One of the main notions behind conducting this study is to provide a focus on the working situation within the apparel sector in Bangladesh. In order to do so the case of “The Garment Industry in Bangladesh: A Human Rights Challenge” will be analysed. The study will generally focus on the overall garment industry within Bangladesh in addition to various sustainable developmental strategies used by various brands which are being manufactured in Bangladesh. Task 1 The key sustainability issues prevalent in the garment industry Starting around 2000, the quantity of clothing manufactured yearly has dramatically increased as well as without precedent for 2014, 100 billion things of attire were delivered - that creates fourteen products of apparel yearly, for each individual on the planet. Frequently needing a long as well as complex manufacturing technique in addition to weighty utilization of energy, there is a question that the garment industry is identified to be as a grimy business. The business depends on artificial materials, which represented 62% of all strands delivered in 2020. However, it is hauling its mends with regards to carrying out mechanical answers for reusing or handling the issue of micro plastics (Shen 2017). Considering the key sustainability issues predominant in the apparel industry it can be said that some of the segments which create this sustainability issues are: Water: The garment business is identified to be a parched industry. Cotton, a very water-concentrated crop, is the most widely recognized normal fibre utilized in the material business as well as records for approximately 24% per cent of worldwide fibre creation. At the point when cultivating in normal downpour took care of regions, this isn't really an issue. Although, around half of all cotton developed needs a water system, providing stress on water-pushed regions (Patwary 2020). Energy: Information on outflows created by apparel is famously hard to nail down as well as relying upon the source goes from two to four per cent. Research by McKinsey distributed in 2020 shows the style business is liable for roughly four per cent of worldwide emissions,8 while the World Resources Institute appraises the absolute to associate with 2% Harmful synthetic compounds from pesticides and insect poisons utilized in cotton development to the enormous number of synthetic compounds utilized in colouring, production, in addition to completing cycles, all deliver immense amounts of effluents into new as well as maritime streams. UN Sustainable development goals and the challenges faced in implementation of sustainable initiatives in the apparel industry The United Nations Alliance for Sustainable Fashion is a drive of United Nations organizations along with unified associations intended to make a payment to the Sustainable Development Goals by means of composed activity in the garment sector. In particular, the Alliance attempts to help coordination among UN entities working in apparel and advancing activities in addition to approaches that guarantee that the garments value chain adds to the accomplishment of the Sustainable Development Goals' objectives (Akbar 2020). Sustainability entails communal issues, like enhancements in working circumstances and compensation for labourers, as well as ecological ones, including the decrease of the business' waste stream, and diminishes in water contamination and commitments to ozone harming substance emanations. Through the Alliance, the UN focuses on transforming the way of style, decreasing its negative ecological along with communal effects; and moving garment industry toward a driver of the execution of the Sustainable Development Goals (Choi 2020 ). Garment production creates up 10% of mankind's fossil fuel by-products, evaporates water sources, and contaminates waterways and streams. Furthermore, 85% of all apparel materials go to the landfill every year (UNECE, 2018), and washing a few sorts of garments sends a huge measure of micro plastics into the sea. In addition to this, UN Sustainable development challenges faced in implementation of sustainable initiatives in the apparel industry are: 1. Asset administration and policies 2. Expense and budgetary challenges 3. Going by the culture 4. Regulation and checking (Curwen 2012). Task 2 Critical understanding of the effects of sustainability on supply chains in the apparel industry by evaluating some of the global best practices in ethical sourcing implemented by organisations in the apparel industry As a result of a sustainable supply chain, productivity is also increased while costs are reduced. During the production process, from the manufacture of fibers to the finished garment, there is a great deal of environmental risk. A sustainable textile industry not only contributes to reducing environmental impacts but also ensures fair wages and adequate working conditions for millions of workers (Zhao, and Kim, 2021). In the garment industry, sustainability is about a bearable, imperishable, and respectful relationship between society and the environment, not about meeting market demands. Adding new sustainability enactments throughout the supply chain, especially in terms of increased distribution and transportation activities, will reduce the company's carbon footprint, while urging local governments to initiate new legislation on