Introduction of Design And Implementation Of Automation Cell Tower Matrix
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Information analytics with the course of action of machine learning within conjunction is visualized for empowering the mobile networks in future for making a prediction as well as ignoring the congestion via traffic (pro-active) steering and the balancing of load. The sense of network slicing at the same time within the interaction system of mobile of fifth generation (5G) enables vertical sectors for giving services (that are tailored) which span over more than one, the component of virtualized network (partially) on a shared framework. This chapter will analyze the design course of action as well as investigate the outcome of the implementation of the "automation cell tower matrix". This chapter will provide an outline with which the reader will procure a sense of the project subject. Moreover, the aim and objective will provide a purpose for the project which has been implemented for the project's success.
1.2 Background of the research
The automation of the matrix of cell water especially for the investigation of verification on the basis of network devices makes promises to decrease the consumption of time while developing the accuracy for conventional configurations of the test (which are repetitive). The matrix tools of the cell can be a crucial segment in developing the factor of reliability of these setups. Being similarly flexible as well as reconfigurable, the matrix switches of the cell can aid in easing the configuration of test requests to analyze the "HetNets (heterogeneous networks)” “WSN (wireless sensor networks)”, and “DAS (distributed antenna systems)". Such as, a cell matrix switch has the ability to enable greater flexibility with the signal routing and also supports switching speed in a quicker way (Deidda et al. 2020). As for the outcome, modern as well as new test environments can be emulated in a quicker manner. One such implementation is the technology of the patch panel utilized within various test setups that are reconfigurable.
The graph presentation of the cell tower volume
(Source: Maddox et al. 2021)
As per the above figure, it can be stated that the column of the cell tower has enlarged with the development of districts in a state which leads to the requirement of the utilization of automation in this case. The transformation of a patch panel within the structure of an automated switching has the capability to enable much swifter and less mistake-prone rerouting of the signals. In addition, this would allow configurability (that is hot-swappable) for more than one test from a sole setup. Besides that, decreasing the cycles of the mating of cabling that are both expensive and hard to replace for various test cases is repeatable. Operators that are commercial have no maintenance costs of framework and for that reason are borne by various tower organizations. The activities of monitoring the towers add, among other aspects, the evaluation of the integrity of the structure of both the brackets and truss that carry the systems (radiant). Fulfilling the requirements of an enlarging number of utilizes needs the towers of cell phones to be positioned at the places that are optimal and this is a challenging activity (Fekih et al. 2021). However, to accomplish the accuracy in the placement of towers, various works in research has been done within the field of cell placement. According to a researcher, an attempt for elaborating an algorithm (potent) for acknowledging the optimal positions of cell phone tower via approaching algorithms have been done. The utilized algorithms, in this case, are a) intelligent genetic algorithm, b) ratio of heuristics and c) greedy algorithm.
1.3 Research questions
The questions of the research are as follows:
- i) What is the designing and execution course of action for an application which is needed to automate cell tower matrices obtained from the network of 5G NSA?
- ii) How the extraction from the ecosystem of 5G NSA can be implemented regarding network usage information?
iii) Why is RIC application important in managing functionalities of signal resource control, interface management, or admission control?
- iv) Is the execution of a machine learning model necessary for automating the functionalities? How?
- v) What is the course of action for controlling the configuration of the 5G base station and what part does AI and machine learning play in this case?
1.4 Aim and objectives of the research
The main purpose of this research can be identified as the evaluation of both the design as well as execution of the automation course of action within the cell tower matrix.
The objectives of this research are as follows:
- To design and execute software for automating the matrices of cell towers from an operational network of 5G NSA with the use of the FALCON LTE system.
- To extract the utilized information of the network from the ecosystem of 5G NSA.
- To Establish a RIC software for managing functionalities like signal resource control, interface management, or admission control.
- To deploy a model of machine learning to either develop or automate the above-mentioned functionalities.
- To control the configuration of a 5G base station with the use of AI as well as machine learning.
The main challenge comes to the application of the cell tower matrix is the implementation of a wireless system in an effective manner for the 5G network users. That is why the course of action of automation becomes useful in this type of scenario. In addition, with some modern switches of RF of cell tower matrix that come with a large configuration of 32 X 32, more than 1000 cross-points are possible. In addition, various matrices can change the whole configuration at rates within a second (against the minutes or hours it will consume for verifying as well as configuring a patch panel). Moreover, some of these matrices (new) have the ability to operate as either attenuators or summers (that are controlled) of specific paths of signal (Ayesha et al. 2019). This segment can restrain the requirement for combiners (external) as well as attenuators while decreasing the costs of the material. The automated toll of RF matrix switch within the experimentation course of action is the major toll of automation that is needed for reconfiguring the test labs (that are wireless) in a quick manner. Quicker sequences of the test aid to develop time to market, and enhance the quality of the product by permitting more experimentation in a similar period of time (Powell et al. 2022). Moreover, in order to procure the data (necessary) on the basis of the cell laid, the “Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)” of an LTE can be investigated. In this case, the network makes a signalization of the allocation of the assets and the “Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS)" with an intention of 1 ms to every single participant. However, quicker and more effective transformations within test architecture are giving impractical configuration (which is manual).
