Handling & Using Ict Assignment
TOPIC: COVID-19 – WHO.INT
Understanding of the topic
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Data handling can be termed as the strategic process using which storing of research data is done securely after an effective manipulation of data for achieving proper results. Covid-19 is a deadly infection that has spread across the globe rapidly due to the rapid spreading power of SARS-Cov-2 virus. This study will be based on the statistical analysis of the data of UK regarding Covid-19 cases, deaths, vaccination and other things using the proper data handling strategy.
Covid-19 has spread in UK mainly due to the transmission of virus from one person to another while they are in close proximity (Kaggle, 2022). This study will analyse the trends of virus infection spread in UK. Further, Occupied beds, vaccination of first and second dose in UK will be discussed based on the statistical analysis along with graphical representation.
Presentation of raw data
Data collection for preparing a proper dataset is essential for manipulation of those data to gather knowledge on the recent trend of spreading of Covid-19 in UK. A sampling of data is important after the collection of raw data as it helps to identify erroneous data that needs to be eliminated before manipulation for achieving results. UK has experienced high growth of total Covid-19 cases that is almost 18734683 in 2022 (Statista, 2022).
Covid-19 cases in UK
(Source: Statista, 2022)
Cleaning of data in that dataset is essential to eliminate those erroneous data that can provide false results. Cleaning of data in any dataset makes those data fit for effective use in manipulation for achieving accurate outcomes (Sadiq et al. 2018). Data cleaning indicates the identification of faults in data collection such as removal of missing data, discontinuation of data and the wrong value of data. Therefore, after proper sampling, data is represented in the excel sheet for further manipulation for achieving results Covid-19 spread at UK along with the rate of vaccination.
Data is collected based on the infection rate in UK on different dates. Different variables such as new cases, new deaths, occupied beds in hospitals, new PCR test daily, vaccination of people with first dose and vaccination with second dose is selected for this data analysis. Vaccination is essential to reduce virus transmission as well as mortality of people (Matrajtet al. 2021). These variables are selected especially for determining the rate of infection and the respective rate of vaccination to fight against the deadly Covid-19 virus. Raw data are level based on the collection of Covid-19 data daily. New cases variable indicates the daily cases of Covid-19 infection that is related to the bed occupancy data in UK. PCR test is selected here as the variable as this data is effective in determining the number of tests per day along with helps in controlling spread of Covid-19 in UK (Padhye, 2021). Further, both first and second dose data of UK that are provided to people daily are presented as the variables in the raw data of the dataset in excel. Recent data indicates that almost 52.6 million people in UK have received first dose where as some have taken second and booster dose (Statista, 2022b).
Raw data that is collected from the sources are manipulated for determining the mean, median and value of mode for understanding the rate of infection as well as vaccination rate in the UK against Covid-19 virus. Functions are used here for determining the mean value of all of these six variables that are used in this dataset. Based on the calculation, the mean value of daily cases indicates 7310.3 whereas the median value is 6303 and the mode value is 5605 based on this calculation.
Again, all of this functional manipulation is done for the variable new deaths due to Covid-19 in UK that indicates a mean value of 424.95 daily. However, the median and mode values for such calculation using functions indicate 397 and 601 respectively, which shows a high rate of death in UK due to the influence of Covid-19. Another variable indicates the bed occupancy that shows a mean value of 2071.525 that is a large amount of bed occupancy daily due to the infection of Covid-19 in UK.
PCRtest is an important variable that is selected in this dataset for determining the number of tests of people to detect the spread of this deadly virus. The mean value of PCR test in UK indicates 372251.575, which is a large number to determine the rate of infection among people. However, the median and mode values show a very close value to mean that are 363772 and 414752 respectively after functional formula based analysis of the data. Vaccination of both first and second doses is essential that helps in protecting people from the spread of Covid-19. The mean values regarding the first dose of vaccination indicate 301308.975 whereas the median and ode value shows 269882.5 and 376244 respectively. Analysis of the data using the function of excel shows that the second dose mean value is 155890.075 along with the presence of median and mode values 96480.5 and 28282 respectively. All of these data are close to the mean values of different variables that are supportive of accuracy of the data.
