condition when communication between individuals is governed by rules. In this, participants would be able to examine each other's statement on the basis of reason and proofs exist in a situation consists both psychological and physical coercion (Alvesson and Willmott, 2012). All individuals would be encouraged solely by the desire to obtain a rational outcome.
Condition of ideal speech came in 1970s by various theorists who relativized the concept and proof that an ideal speech situation could not be proven correct completely.
(Source : Habermas theory, 2017)
- As per the ideal speech given by Habermas, it is very essential for an individual to analyse every factor in order to better understand the statement given by other.
- Various elements which consists at environment should be take account by individual to get better understanding about the knowledge.
- Everyone should have a right ask questions.
- It is necessary that every person should work in an ethical and legal manner.
- The communication should be clear and proper.
- It is very essential that everyone should have space to express their, needs, desires and attitudes without any hesitation.
- Receiver should examine the situation from every aspect and angle in order to analyse the validity of collected data.
- Every individual competent with subject or who have full knowledge about the topic is allowed to take part in discussion.
From the above based report, it can be summarised that critical management study is nothing but the method of understanding theoretical concepts regarding management, businesses and firm. This is done on the ground of critical theory perspective. So, this is important for every contemporary or modern organisation to use this methodology and apply it in their business appropriately. By this way, they can understand the current situation of the IT sector workers and can attempt to minimise the unfairness that is being done on them. They should provide proper wages to their work force in the case of overtime working hours. In addition to this, specific summary of given case study has been provided whereby exploitation of software developers and video game designers has been explained. At the same time, various theories has discussed in detail such as Marx theory and Habermas's ideal of speech.
Books and journals
Alvesson, M. and Willmott, H., 2012. Making sense of management: A critical introduction. Sage.
Cacciabue, P. C., 2013. Guide to applying human factors methods: Human error and accident management in safety-critical systems. Springer Science & Business Media.
Cardoso, L., Meireles, A. and Ferreira Peralta, C., 2012. Knowledge management and its critical factors in social economy organizations. Journal of knowledge management. 16(2). pp.267-284.
Child, J., 2012. British Management Thought (Routledge Revivals): A Critical Analysis. Routledge.
Elwood, M., 2017. Critical appraisal of epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Oxford University Press.
Foss, N. J. and Knudsen, C. eds., 2013. Towards a competence theory of the firm (Vol. 2). Routledge.
Grey, C. and et. al., 2016. Critical management studies: Global voices, local accents. Routledge.
Guest, D. E., 2011. Human resource management and performance: still searching for some answers. Human resource management journal. 21(1). pp.3-13.
Kothari, U. ed., 2016. A radical history of development studies: Individuals, institutions and ideologies. Zed Books Ltd..
Lunney, M. ed., 2013. Critical thinking to achieve positive health outcomes: Nursing case studies and analyses. John Wiley & Sons.
Morrison, M. L., Marcot, B. and Mannan, W., 2012. Wildlife-habitat relationships: concepts and applications. Island Press.
Morton, P. G. and et. al., 2017. Critical care nursing: a holistic approach. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Myers, M. D., 2013. Qualitative research in business and management. Sage.
Urden, L. D., Stacy, K. M. and Lough, M. E., 2017. Critical Care Nursing-E-Book: Diagnosis and Management. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Vaccaro, I. G. and et. al., 2012. Management innovation and leadership: The moderating role of organizational size. Journal of Management Studies. 49(1). pp.28-51.
Wamukota, A. W., Cinner, J. E. and McClanahan, T. R., 2012. Co-management of coral reef fisheries: a critical evaluation of the literature. Marine Policy. 36(2). pp.481-488.
Habermas theory. 2017. [Online]. Available through : <http://www.integralworld.net/corbett1.html>.