Within this research, the analysis regarding FALCON will be presented and the monitoring activities of short-term allocation of LTE resources in radio conditions (that are non-ideal) will be explained. This chapter has provided an evaluation of the automation course of action in a generic manner to provide a basic understanding of the networking system of 5G and the rationale section has explained the importance of the utilization of the automation plan of action behind this matrix operation and reconsidered the effective automation toll for this project which is RF matrix switch.
Chapter 2.0: Literature Review
The working of the network systems in different parts of the world takes place using different aspects of technology. The concerned section provides a detailed analysis of various traits that are connected with the automation cell tower matrices. The work covers the description of concepts such as RIC, Falcon, Open5Gs, 5G network system and others.
2.1 Development of 5G RIC
RIC stands for RAN Intelligent Controller. If the mobile network development could be seen from the classical point of view, the RAN elements that are present individually are generally provided by one of the suppliers because of the fact the interfaces that are present between them are solutions of largely closed proprietary (Dangi et al. 2022). This is the reason why the suppliers that are selected and orders are carried out for the base stations for that particular area, which is also referred to as a cluster. The situation is basically created by the standardization that is offered in a limited manner and is always offered by 3GPP, which is known to reduce the interoperability of the network that contains multi-vendor elements. The operators make identification of the obstacles faced during the development of the new services because of the lack of flexibility and also identify the development that is being developed in the networks. In the Open RAN network, it is observed that the flexibility is much higher as providers seemed to develop solutions that are concrete and are increasing with time as was being requested by the customers of the present network that they are using (Moshin et al. 2022). Though, it was found that maintaining the networks which contain multi-vendor elements is possible but is observed to be extremely difficult to manage and maintain. Another most important fact that makes the operators of telecommunication make dealings with the OPEN RAN is the issue that is related to the cost acquired while building the 5G network. The disaggregation in the network has the ability to reduce the costs as more actions have the ability to provide network equipment and more variety of innovation could help in developing the management of the network in a better way. The cost savings and flexibility are very important for the development of cellular network towers; this is why Open RAN is used for developing the 5G technology. Open RAN architecture is known to be based on the newly developed open interfaces which are later added to the 3GPP-standardized F1 interfaces (Arai et al. 2022). 3GPP interfaces are used for considering the Radio Access Network that can be divided into two separate components, and they are the Centralized Unit and the Distributed Unit. These two units are known to perform functionalities related to concrete radio. On the other hand, the functionality which runs towards the antenna is being done by the unit that is Distributed Unit.
2.2 Development of FALCON LTE
FALCON LTE stands for Fast Analysis of LTE Control Channel. It is completely known to be an open-source which is a developed version of the existing methods that are known to be suitable for short and long-term monitoring of both of the allocations that are being made in the LTE resource. The monitoring is based on the decoding of the PDCCH over the interface (Lalwani et al. 2022). Keeping aside the visualization tools and the decoder, the FALCON software also includes the recorder of the signal that was developed because of the probing of the integrated network and for the purpose of synchronized capture of mobile4 network operators or multiple cells. In addition to this, FALCON software also includes a recorder and decoder port of OWL. The decoder can also be executed in the LTE mode. The software is generally based on the library SRSLTE and is always kept separate from the library that is underlying for benefiting them with the future updates without merging tediously and also makes preparation for the %G library integration with it (Castro et al. 2022). The software FALCON is also known to be executed on the general-purpose computer that is x-86 based and runs on the platform of generic Linux Kernel. If the software is being defined as the radio that could give support by the use of SRSLTE is able to make use in performing the measurements that are from over-air. If there is no radio present then the software that could be decoded is capable of processing and visualizing the signals that are recorded from the file. The signal recorder is nothing but the extension of the version of the OWL recorder that makes the system capable of making synchronization the LTE cells particularly. This also helps in capturing the samples that are in raw form for the time interval that is pre-defined. The data to the hard disk is either being written directly or is buffered into the memory that is RAM and is then written when gets finished to the hard disk (Saad et al. 2021). The process of Buffering is known to reduce the load in the Input-Output of the system and also helps in avoiding the loss of the sample from the transceiver of the radio that may lead the system to have a loss in the synchronization process.