Descriptive statistics (DS) is performed to support the outcome using functions in excel tools during data analysis. DS is useful in summarising a large set of data for further systematic analysis (Mishra et al. 2019).
New cases DS
The above DS outcome supports the result of mean, median and mode that are achieved using functions in the excel tool. Further, the standard deviation (SD) value shows the range of data of new cases belonging to 7310.3± 2413.863.
[Refer to Appendix 1]
DS of new deaths
DS is performed to check whether the result that is achieved using excel functions for determining mean, median and mode values are identical or not. The data indicate identical values whereas SD values indicate death rate in the range of 424.95±260.79.
[Refer to Appendix 2]
Covid occupied beds
DS of bed occupancy
The values based on the outcome of using functions in excel tool is identical as per the DS outcome. However, the bed occupancy value belongs within a range of 2071.525±832.02 that is daily in UK.
[Refer to Appendix 3]
DS of PCR test
All the data of mean, median and mode values are the same in DS as it is achieved using functions in excel tool. However, the PCR test in UK belongs within a proper range of 372251.6±77915.63 based on the value of SD.
[Refer to Appendix 4]
First dose vaccination
DS of first dose vaccination
The mean value is the same in this DS, which is 301308.975 as a power result using the functions in the excel tool. The other data such as median and mode values are identical also indicates the accuracy of the result from dataset analysis. The range of the first dose of vaccination using SD analysis indicates 301308.975±173434.26 in UK.
[Refer to Appendix 5]
Second dose vaccination
DS of second dose vaccination
The mean, mode and receptive median values in DS are the same as in the functional analysis that shows accuracy of dataset and result. However, the range of the second dose of vaccination indicates a value of 155890.1±128398.8 based on the value of SD.
[Refer to Appendix 6]
Excel auto-sum formula is selected for manipulation of the data regarding the influence of Covid-19 and the rate of infection in UK. The sum function in this dataset indicates the total number of values of those variables. The sum values indicate 292412, 16998, 82861, 14890063, 12052359 and 6235603 values respectively for the new cases, new deaths in UK, bed occupancy, PCR test, first dose and second dose of vaccination against Covid-19. This sum function and formula usage indicate the total number of cases as well as vaccination to determine the rate of infection and rate of vaccination in UK.
Average values indicate the mean values of cases, deaths and other variables that are used for determining rate of Covid-19 spread and vaccination. Average values indicate 7310.3 mean number of people that are infected along with 424.95 average deaths in UK. However, the average values are 2071.525, 37251.575, 301308.975 and 155890.075 for bed occupancy, PCR test, first vaccination and second vaccination. The total number of counts in this dataset indicates 40 that shows 40 days of data that are manipulated here. The maximum value of new cases indicates 12718 per day whereas the minimum number of cases that UK has experienced in this specific time range is 4618.
The maximum value of new deaths per day indicates 912 whereas the minimum value is 32 based on the analysis in excel. The maximum value of the first dose of vaccination is 752308 where the minimum value is 40744 based on the analysis of the excel auto sum function. However, the maximum value of second dose of vaccination indicates 450136 whereas the minimum value shows 25371 number of second dose vaccination.
Ratio of new case and new death
The ratio is calculated for new cases and new deaths in UK due to Covid-19 that shows a value of 146206:8499. Therefore, deaths are comparatively lesser than new cases in UK as per this outcome.
[Refer to Appendix 7]
Ratio of First dose and second dose
The above image indicates the ratio between first dose and the second dose of vaccination that shows a ratio of 1095669:566873. Therefore, the first dose is still higher than send dose based on this ratio calculation using the excel tool.
[Refer to Appendix 8]
Figure : New cases
The above graphical representation indicates the trend of new cases of Covid-19 in UK. The graph indicates an increase in new cases of infection as per time in UK that shows its rate of infection spreading in UK.