infrastructure management. As an innovative approach to mass production, and exporting, Bangladeshis rely heavily on local, sometimes subcontracted to neighbouring countries and external manufacturing facilities, to accelerate sourcing and manufacturing of finished goods, while raw materials are mostly purchased off-shore to meet demand on the market (Mejías, and et.al., 2019). In addition to being incompatible with sustainability practices, the mentioned operational approach presents numerous obstacles, problems, and outstanding complexity since it involves massive transportation via air, land, or sea. Corporate sustainability impacts must be measured, reported, and addressed comprehensively across supply chains, taking into account real-time events. Evaluation of some global best practices in ethical sourcing implemented by organisation in apparel industry are as follows: 1. As part of ethical sourcing, vendors must comply with unequivocal standards established in the supplier code of conduct. The main objective is to reduce, or totally prohibit, environmental damage as well as labor exploitation through manufacturing processes. Among the nation's economic activities, textiles sit second to agriculture as far as importance is concerned (Karaosman, and et.al., 2020). There is a general belief that ethical sourcing costs lead to higher operating costs, leading ultimately to higher product prices in the textile and apparel industry. The organizations in apparel industry apply certain ethical sources for managing the work in an appropriate manner. 2. To produce ethically-sourced products, workers who are protected from harm, paid fair wages, and allowed to work legal hours must work in a safe environment. The manufacturing process and sourcing of materials are made to meet decent labor standards. The apparel manufacturing process requires fair wages, a safe and hygienic work environment, and a reasonable work schedule, and no age discrimination (Li, and Diabat, 2020). To strike a single balance between profit margins and customers' choice to pay for ethical products, the manufacturer needs to be focused on striking a happy balance. 3. The businesses try to follow all certain rules of ethical sourcing for handling best practices in the process of work. The concept of ethical sourcing in the apparel industry implies a commitment to and compliance with candid practices that are in the best interest of the environment, the workforce, communities, and the customers (Thorisdottir, and Johannsdottir, 2020). However, it is important to deal with the changing environment in the apparel industry for developing a certain level of understanding regarding the ethical sourcing. Task 3 Sustainable strategies to improve the working conditions of the garment workers in Bangladesh Considering the garments workers in Bangladesh it can be aid that female are the most lucrative asset for the garments producers in Bangladesh. Females are additionally provided with a very deprived salary as compared to male workers. This permits the production line proprietors to direct the functioning circumstances in the plants. The functioning circumstances in the Bangladesh apparel industries are portrayed as packed, challenging to move around in s well as furnished with a very deprived condition of ventilation framework that is the main reason behind the mishap happened in the Rana Plaza Collapse (Stanwick 2015). So, it can be understood from the above discussion that in order to create sustainable strategies firstly it is important to identify what sorts of issues the workers are facing those who are working in garment industry. Keeping this in mind some of the sustainable tactics to get better the working circumstances of the apparel labours within Bangladesh are discussed in detail below: 1. Covered Air Quality and Airing: Labours are unendingly exposed to cotton dust in apparel production lines at the time of texture cutting, winding around, as well as weaving. In this type of case using appropriate airing might proficiently lessen the presence of residue in work areas. 2. Work setting Lighting: The labourers who are associated with working with the apparel industry, particularly the people who go through years sewing 10-12 hours every day as well as 5-6 days seven days in under lit work environments, frequently whine about their vision. Appropriate working environment lighting, particularly for exact assembling apparel-making work is fundamental. Research carried out by International Labour Organization stressed the significance of sufficient in addition to nearby lighting for very close work, so that light sparkles straightforwardly on the undertaking and not into the labour's eyes. 3. Operational setting Temperatures: In the garments manufacturing unit of Bangladesh it has been seen that one of the most often communicated concern is about labours being bared to very high temperatures at work environment. In this type of situation creating a sustainable working temperature will help the workers to work comfortably. 