2.3 Development of SRSRAN
The “srsRAN” is known to be a free and open-source that is used in 4G and 5G suites of radio. This provides the solution that is related to the UE and RAN. It functions in the computers that are off-the-shell, RF hardware, and also is featured on both the eNode B/gNode B applications and the UE. The features of SRSRAN are “srsEPC, srsUE, srsENB”. SrsRAN makes use of srsEPC as an implementation of the lightweight of a core network of LTE (Xie et al. 2022). Although, it is often seen that srsEPC runs their data in the form of a single binary but is seen to provide the key component of EPC like the “home subscriber service, packet data network gateway, and service gateway”. SRSRAN makes use of srsENB along with the srsEPC for implementing the facilities that are complete 4G/5G. It also includes some features like srsENB is seen to stay aligned towards the LTE release 10. It is however seen to give support to the FDD configuration and has been seen to get tested with the bandwidths approximately of 1.4 to 20 Mhz and also contains some transmission models like a single antenna, CCD, closed-loop spatial multiplexing, and transmit diversity (Liu et al. 2022). SRSENB is also seen to offer the trace metrics of command-line which contains put configurations of files in a detailed way, and also supports the implementation of 5G NSA. The frequency-based equalizers and Turbo decoder are highly optimized and also is included in the srsENB. The log system is in detailed form with the log level that is calculated per layer and is also seen as possible to capture MAC layer, hex dumps, and Wireshark packet. This also has a simulating channel. The srsUE is known to be an application that runs on the operating system that is Linux-based, there is an excellent advantage seen in the case of srsUE is that it becomes possible to implement the entire software in the form of 4G LTE, and the use of 5G NR NSA UE modem (Bai et al. 2022). It has the ability to connect to the LTE network for providing an interface to the standard network and has a few features like the srsUE is seen to be aligned towards the LTE release 15 and is known to be configured in the operation like FDD and TDD. This also offers the kernel interface of the virtual network. TUN is integrated into the LINUX OS.
2.4 Description of open5G core
Open 5G core represents the first 5G core network that was implemented addressing the 5G test buds need for the FOKUS and also for the activities by the partners. This contains some features and they are the functionality of the core network of the fundamental 5G network, the implementation that is done in the architecture that is service-based like HTTP, using the interface of 5G standard integration is performed like 5G NAP, with the use of PCEP plane split having control-user is implemented, the session management is done with the help of influence in the traffic and advanced Qos is developed, non-3GPP convergence access that is comprehensive in nature is developed, the service support is provided with the location, also has the facility of benchmarking tools (Toma et al. 2022). Open 5G network is integrated with the new radio stand-alone stations of the base and the user is equipped along with enabling the demonstration of the various features and the applications that are involved with it are seen to support the current need for having a flexible 5G network. Open 5G is known to run on the platforms of common hardware and is possible to get deployed with the virtual machines, pods, and containers in the environments that are for the purpose of virtualization. The hardware that is required for the setup of the testbed is highly seen to be dependent on the capacity that is generally expected. The scales of Open5G core range from the use of Raspberry PI up to the complete servers rack (Qamar et al. 2022). The Open 5G core is known to be highly customized and enables the instances deployment which is referred to as known for addressing the specific use case need. The license option of the source code is seen to make an extension to the offering of ultimate flexibility and is found to be very easy for the purpose of customization and the development of the prototypes.
2.5 5G Network Simulation
5G Network stimulation is the tool that is used to analyze the network for the performance of the computer. The stimulation of the computer is used for innovating the range of the cases that are incredibly upgraded for the features of regulatory, pre-conformance, and acceptance of the carrier. The network simulator of the project can be exceeded by the popular network which is stimulated 4G and this kind of network can be accessed by the network 5G (Tayyab et al. 2022). The stimulation is based on the interface of plugging the structure which is based on the language C++. The advantage of the completion of the first evaluation in the transport layer is the new strategies for the better accessible spectrum in utilization. The emulation of the whole protocol ion mobility can involve the connection of dual mobility, connectivity, and internet RAT handover. The protocol of the structure in discovery is stimulated by the network for key core components in designing the PHY and MAC classes to be altered in easy modifications of the structure. The stimulator for the addition of the advantage in stimulation feature can be sustained for the range of channel trending for the model of 3GPP (Hassan et al. 2022). The functions of the module can be stimulated to the basis of 5G in waves of mm. The protocol stimulation mentioned for the improvement and implementation of the new algorithm can be used as the plugins for using the network of 5G. The plugins of the stimulation for the model of NR for the feature are usually integrated for the range of release in 3GPP. The progression of range beam forming to the operation of the socket is based on the transmission mentioned in the class of allocations (Uddin et al. 2022). The function of the upcoming platform of the sample is based on the station of 5G. The Open5GCore of the sample in the tools for the stimulation of the tools can be integrated for the testbed in deploying the standard in the experiments in real-time. The mentioned program for the language is more suitable for the network simulator of the program in supporting the OS (Shinwan et al. 2022). The operating system of the version can be considered by the tools of stimulation. The prominent subjects known that are used for simulation of the network are cellular network, distributed computing, V2X communication, and mobile computing.
2.7 Description of 5G RIC
The development in the field of 4G and 5G networks have opened the opportunity to use the concept of SDN in the infrastructure of the mobiles. With the help of SDN, the process of optimization, configuration and control from the central place can be enabled in the mobile networking systems. The applications in the system can be used as plug-ins by using the RAN controller (Balasubramanian et al. 2021). This type of networking system provides the opportunity to control the radio resources in a definite manner. Therefore, RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) can be defined as a software suite that is used for the purpose of utilizing SDN features in the RAN networks. RIC is primarily responsible for performing different operations such as radio management, mobility management, edge services, optimization of policies, QoS management and others. There are different aspects that are required to be present in order to use RAN in a system. The network should be unified in nature so that it can support all the generations such as 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G. The system must support OpenRAN interfaces in order to work in an adequate manner. The figure below provides a view of the architecture for RIC used in mobile networking systems.
