The Globalising World
1. Modern Globalisation and Immanuel Wallerstein's Theory
Globalization, as defined in most of the literature, is a process of establishing and expanding connections between the different businesses and markets around the world. In the past three decades, there has been a remarkable increment in the rate of globalization. This can be related to the widespread use of telecommunication and Internet services in the business. However, there are many downsides of the globalisation and one of which is it increases the competition for local businesses that can hurt their revenue. The linkage of modern era globalisation with the ancient or medieval period globalisation has always been a debating issue. Immanuel Wallerstein gave his best-known version of world-systems analysis in the 1970s. He established the link of capitalist world-economy with that of the 16th century. Some researchers have argued that stretching the origin of globalisation to the older period is completely useless and inoperative for political analysis (Miller, 2017).
In the prehistoric period, the globalisation was characterised by territorial expansion and development of trade route to exchange agro-based products. This had provided a settled lifestyle to the majority of the world population at that time. However, globalisation could not be able to accelerate because of the lack of technology, medium, and trade routes. On the other hand, globalisation in the contemporary world started in the 19th century due to the increase in labour mobility, increased capital with a decrease in the cost of transportation. According to Immanuel Wallerstein, there are many similarities between the prehistoric and modern globalisation that support that the 21st-century globalisation is an extension of the past dynamics (Roach, 2015). The first one is the existence of free trade which means even in that period different kingdoms used to have free trading between them. In addition to this, there were free capital markets as the markets were financially integrated. Labour migration was also present. Labour in the era was also migrating from one region to another in search of better wage and lifestyle. The phenomenon was prominent in Europe in the 16th century.
However, there were many differences between the two phases of globalisation. The trade in the 21st century has witnessed a higher share of trade in the global world. In addition to this, the extent of multinational collaborations was high in comparison to the earlier phases. This can be attributed to the better communication process. One thing that was missing in the previous phases was the homogenisation.In the modern era, globalisation and market forces have imposed homogenisation on the customers worldwide. The process of homogenisation takes place in different ways (Boli, 2014). For instance, globalisation has instigated the communication revolutions that has further triggered the process of homogenisation. It has brought people into direct communication with each other.
2. Immigration theory and its validation in the globalised world
Geographic movement of individuals across their native regional boundaries for the purpose of creating semi-permanent or permanent living and residence is called migration. When this movement of people takes place between two countries, it is called immigration. It is one of the most rapidly occurring phenomena and is in the acceleration phase since the past 50 years. Assuming immigration as the way to get an eventual return is not describing the process of immigration (Czaika and Haas, 2014). This model has certain lacunas. Some discrepancies are associated with types of activities those models are entailed with. It seems that all these model have been developed while considering the globalisation from the technical, political, and economic viewpoint. There are psychological aspects to the globalisation that is causing the widespread movement of people across countries. People not only move in search of monetary benefits and returns but literacy and education along with the quality of life trigger them from moving from one place to another. Globalisation has increased people's abilities and potential that has instigated them to migrate.
With the immigration of people, the social, cultural, and economic interconnectedness has also increased which has further facilitated the cross-border movement of not just people but ideology, political thoughts, and culture. The accelerated phenomenon of immigration is occurring with a diversification in terms of mixing of the immigrant population. According to ***, there are many misleading facts that are presented by the immigration theory. The first misconception is that migration is controlled by legal obligations and framework which is not fully right. Even in that region where there is free movement between the countries, only 3 percent of people choose to migrate and the rest 97 percent do not choose to move out (Portes, 2014). Another factor is that migration is increasing due to improvement in the transportation facility between two countries. However, global migration has remained almost constant in the past 50 years as the percentage of the global population. Another fact that is highlighted by the immigration theory is that the rate of migration of the poor is higher than the richer. However, it is not almost true. It is not always the poor people who migrate in search for better jobs and lifestyle, but those who can afford and have the access are also migrating for different purposes, such as educational, recreation, social, financial, or cultural. Their stimulus varies based on their desires .
The immigration theory is based on the qualitative and quantitative data that does not produce any significant conceptual outcome. Indeed, most of the information provided by the theory is based on the social reality which is already existing and nothing alterations have been done in them. While studying the immigration, greater priority is been given to the information provided by the media, government agencies, and private foundation which is beneficial and curse as well. This is due to the fact that they are blindly trusted by the people without analysing their credibility which produces vague results and theory.
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3. Impact of Globalisation on Religion
Globalisation and religion are two main conflicting and struggling concepts. Usually, the globalisation is linked with political and economic interdependence that has resulted in bringing people from different race, regions, and culture closer. On one hand, globalisation has increased contact among people, whereas on the other religions have become more self-conscious. The former process has removed the barriers between the countries and their culture. Religion has undergone many complex phases and has faced an onslaught of modernisation. However, the relationship between religion and globalisation is quite flexible. The former depends on the latter to flourish and thrive while transforming the hybridising effects of globalisation (Appadurai, 2016). Globalisation due to its barrier-demolishing effect has made the world bifurcated into small villages, wherein people, entities, cultures, and identities come closer to each other. Religion has never been immune from such changes and their expanding & flourishing effects of globalisation.
It has been seen that in the past few years, religion is emerging and spreading its roots by making good use of the technical assistance of globalisation. Globalisation has lowered down the barriers for the religion to spread in each and every part of the globe. Globalisation at its modern route is aiming at hybridising the world culture based on the Western culture. Due to the liberal norms and value, it is entailed with, many religious-centric countries, especially the middle-east region are opposing it. Such countries have always been incompatible with the liberalisation caused by the globalisation (Welsh, 2014).