4. Washroom hygiene and cleanliness: A lot of research and investigations have consistently found Bangladeshi labourer’s detailing a deficient number of latrines and in any event, when they are free, restrooms are by and large filthy and unmaintained. Thus keeping in mind the sustainability factors the garments manufacturers needed to make a separate washroom for both male and female and strict instruction is needed to give on keeping the washroom sanitise (Raghuwanshi,Sandeep 2020). The role of HR in driving sustainability in such organisations The garment is an industry-based field where loads of cycles are there to do crude material\fibres to complete apparel. In this entire process have required specialized skilful and propelled people groups. For a garment based industry a small contrast within the range, move towards in HR notions due to the reason that within this industry people convicts in a very different manner. In this industry more communication are carried out and executives spend over 80% of the time in managing of people thus their role are considered to be very important one. The role of HR in driving sustainability within the garments based companies are: 1. Recognition of the need of the employee like what and how much needed 2. Following this, HR also identify where they are accessible both internally and externally 3. Providing guidance and coaching in garment sector is of very much significance thus they also play the toe of a trainer 4. Providing them the guidance on workers safety and hygiene so that they can maintain own hygiene and safety altogether (Joshi,Ajay 2022). Task 4 Critical reviews on some of the strategies Benetton brand have implemented to manage sustainability in their business functions. 1. Change Leadership: Benetton's CEO is typically in charge of a wide range of responsibilities, which include official correspondence, leadership, and program management. It entails carrying out the mission of the organization, evaluating the company's executive members, acknowledging the market and its potential for expansion, analyzing and observing risks, constructing positional objectives, and stabilizing the organizational mission with the central strategy. 2. Conceptualization to assignation: As the marketplace becomes more conscious of sustainability, it is no longer optional, but a necessity (Maranesi, and De Giovanni, 2020). In light of all that has been discussed previously, sustainability is no longer a disconnected entity, but an intrinsic force within organizations. This strategy covers an ability to manage sustainability for the operations of business. 3. Threshold Augmentation: It is only one of many collateral commitments towards improving the garment industry, whether they worked directly for its suppliers or not. With these sustainability initiatives, Benetton is committed to elevating the working conditions and living standards of workers everywhere in its supply chain through "people come first" sustainability initiatives (Camarda, and Vago, 2022). Critical evaluation the role of the CEO of Benetton brand in dealing with such a reputational crisis (Rana Plaza Collapse) and provide suitable recommendations An integrated report, released by Luciano Benetton, also illustrates Benetton's commitment to promoting social awareness. The CEO of Benetton claims that there is more to the company than fashion; it is a vehicle for values and emotions. The company's commitment to raising awareness and taking full responsibility shows itself through this enactment. By adapting their business model comprehensively to the UN's Business Development Agenda, by introducing waste depletion and advanced recycling systems, they demonstrated their commitment to giving back to the communities in which they operate. Promoting a sustainable fashion that is all-inclusive, dramatically reducing its environmental impact, and cross-functionally promoting community and individual development can accomplish this; all these are to be achieved to ensure an open, direct, and transparent supply chain and environmental environment in the fast fashion industry (Alghababsheh, and Gallear, 2021). The role of CEOs and executive leadership has shifted in recent years. The various responsibilities assist the company in dealing with the Rana Plaza Collapse correctly. Thus, the aspect of Benetton's CEO is to make improvements in the working conditions for the workers of the garment industry in Bangladesh and input more development activities for corporate social responsibility. As the marketplace becomes more conscious of sustainability, it is no longer optional, but a necessity. In Bangladeshi clothing factories, Benetton is a leader in improving work and safety conditions for all workers through a vanguard initiative. There are some of the recommendations for attaining sustainability are as follows: 1. It is important to provide certain recommendations on attaining sustainability which is helpful for considering the changes in the business. In order to be an agent of change, CEOs must transmute into change agents. At all costs, CEOs must be champions of transformation, transforming the corporate mindset, and transforming scepticism into opportunity. There is a need to pioneer a fascinating inspiration and to communicate clearly during this phase. The company must consider the aspect of managing the uncertainty along with analyzing the risk and develop certain opportunities for the management of business. 