The process of integration of AI and machine learning can be done in an emphatic manner. The process of working on the concerned system takes place by using the concepts of machine learning. There is a large amount of data, statistical measures, counters and information about failures present in the system. This data can be used to train the machine learning models and then algorithms can be constructed to perform the required analysis. The models that can be created using this concept are patterns of users' mobility, type of the services used by the users, prediction of network quality and others (Agarwal et al. 2021). In this way, the concerned system can be designed in an adequate manner and different aspects that are related to the given research work can be easily understood. The algorithms that are being used for the purpose of making predictions in the given system can be developed by the network services providers which in turn creates the path to develop different policies for using RAN as per the own objectives of the network operator.
2.8 Discussion on the types of RIC
The differentiation of RIC is done on the basis of the architecture involved in the system. Therefore, on the basis of open RAN architecture, there are two types of RIC present in the system whose names have been stated below. The description of the types of RIC has been provided below in a detailed manner.
- Near Real-Time RIC (RIC near-RT)
- Non Real Time RIC (RIC non-RT)
Near Real-Time RIC (RIC near-RT)
The RIC near-RT is a type of RIC which is suitable for applications involving the usage of legacy RRM and with the help of this system, the challenges such as management of RB, load-balancing, detection of integration and others that are present in the given system can be adequately handled and thus improvement in operations of the system can be observed (Anastasopoulos et al. 2021). There are many functions of RIC near-RT such as management of QoS, management of connectivity and others, configuration of different units present in the system, changing the behavior of the network by using models developed using machine learning concepts and others. Due to all these applications, the concerned system is very widely used for the purpose of enhancing the performance of the networking system in which they are being used.
Non Real Time RIC (RIC non-RT)
The use of RIC non-RT is primarily done for the purpose of management of policies, developing of AI models and others. The models that are being created using this type of RIC are deployed in RIC near-RT for achieving different goals of the company. With the help of this, different algorithms can be developed and can be used to modify the behavior of the RAN system, management of networks can be done in a better manner and others (Chih-Lin et al. 2020). These are the different functions that are performed using the concerned type of RIC.
2.9 Applications of RIC
The applications of RIC are many in the field of mobile networking systems. Some of the uses of the concerned technology have been stated below.
- The use of RIC enables the system to make use of a wide range of applications which are present in apps, xApps and others. The applications present in rApps can be utilized for the purpose of signifying the performance of the network whereas the applications present in xApps are used for the purpose of enhancing the control over different functional elements present in the system (Chen and Gopalakrishnan, 2021).
- The applications present in the rApps contain machine learning models developed after training (Bonati et al. 2020). These are used for the process of analyzing the service management system of the network. The applications present in this system belong to RIC non-RT type.
- The applications present in xApps are used for increasing the level of resource management (Wang et al. 2021). This is also used for improving the radio management system of the given system.
These are the various applications of RIC due to which its usage in the field of mobile networking systems has emerged so rapidly. Therefore, with the help of these different processes, various operations of the mobile network can be done in an emphatic manner and the required objectives of the operations can be achieved in the best way possible.
Chapter 3.0: Methodology
The process of preparation of the concerned is done using data from different resources. The concerned section thus provides a detailed view of the different actions that have been taken to gather data and perform different analyses to determine insights from it.
3.2 Data Gathering Technique
The process of gathering data for performing the research work can be done using a number of different ways. The figure below provides the view of the different types of information collection processes that are used for the purpose of preparation of the given work. It can be observed that there are two ways that can be used for the purpose of gathering data as per the figure provided below. These are primary data collection processes and secondary data collection processes.
Primary gathering of data is the process in which information is assimilated by conducting interviews, surveys, questionnaires sessions and others. Secondary gathering of data is the process in which data is collected using different documents, journals, articles, websites and others. In the concerned work, a secondary data collection process has been followed and thus different documents have been extensively used for the purpose of clustering data as per the requirements of the given research work based on the design and implementation of the automation cell tower matrix. This type of data clustering method has been used in this research as it has many advantages such as it is simple and cost-effective, less time consuming and others. The primary method is not being used as it requires more time and effort and also can be a bit costly.
3.3 Research Approach
The research approach is the process that is followed for the purpose of designing the contents of the work. The type of research approach usually depends upon the type of data analysis technique that has been used for research (Assarroudi et al. 2018). The figure below provides a view of the type of approach that can be used for designing the concerned work. The types as can be observed from the figure are deductive and inductive. For the given research work, inductive analysis has been used to analyze the hypothesis present in the system and determine their significance level.
The work provides a detailed view of the different aspects of the implementation of automation in the cell tower matrix to determine insights present in the data in a definite manner.
