Introduction of Human Reproduction And Health-Related Issues Assignment
1. Male reproductive system
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The major structures of the male reproductive system are the penis, scrotum, the internal organs including the vas deferens, testicle. The prostate and urethra are also included. This male reproductive system is wholly responsible for carrying out different sexual functions. Urination also is responsible for the male reproductive system (Crncec, 2019). The sole function of the reproductive system is to especially ensure that the species' survival can go on. These overall structures specifically relate to their specific group of organs present in the male reproductive system helps in producing, maintaining and transporting the reproductive cells as in the sperms. Semen is also transported by the male reproductive system. Semen is the protective fluid present around the sperm. The male organ penis is responsible for maintaining sexual intercourse. It consists of three different parts. The scrotum is a likely loose pouch that generally keeps hanging behind the penis. It helps in holding the testicle and protects the testes.
Male reproductive system
It also contributes to maintaining body warmth. Testicles are responsible for producing the hormone called testosterone. The epidermis helps create maturity in the sperms so that it is capable of further fertilization. The internal male reproductive system consists of vas deferens that helps in transporting the mature sperm to the urethra for further ejaculation. The ejaculatory ducts empty themselves in the urethra. The urethra helps in carrying out urine right from the bladder. The urethra is also responsible for expelling out the sperm when the orgasm level has been researched (Jing, 2020). The seminars vehicles help create a sugary fluid that further provides energy to the sperm so that sperm can be mobile. The prostate gland helps in nourishing the sperms. Sperms run in between the prostate gland. Lastly, the bulb urethral gland creates a slippery, crystal-clear fluid that empties itself in the urethra. This acts as a lubricant to neutralise the acidity present in the urine.
2. Female reproductive system
The female reproductive system is one of the most crucial processes in the reproductive system of humans. Women further help in incubating the fetus development which helps in delivering process (Sato,2018). The major organs and structure of the female reproductive system consist of the ovary, mammary glands, artery of the vagina, vaginal plexus artery, and fallopian tubes. These strategies are relatable to their functions and their functions are: The main function of the vaginas is to receive penis during intercourse and it also contributes to childbirth. The uterus helps in the nourishment of the developing fetus.
Female reproductive system
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The ovaries that are also known as female goods help in producing ova. When the ova mature, it is released via the fallopian tube. Fallopian tubes are the smallest pathways that maintain the transport system from the ovaries to the uterus. After that, the egg is fertilized. Mammary glands are also considered reproductive organs. It is a gland that produces milk. It is dependent on the glandular tissue present between the breasts (Kumar¹, 2019). When milk is produced in the female body it produces different hormones like prolactin and progesterone. These hormones further help in preventing lactation. The artery of the vagina helps in supplying blood to the mucous of the vagina membrane. It also helps in branching the upper vaginal part, then parts of the rectum and vestibule.
3. Failures in mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis and meiosis
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The uncertain mistakes that also occur during mitosis often lead to the production of various daughter cells that consist of a large or a smaller number of chromosomes. All these involve a feature that is known as aneuploidy (Rai, 2018). All the aneuploidy arises due to the mistake in the meiosis that also occurs during the development of the early embryo. Failure in mitosis results in lesser growth of cells and no reproduction in cells. This failure further blocks the passing of different genetic information. This also affects the functioning of every function in the cells. Even consequences when this cell division can go completely wrong, this causes problems such as disruptions in refutation of a periodic cell cycle, which can further lead to cancer. Loss of control generally disrupts the division of cells without any order and lastly, it accumulates genetic errors. All these lead to the formation of cancerous tumours. These are the consequences of failures or errors in processes of Mitosis and meiosis.
4. Fertilisation, implantation, pregnancy and childbirth
Fertilisation generally takes place when sperm fuses itself with females during intercourse. This further develops an egg that is implanted in the female uterus. A problem that may arise during fertilisation is a blockage in the male or female reproductive tract that prevents fertilisation. One example related to this problem is different hormonal issues further preventing ovulation. Implantation is a process that includes the attachment of the embryo to the endometrial surface of the uterus further it invades the epithelium and circulation of Maternity from the placenta. A problem present in implantation is an abnormality in the uterus (Amory, 2020). An example, breast sensitivity increases due to unsuccessful implantation.
Pregnancy is a certain period when the fetus starts developing inside a women's womb or uterus. The common complication or problem in pregnancy is gestational diabetes. Then the problem of pre-eclampsia also occurs. Examples are Problems or discomforts faced during pregnancy are changes in the bowel system, then headaches and indigestion. Childbirth is the process by which an individual is brought into the world. A thing that can go wrong in childbirth is distress in the fetal, then asphyxia of perinatal. These also can be considered as problems in the process during childbirth.