2. In this moment, CEOs must tackle a brand new challenge: concretizing sustainability innovation into actual results, even better, results that equal competitive advantage and commercial benefit (Ditlev-Simonsen, 2022). It can be recommended that the resourcefulness is mainly targeting the transformation with the sustainability in the activities which are mapped and considered as the contingent for some of the adjustments. Identifying conceivable opportunities and recalibrating the company's orientation in order to intercept them is imperative to assessing sustainability patterns over the long term. 3. However, it can be recommended to have an appropriate vision for seeking long-lasting ventures as well as various collaborations around all the industries. The CEO must embrace some mental assertiveness in terms of outer partnership in the contending businesses by motivating people for doing business differently. The company must follow certain rules and regulations in order to consider the comparison in the garment industry and make policies according to the requirement of the customers (Castaldi, and et.al., 2022). 4. There is a requirement for appropriate Human Rights so that the workers in the garment industry feel safe and do work accordingly. It is significant to follow certain rules and stop illegal construction that affects the life of people. Corporate Social Responsibility is one of the major points for solving the issues that pertain to global outsourcing. Thus, all of the things must be considered which are related to the safety of an individual and do not harm people while they are doing work. Conclusion So, it can be concluded from maintaining sustainability within garment industry is not an easy task and it puts lot of pressure on the HR’s to keep up the working environment good for the workers. After the completion of the study it can also be identified that the CEO of Benetton brand has played a major role in dealing with such a reputational crisis of Rana Plaza. Overall from the study it can be summarised that textile industry in Bangladesh need to be managed properly so that in the mere future this kind of mishap won’t happen. References Akbar, S 2020, 'Investigation of the challenges of implementing social sustainability initiatives: a case study of the apparel industry', Social Responsibility Journal. Choi, T-M 2020 , 'A United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals perspective for sustainable textile and apparel supply chain management', Transp Res E Logist Transp Rev.. Curwen, LG 2012, 'Investigation of the challenges of implementing social sustainability initiatives: a case study of the apparel industry', Challenges and Solutions ofSustainable Apparel ProductDevelopment: A Case Studyof Eileen Fishe, vol 31, no. 1, pp. 32-47. Joshi,Ajay 2022, Role of HR (HRM) in Textile, viewed 24 August 2022, <https://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/2322/role-of-hr>. Alghababsheh, M. and Gallear, D., 2021. Socially sustainable supply chain management and suppliers’ social performance: The role of social capital. Journal of Business Ethics, 173(4), pp.855-875. Camarda, V.M. and Vago, V.M., 2022. Circular economy and new product development in the fashion industry: a multiple-case study analysis on the role of collaborations. Castaldi, S., Wilhelm, M.M., Beugelsdijk, S. and van der Vaart, T., 2022. Extending Social Sustainability to Suppliers: The Role of GVC Governance Strategies and Supplier Country Institutions. Journal of Business Ethics, pp.1-24. Ditlev-Simonsen, C.D., 2022. The Business Case for Sustainability. In A Guide to Sustainable Corporate Responsibility (pp. 103-128). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Karaosman, H., Perry, P., Brun, A. and Morales-Alonso, G., 2020. Behind the runway: Extending sustainability in luxury fashion supply chains. Journal of Business Research, 117, pp.652-663. Li, Y., Pinto, M.C.B. and Diabat, A., 2020. Analyzing the critical success factor of CSR for the Chinese textile industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 260, p.120878. Maranesi, C. and De Giovanni, P., 2020. Modern circular economy: Corporate strategy, supply chain, and industrial symbiosis. Sustainability, 12(22), p.9383. Mejías, A.M., Bellas, R., Pardo, J.E. and Paz, E., 2019. Traceability management systems and capacity building as new approaches for improving sustainability in the fashion multi-tier supply chain. International Journal of Production Economics, 217, pp.143-158. Thorisdottir, T.S. and Johannsdottir, L., 2020. Corporate social responsibility influencing sustainability within the fashion industry. A systematic review. Sustainability, 12(21), p.9167. Patwary, S 2020, 'Clothing and Textile Sustainability: Current State of Environmental Challenges and the Ways Forward', Textile & Leather Review, vol 3, no. 3, pp. 158-173. Raghuwanshi,Sandeep 2020, ustainabilitySeries: Ways to improve working conditions of garment factory labor, viewed 24 August 2022, <https://esgrobo.medium.com/sustainabilityseries-ways-to-improve-working-conditions-of-garment-factory-labor-e5db49a13b86>. Shen, B 2017, 'Sustainability Issues in Textile and Apparel Supply Chains', Donghua University. Stanwick, P 2015, 'The Garment Industry in Bangladesh: A Human Rights Challenge', Journal of Business & Economic Policy, vol 2, no. 4. Zhao, L. and Kim, K., 2021. Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Practices and strategies of the global clothing and Textile value chain. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 39(2), pp.157-172.