3.4 Research Philosophy
The research philosophy is the process that is used to analyze data in a particular manner. The figure below provides a view of the types of research philosophy that can be used for the purpose of analyzing data in a particular manner in order to realize the objectives of the work.
In order to perform the evaluation process in the given work, positivism is the type of philosophy that has been used. The concerned type of philosophy provides the path to analyze data based on factual information and test their significance as per the requirement of the work. Therefore, with the help of this method, the objectives of the given work, which is to evaluate the various aspects of automation in cell towers, have been investigated and insights are drawn from it.
3.5 Data Analysis Method
The figure below provides the view of the different types of data analysis ways that can be used for the purpose of determining insights from data. As per the requirements of the work, the qualitative data analysis technique has been used for the concerned work. Quantitative data analysis can be defined as the process in which data is evaluated based on statistical methods and numbers. Qualitative analysis on the other hand is the method in which data is evaluated based on information present in it.
The qualitative data analysis method has been used for this work as it aligns the requirements of the work and provides a definite way that can be used for the purpose of determining the significance of the objectives set for the research work. In this way, the analysis of data in this research work has been performed and important information about the various aspects of the concerned topic has been obtained.
3.6 Research Design
The figure below provides a glimpse of the type of research design that can be used for the purpose of designing the given work as per the aims and objectives of the work. There are different ways; the designing of the research work can be done such as explanatory, interpretive, thematic and others. In order to design the given research work, the type of research design used is explanatory. This is due to the fact that different case studies and documents have been used for the purpose of completing this work which aligns with the definition of explanatory research work.
Therefore, in this way, the analysis work is done using the data collected from different resources. In the process of performing the analysis, it has been made sure that all the necessary steps have been followed in detail in order to perform the work in an adequate manner and different aspects of the work are realized emphatically. The automation field of cell towers has been evaluated based on different parameters and then important information from it is collected. In this way, the complete research design work has been done and the objectives of the work have been realized.
3.7 Ethical Considerations
The preparation of the complete work has been done by following all the details of the ethical standards. In order to collect data for the given work, different resources such as journals, documents, articles and other resources have been used (Bekaert et al. 2021). The process of preparation of the work has been done in different stages in order to ensure that adequate information is included in the work. In the initial stage of the work, different resources that can be used for the data gathering process were identified. After this process, the authenticity of the resources is determined in order to follow the principles of data authenticity and realism. Only the resources that are identified as real are chosen and then a data collection process is performed to complete the work. Therefore, all the protocols of research ethics such as data integrity, data authenticity and data security have been strictly followed to complete the given work. Therefore, the process of preparation of the concerned work has been done in this manner and the required objectives of the work have been achieved in an adequate way.
3.8 Research Timeline
The research timeline provides the view of the time that has been taken to perform various operations of work. The table below shows the different stages that are present in the concerned research work. There are five stages present in the given work which are project initiation, project planning, project implementation, and project monitoring and project closure. Project initiation is the first stage of the research work in which the designing of the research work was done as per the topic of the research.
Project Monitoring and Control
Table 3.1: Project Timeline for the given research work
Project Planning is the process in which the determination of different resources that can be used for data collection processes for the concerned work was done. In the third stage of the process, that is the implementation of the project, all the strategies and plans that have been designed in the given work are executed. This stage takes the most amount of time and is followed by monitoring of the complete work. In this stage, the areas that can be improved were identified in the concerned work and thus important changes were made. The last stage of the concerned system is project closure in which the work is completed after a final inspection of it. The process of inspection is done to ensure that the content of the work is as per the objectives of the research. In this way, the complete work has been designed and the required objectives of the work have been achieved in an effective way.
The type of data gathering technique used for the concerned work is secondary in nature and the research approach employed for the given work is inductive. The work has been prepared by following the positivism philosophy and qualitative data analysis technique. It has been made sure that all the data present in the work are authentic in nature in order to ensure high quality work.