Figure : New deaths
Based on the above graphical representation after manipulation of data in excel it is observed that the number of deaths due to Covid-19 has gradually increased. As per the 40 numbers of data presented in this dataset indicates the highest number of deaths in April 2021 compared to March 2021. Based on the above graph, the death number is closer to 800 or more than 800.
Figure : Bed occupancy
The number of bed occupancy due to Covid-19 is higher in March whereas the trend gradually decreases with increased vaccination in the UK as mentioned in the above graph.
Figure : PCR test
The above graph indicates a mixed behaviour of PCR test as it shows increase as well as decrease of test in UK. However, overall the number of tests has decreased in April based on this graph that shows initial rapid testing of viruses.
First dose vaccination
Figure : First dose vaccination
The above graphics representation indicates that the first dose is at its peak during the middle of March whereas the rate has gradually decreased in April. The middle march session shows almost more than 70000 doses per day in UK to tackle the infection-spreading rate.
Second dose vaccination
Figure : Second dose vaccination
The above graph indicates an increase in the second dose of vaccination in UK from the mid-March to April that shorts completion of the first dose for maximum people. The above graphical data shows second dose vaccination of almost 500000 numbers to tackle issue of Covid-19.
Figure : First dose vs second dose
The above pie chart indicates the comparison between first dose and second dose that is competed in UK against Covid-19. Data shows almost 66% of people have taken the first dose whereas only 34% of people have taken the second dose.
Comparison of new deaths and new cases
Figure : New case vs death
The above graphical representation indicates that new cases are at the highest rate that is almost 95% compared to the death rate in UK, which is almost 5% only.
Effective handling of data regarding Covid-19 is performed in this task to identify infection rate as well as vaccination trends in UK. Dataset regarding Covid-19 infection of UK has been selected for manipulation to analyse trends. Functions for calculation of mean, median and mode are performedhere. However, a descriptive statistical method is selected to super the outcome from the functional analysis using raw data. Identical results from both of the analyses support the authenticity of the data set and result in this study. Further, data manipulation is performed such as average calculation, count, minimum and maximum values to determine the range and trend of infection in UK. The ratio is calculated to determine new cases and deaths ratio along with first and second dose vaccination status in UK. Graphical representation is performed to visually analyse the variation and trend of data in this dataset for determining infection rate and vaccination status.
Matrajt, L., Eaton, J., Leung, T., Dimitrov, D., Schiffer, J.T., Swan, D.A. and Janes, H., 2021. Optimizing vaccine allocation for COVID-19 vaccines shows the potential role of single-dose vaccination. Nature communications, 12(1), pp.1-18.
Mishra, P., Pandey, C.M., Singh, U., Gupta, A., Sahu, C. and Keshri, A., 2019. Descriptive statistics and normality tests for statistical data. Annals of cardiac anaesthesia, 22(1), p.67.
Padhye, N.S., 2021. Reconstructed diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the RT-PCR test for COVID-19. MedRxiv, pp.2020-04.
Sadiq, S., Dasu, T., Dong, X.L., Freire, J., Ilyas, I.F., Link, S., Miller, M.J., Naumann, F., Zhou, X. and Srivastava, D., 2018. Data quality: The role of empiricism. ACM SIGMOD Record, 46(4), pp.35-43.
Kaggle, 2022. COVID-19 UK Dataset, Available at: https://www.kaggle.com/manchunhui/covid19-uk-dataset [Accessed on: 02/03/2022]
Statista, 2022. Number of new coronavirus (COVID-19) cases in the United Kingdom (UK) since January 2020 (as of February 23, 2022), by date of report, Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1101947/coronavirus-cases-development-uk/ [Accessed on: 02/03/2022]
Statista, 2022. Total number of people who have received a coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine in the United Kingdom (UK), by dose, Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1194668/uk-covid-19-vaccines-administered/ [Accessed on: 02/03/2022]