5. Pros and cons of male and female condoms
The pros of male condoms are it helps in the prevention of pregnancy. It is highly effective for resisting pregnancy. These condoms are cheaper and much more convenient. They also act effective and protects against sexually transmitted diseases Also some cons regarding condoms. These males’ condoms are highly prone to create allergies in the male reproductive system (Mbelle, 2018). Latex of condoms generally creates problems in the male reproductive system. Condoms are still not full proof solutions regarding intercourse. Female condoms also protect from pregnancy. This also resists the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases including a disease called HIV. They can also be considered as one of the reliable methods that help in preventing pregnancy. The disadvantages related to female condoms include discomfort in the inner ring of the condom. Female condoms are even considered cumbersome. Female condoms also cause infection in the female urinary tract that continues for a longer time.
6. Misdiagnosis of Chlamydia
The challenges that are faced by NHS that also with misdiagnosis of chlamydia is the inflammatory disease related to pelvic. In this disease, there is difficulty in getting pregnant. Infertility level rises. A pain that is chronic in the pelvic area. Other challenges are also present as there is an increase in ectopic pregnancies (Kidshealth.org, 2022). This ectopic pregnancy is related to the fertilisation of an egg when it implants itself being exterior to the womb. Individuals can also be misdiagnosed with chlamydia. This aspect is known as false infection. The individual feels that they are having an infection but in the actual world, they do not. Mycoplasma genitalia derive from having sex with an infected person. This transmission generally occurs from one genital part to another genital part. This can be transmitted from vaginal as well as from anal sex. Mycoplasma genitalia barely occur in females. It affects males. About 2% of male individuals are affected with Mycoplasma whereas only 1% of females are affected. Mycoplasma genitilium is one of the most common chlamydia. Infections that are caused by Mycoplasma often goes away without any medications and external doses.Its stats for some time and then disappear. Having unprotected sex as in intercourse often leads to this disease that is the reason using proper protection is necessary while intercourse for individual safety. This is the genetic rise of the Mycoplasma genitalium.
7. In vitro fertilisation
In vitro fertilisation
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There are various issues in the provision of In Vitro fertilisation that is IVF in the United Kingdom. The risks of in vitro fertilisation involve various side effects from different medications during the treatment process. The patient often faces flushes that are hot and frequent headaches. Due to in vitro fertilisation pregnant women have Hugh risk. It can be dangerous for both the child and the mother to have multiple births. In the United Kingdom, this is one of the major drawbacks of in vitro fertilisation. Often childbirths lead to creating issues in mother and child. In vitro often creates a high risk of many a times birth. This happens when more than one embryo has been transmitted to the uterus.
During pregnancy, multiple fetuses often tend to carry a higher risk rate in early labour. The body weight also decreases with time (Betterhealth.vic.gov.au,2022). The criteria regarding access to in vitro fertilisation as in IVF according to the current law stated in the UK says that they are continuously trying to get pregnant by having unprotected intercourse for about 3 years. They are still not able to get pregnant after completing the 12 consecutive cycles regarding artificial insemination. This is at least considered that 6 out of the 12 cycles are given a term which is known as intrauterine insemination. This intrauterine insemination refers to those individual women that did not go through any in vitro fertilisation before. These are the specific issues in the province of in vitro fertilisation, especially in the United Kingdom. f in vitro fertilisation in parts of the United Kingdom nowadays.
Crncec, A. and Hochegger, H., 2019. Triggering mitosis. FEBS letters, 593(20), pp.2868-2888.
Amory, J.K., 2020. Development of novel male contraceptives. Clinical and Translational Science, 13(2), pp.228-237.
Jing, Y., Run-Qian, L., Hao-Ran, W., Hao-Ran, C., Ya-Bin, L., Yang, G. and Fei, C., 2020. The potential influence of COVID-19/ACE2 on the female reproductive system. Molecular human reproduction, 26(6), pp.367-373.
Kumar¹, N., Bansal, M., Sharma, H.B., Gupta, M. and Mishra, P., 2019. Histopathological spectrum of neoplastic tumours of the female reproductive system–A two-year study in a rural tertiary care centre in India. BREAST, 55(16), p.71.
Mbelle, N., Mabaso, M., Chauke, T., Sigida, S., Naidoo, D. and Sifunda, S., 2018. Perception and attitudes about male and female condom use amongst university and technical and vocational education and training (TVET) college students in South Africa: a qualitative enquiry of the 2014 higher education and training HIV/AIDS (HEAIDS) programme first things first campaign. Journal for HIV and AIDS, 4(1), p.031.
Rai, A.K., Chen, J.X., Selbach, M. and Pelkmans, L., 2018. Kinase-controlled phase transition of membraneless organelles in mitosis. Nature, 559(7713), pp.211-216.
Sato, M., Ohtsuka, M., Nakamura, S., Sakurai, T., Watanabe, S. and Gurumurthy, C.B., 2018. In vivo genome editing targeted towards the female reproductive system. Archives of Pharmacal Research, 41(9), pp.898-910.
Betterhealth.vic.gov.au, Available at, https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/reproductive-system [Accessed on 19th march]
Kidshealth.org, Available at https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/female-repro.html[Accessed on 19th march]
Kidshealth.org, Available at https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/male-repro.html[Accessed on 19th march]