Chapter 4.0: Results and Findings
Data analysis is one kind of process within the conjunction of a machine learning algorithm that is mainly envisioned to enhance the future mobile networks for predicting as well as avoiding large congestive traffic signals or load balancing. Nowadays, the fifth-generation mobile network system enhances the needs of humans and others by providing better quality services. For a large number of mobile network datasets, data analysis plays an important role to visualize predictions as well as other matters regarding the mobile network analysis process (Falkenberg and Wietfeld2019). Besides that, the falcon has been utilized to analyze the mobile networks for enhancing the network process. Falcon enables monitoring the locations with better interfaces as well as this type of system allows mobile applications to track the sign term tracking situation. Besides that, it is applicable for various software to declare the radios. It can be utilized for the standard types of computers to analyze the networks and provide better accuracy. Both network and security operations have a particular interest in the field of predictive analysis of data. There are only some machine learning tools that are applied to improving data predictive analysis which is based on environmental data (Falkenberg, 2019). The brand new technology helps to ingest and make available more data types from more sources. This can trigger the power to improve most of the ability of tools to
Control Channel Analysis process
In the modern world, various kinds of mobile networks are present that help people manage their daily jobs easily. A network system gives a better challenge as well as an understanding of observing the cell load via the management process. Therefore, in the Thai research paper, present approaches are elaborated to understand the 5G applications as well as capabilities, and others. It is the steroid for the future trending. With these newer technologies, it can detect some unusual behavior, mis-configuration, or malfunction in the current or old environment. These tools can predict future references (Falkenberg, 2019). These devices also perform and understand degradation in future devices and also for the failure of network cards. There are many types of ranging vulnerabilities associated with the performance. Mainly to an increasing number of cyber attacks in the last few years of machine learning. It is only necessary to facilitate, measure, and identify the remedies of the risk; a business has to understand the total value of cyber security and the advancement of cyber security. The main positive traits of vulnerability networks' performance are. System hardening is the facilitating gap in a network security system. This is the technique of creating an advanced and secure system that decreases the vulnerable attacks on the network. The main stages of hardening the systems are to close the dispensable services and the ports (Wu et al. 2022). Now every industry seeks to imply certain regulations and use some standards to make the industry more competitive in the era of start-up businesses.
Application of mobile network Analytics
In the part of network analytics, any kind of software engineer examines or extracts the intelligence system from various kinds of collected resources, such as switches, wireless routers, and so on. Sometimes, software engineers utilize servers, such as DHCP, AAA, and others to collect network details. Besides that, network analysis is one kind of process that is automatically executed or achieves more network details (Sliwa et al. 2020). Apart from that, a network analysis process can be scaled into various kinds of smart devices, customers, clients, as well as applications by providing low-cost facilities and a better user experience. The Ai based intelligence details are collected through the network analysis process that can be utilized in various sectors, such as the risk management system, recognizing the linked endpoints, executing the healthcare devices, and so on. Besides that, to enhance the operation system, a network analytics system compares various kinds of data, such as incoming or outgoing network details to create the model or make correct decisions. The details are fed into the ideal model mobile network performance. Therefore, when the details find any types of less ideal accuracy or performance, the data analytics system recommends the adjustments which enhance the network performance.
Sometimes, network analysis suggests various corrective actions to recognize the problems within the network systems. Besides that, these types of actions include guided perversion where the network engines mention the steps to execute or stop the performance (Abualhaol et al. 2018). Moreover, to recognize the security endpoints, network data analysis finds internal traffic from the endpoints. For identifying potential network security problems, network data analysis observes the endpoint behavior as well as traffic for detecting anomalies that indicate compromised endpoints, such as malware, and others. Falcon is one of the fast analysis channels to compromise various kinds of open source applications that are applicable for the live tracking of LTE source locations depending on the air interfaces. Besides that, the decoder as well as different data visualization tools, the application involves the signal decoder with the integrated mobile network. Apart from this, the falcon has the port for OWL's recorder as well as decoder signals. This kind of application depends on the SRSLTE library as well as it keeps the details desperately from any types of the underlying library for the future predicted benefits as well as updates (Wu et al. 2022). Signal records are one kind of advanced version of the OWL's recorder as well as applicable for synchronizing the particular LTE cell or capturing new or raw samples to define the time internal process. Besides that, the data is entered directly into the hard drive or buffered into RAM. A network probe is a simple messenger that delivers the question as well as returns fast information. Sometimes, probes provide IT or network admin to manage the performance in real-time activities.
According to Garcia et al. (2019), network analysis gathers the network details from various kinds of sources, such as DPI, streaming telemetry, and others that help to enhance the network performance. In the case of DPI, it chooses the data resources to flow the traffic for any kind of network analytics process. This type of network traffic analysis with various kinds of tools or techniques, such as NBAR, SD AVC, and so on communicates network protocols that are utilized for this analysis process. Furthermore, the analytics engine system utilized these details within various ways like QoS parameters endpoints. On the other hand, streaming telemetry decreases the data collection delays. Telemetry gives everything from simple packet flow numbers to complex application-specific performance parameters. Moreover, a system that is streaming more telemetry from other resources across various mobile network variables provides the analytics engine with a better context for making decisions. Context is one of the other important factors that are utilized for the network data analytics process (Ma et al. 2018). A context is the mentioned environments in which any network anomaly is observed. Moreover, the same anomaly within various circumstances can need more remediation, therefore, the analytics engine must execute with various types of contexts, such as network-based contexts, services as well as application-based contexts.
Scrutinize the Network Analytics data
There are various kinds of scrutinizing processes present that are utilized for network data analysis, such as Analytics engine, cloud analytics, and so on that help the engineer to enhance the network performance. In the case of analytics engines, the software program that analyses facts or makes better decisions manages facts from across the community, and plays the preferred evaluation. Apart from this, this evaluation may also evaluate the modern nation with a version of the most advantageous implementation (Kassela et al. 2019). Whenever this system specifies a departure from the most advantageous, it can endorse remediation as well as give its determinations to a high stage software and the other IT staff. Furthermore, the analytics engine also scrutinizes the endpoint traffic to recognize the endpoint behavior that provides the signal for the malware infection. Apart from that, sometimes, network engineer debates where the networks performed remotely based on locally. Putting the analytics system engine within the cloud provides far more computing power, scalability, and access to contact with different networks. Besides that, cloud-hosted analytics benefit from state-of-the-art algorithms as well as public sourced data. Moreover, deploying the analytics system engine locally provides better insight or remediation implementation, reducing the quantity of data instructed to the cloud server. Therefore, these two benefits are more important within a large enterprise network area.