Globalisation in the modern world has a tremendous role in establishing a base for the resurgence and revival of religion. The process has helped in scattering the religion on a global scale. As a result of which, most religions have spread beyond the boundaries of the region they originally belong to. The accelerating modern day's globalisation has enabled the religionist around the world to establish direct contact with each other and their followers. The information and communication technology has a profound impact on the religion as it has provided the medium to the religionist to share their religious knowledge and views around the world. One can find immeasurable websites on the Internet that provides a wide range of religious information. Now, a piece of religious information is readily available to a person regardless of his location on the globe. Almost every religion has its T.V. channel that helps in fortification and strengthening of the religion(Welsh, 2014).
Globalisation has improved the transportation system of the countries, thereby helping the religious pilgrims to visit their overseas religious centres. For instance, improved transportation has resulted in the revivalism of Islam in Asia as people now can visit Mecca and learn reformist values. Their many downsides of the globalisation in the context of religion. Since religions have varying and unique philosophy and structure, their inclusion may lead to contradictions and confusions (Robinson, 2013). This is due to the belief that some religion cannot be hybridized. Islamic norms and values have always been opposing the values of globalisation. Islamic beliefs are not in rivalry with globalisation, but they are reluctant to the rapid changes.
4. Homogenisation as a bi-product of Globalisation
When the globalisation started, the countries have lowered their trade barriers and started trading across the borders. Markets have started exchanging the products and service. As a result of which, two different markets in different countries started selling the common product. This is called homogenisation. The process of homogenisation is widely correlated with the process of globalisation. The main purpose of homogenisation is to unite the world and make all the faces of the world alike whether it's cultural, political, or economical. According to Boli (2014), "if certain institutions and activities turn more global, then they should displace existing, locally variable activities and institutions. If there are more global linkages, then more people will have more in common." Globalisation has caused consumer goods to become homogenous in all the markets of the world. People have started using similar kinds of products of same kinds: from clothes to pins. Globalisation and market forces have imposed homogenisation on the customers worldwide. The process of homogenisation takes place in different ways. For instance, globalisation has instigated the communication revolutions that has further triggered the process of homogenisation. It has brought people into direct communication with each other. This has improved the circulation of ideas from one region to another.
Apart from this, there are certain global actors, such as World Bank, WTO, IMF, and the United Nation that play a significant role in increasing the homogenisation. They develop some global rules that are applicable to people and countries around the globe. For instance, the UN emphasises the protection of human rights. This means that no national government can ignore the guidelines provided by the UN-Human Rights Commission. In addition to this, the IMF has also imposed certain specific demands in order to structure the financial system.These agencies are inducing the homogenising effects all around the world.
There are some other factors, such as world financial and economic factor that are strongly supporting the homogenisation. In the world market, nearly all the national economies, except North Korea, are integrated and establishing an epitome of homogenisation. This has increased the overall productivity by making the global market functions round the clock and has resulted in operating the market with new modes of technology and communication services. Due to the rise in the barrier-less trade, the market is flourished with similar products in every nation. This has resulted in the homogenisation of people's attitude as customers (Wang, 2015).
One thing that is more prominent in the case of homogenisation is that it is affecting the culture. The western movies, dresses, dance, and food are widely accepted in the majority of the nations. The big brands like McDonald's, Dominos, KFC, etc., are quite synonymous to the process of homogenisation. One thing to note here is that homogenisation has encouraged the standardisation, thereby reducing the operational complexities. The global standards such as ISO9001 are being followed in the manufacturing industries in order to provide the homogenised products.
- Boli, Lechner. 2014. "Globalisation and Homogenisation". Retrieved October 28, 2018 (http://www.glopp.ch/A4/en/multimedia/homogenisation.pdf).
- Czaika, Mathias, and Hein de Haas. 2014. "The Globalization Of Migration: Has The World Become More Migratory?.." Retrieved October 28, 2018 (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/imre.12095)
- Miller, Charles. 2017. "Wallerstein's Theory Of Globalization." Sciencing. Retrieved October 28, 2018 (https://sciencing.com/wallersteins-theory-of-globalization-13660460.html).
- Portes, Alejandro. 2014. "Immigration Theory For A New Century: Some Problems And Opportunities." International Migration Review 31(4):799. Retrieved October 28, 2018 (https://sci-hub.tw/https://www.jstor.org/stable/2547415?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents)
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- Wang, Yi. 2015. "Globalization Enhances Cultural Identity"Web.uri.edu. Retrieved October 28, 2018 (https://web.uri.edu/iaics/files/09-Yi-Wang.pdf).
- Appadurai, Andrew. 2016. "Modernity al large: cultural dimensions of globalization".University of Minnesota Press.Retrieved October 28, 2018 (https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=4LVeJT7gghMC&oi=fnd&pg=PP11&dq=Appadurai,+A.+(1996).+Modernity+at+Large:+Cultural+Dimensions+of+Globalization.+Minneapolis,+MN:+University+of+Minnesota+Press.+&ots=6OTEsx_eM9&sig=-jgd28BH97e38zmwPEjGfh0i5Q&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Appadurai%2C%20A.%20(1996).%20Modernity%20at%20Large%3A%20Cultural%20Dimensions%20of%20Globalization.%20Minneapolis%2C%20MN%3A%20University%20of%20Minnesota%20Press.&f=false)
- Welsh, John. 2014. "Religion And Globalization: New Possibilities, Furthering Challenges." E-International Relations. Retrieved October 28, 2018 (https://www.e-ir.info/2014/07/16/religion-and-globalization-new-possibilities-furthering-challenges/).