On the other hand, analytics engines examine the connections between various variables within any network area before providing insights or other remediation. Moreover, the correlation between the devices, software, or other services that collect issues leads to issues from anywhere. Therefore, correlation enhances the variable counts within the “decision tree” as well as adds difficulties for the system therefore it is necessary to evaluate the perfect decisions for all the variables. Various analytics system engines provide steerage on overall performance development choice trees (Kassela et al. 2019). Therefore, when an analytics system gets community records indicating poor overall performance, the choice tree estimates the first-rate community-tool adjustment as well as reconfiguration to enhance the overall performance of that endpoint parameter. Besides that, the choice of tree produces primarily based totally on the number of assets for streaming the telemetry or the quantity of the alternatives for optimizing overall performance at every point. Moreover, due to the processing complexity, those very big record units in actual time, analytics became formerly finished best on the supercomputers. The analytics system spots the network irregularities, weaknesses, as well as system performance degradations through corresponding to the incoming data streaming telemetry for the optimal network model execution for individual data basis. Besides that, this type of operation delivers understanding into track network implementation or user knowledge must be enhanced.
Sometimes, falcon provides phishing protection as well as network prevention to secure the customer data or organization data (Ogudo et al. 2019). Besides that, it stops the malicious phishing web links to secure the users sharing details or credentials. Moreover, this type of system gathers visibility from incoming SMS or text messages or QR scanners and secures the system to prevent this type of attack. It recognizes the users that may have advantages from the extra anti-phishing training. Using the falcon software to produce the optimal position for the cell phones the steps that are involved are as followed:
- The strength of the cell phone and also the determination of the model.
- Choose the area and make the 1500 points
- Sept 3 involves the making of the nearest towers.
It also involves the making of application of the mobile network. 2 ND part of step 3 involves the making of analog with sound propagation of model (Chen et al. 2019).
- The generalized equation of the model.
- The making of the model is done.
Part 2 involves the making of result flow are:
- Determining the cell phone tower.
The number of the cell phone that is being required for the making of the connection twitches the tower. That is further being preceded with the help of (Clementini et al. 2020). “n” no. of the cell phone is being needed for the making of the cell phone towers. The whole era is to be divided into the parts that are being involved in making the equal parts with the respect to the angular divisions (Kushnir et al. 2021).
- After the process for cell phone tower is needed it is the part that involves the making the rural area and the urban area separated. The next step that involves the making of a tower is the results of two different locations. With the help of the determination of the locomotive location that is being required for the making of the optimal location for the number of the cells tower. And the part also includes improvements in quality analysis.
After the process for the divining of the two areas separately the part comes fo9r the making of each individual the area that is being needed for the making of the connection done into the most systematic orders for each individual area. That is further divided into the parts that are in grid with the area of the cells. That involves the location of the Centroid chosen for starting. After that buffer regions have been chosen for different areas in different shapes, to help top get into the part of the buffer size. The process involves the making of the division of the buffer that is being required for the division of the grid for the size of finding the best locations. That is being associated with the help of the signal average to each grid of the cell to get into the part so strength (R et al. 2021).
The above-included picture shows the settings of the falcon to execute the network data analysis corresponding to the task. Besides that, scanning dependencies are shown here to declare the target falcon. The virtual machine software platform has been chosen to execute the task successfully. All the version information is shown in this included picture regarding the network details. Moreover, the srsepc_hss command has been included in this data analysis program to declare the user system path where the falcon directory is present. Furthermore, it shows the data analysis process and techniques to identify the outside threats within the user system. Besides that, the data analytics process helps the network engineer to prevent outside threats.
In this case, the above-included picture shows the commands that have been utilized to execute the network data analysis process corresponding to the task. Besides that, the cd/usr command has been applied to set the urs folder in the user system.
In this part, the commands are written here to locate the cell id or frequency values regarding the network data analytics process. The cell search command is included in the command prompt set the id number as well as frequency values.
The above-included commands are written to perform the LTE cell modules as well as search the frequency range values between 700 and 800 Hz regarding the task. The results are also shown in the included figure after executing the program successfully. The determination of nth strength of the signals has been determined.
The model is prepared with the required number of cell towers that are involved in the making of the existing tower locations. The process for making the transmission involves the making of the connection between the users vs. the customer. This model is basically get determined for the making of the choice for chosen the follows for the getting into the part of indirect as well as directs cell towers paths to the location for the users. The transmission is needed for the making of the losses due to the obstructions, distance, etc. between the user and cell towers.
Optical location for the making of the setting up of the cell phone towers.
The making of the optimal location for the placing of the tower is being done with tube help of the two-way procedure that is basically the party that is being including the one in the rural area, and the second the part is being including the making of the rural area the optimal locations. As the two different areas are being introduced for the making of the optimal location the need for the making of the purpose is to have different terrains such as the including the soft ground, hard ground, crowded area, and vegetation.
The part for the rural areas
Now after the making of the analysis of the rural area that is being required for the making of the area that is being involved of the l9ot of the vegetation as well as the part that is being involved for making of the fewer of the buildings that are joined cell phone tower that is outside of the campus that are been chosen for the placing of the real-time area of the locations. After the desired location, it is the time to get the x and y plotting of the area that is required door the making of the cell phone tower for the making of the connection between the towers as well as the users (Settle et al. 2018). The cellular tower help top gets the actual things with the making of the estimation of the X, y, and Z, to give the optimal location and the part of the areas that are being required for the making of the phone towers into the part of the rural as well ast6he part of the urban area that is needed for the development of the signal strength with a large number of the area.
The urban area
As the big population is involved in the making of more buildings, and part of the difficulties that are being involved for making possible location into the part of the towers to the cell phones. For the best and optimal location, the tower with all the possibilities is being found for the making of the good as well as the part of the making of the things that are required for the location of the tower to get placed for the best connection in between the user and the part of the towers (Yusuf et al. 2022). The signals from the tower are not adequate as well as the signals are not accurate.
Chapter 5.0: Results and Discussion
This chapter will present a quick overview of the course of action that has been taken in the result section to evaluate the implementation of automation within the cell tower. As per the above section, the FALCON approach has been taken; his chapter will make an elaboration on that approach and will shed a light on the process of how the approach has been developed in the first place to deploy the automation programming in the cell tower of 5G.
Theme 1: Falcon provides an open-source software suite for the detection of Cells in a given location
Falcon (Fast Analysis of LTE control channels) is an open-source software system that provides a path to determine the presence of cells within a given location by tracking the frequency levels. There are different components that are present in the system such as the visualization tool, decoders, remote controllers, network control system and others. Besides all these different features, there is also another characteristic that is associated with it which is the presence of an OWL recorder and a decoder. SRSLTE library has been used in the given system and this is kept isolated from other libraries in order to ensure that the process of updates in the future can be done in a better manner and no hindrances are caused (Falkenberg and Wietfeld, 2019). The process of testing is done in the concerned software with the help of usr by ettusresearch. The software is very powerful and without the help of any radio signal, the software can detect the presence of cells in the nearby locations within the specified frequency range.
The process of usage of the CellSearchcommand in the given software system provides the details of the cell id and its frequency value in the given system. With the help of this information, a proper understanding of the different properties of the cell can be obtained and thus adequate operations can be done in an effective way (Jinet al. 2022). The system provides a very definite path to perform different cell search operations and hence helps to determine various factors of mobile network data analysis as per the requirements of the job.
Theme 2: RIC helps to solve the problem of both infrastructure and cost for the mobile operators
The RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) provides a wide range of benefits to the system of mobile networking and data analysis. It helps to enhance the performance of the network, improve the agility of the system, develop better infrastructure and decrease the operational cost of the system (Rice and Martin, 2020). The system also helps to provide an emphatic path to perform the process of tracking and slicing networks. The process of usage of this system helps to gain plenty of information about the mobile networking system and has a key role in performing the process of network data analysis to identify the insights present in it. There are various aspects that are associated with the concerned system and provide the necessary functions that can be used for the purpose of tracking the presence of cells in a given area (Bonatiet al. 2020). The concerned system also helps to improve the Quality of Experience (QoE) of the system and hence is very much useful in ensuring that the complete information about a particular networking system is achieved and different operations are performed as per the given objectives of the firm.
Theme 3: Open 5GS helps in the release of 4G and 5G NSA compliant EPC
The process of usage of open 5GS provides the path to perform the release of 4G and 5G compliant EPC. All the components that are present in the concerned system are developed using the C language and have been distributed within the AGPLv3 license (Kaltenberger et al. 2020). The concerned system is compatible with different ranges of distributors of Linux systems such as Ubuntu, Fedora and others. The Open 5GS system provides the privilege of delivery of voice calls and different messages as compared to the previous system of switching systems. The concerned work is done with the help of third-party LTE systems. With the help of this system, the policies of the network can be determined in real-time and prioritization of the system can be done in the best way possible. The system of 4G and 5G are being used for performing a wide range of software operations in the mobile network data analysis. With the help of this system, a proper understanding of the various aspects of the work can be obtained and hence the process of network data analysis can be done in the best way possible (Simon et al. 2020). These are the different aspects of the work that have been covered in detail in the given work.
Theme 4: 5G network automation provides a wide of benefits to the networking system
The 5G network system has the requirements of a communication system that can help it to perform the process of automation in an adequate manner (Khalili et al. 2019). The use of automation has existed in the networking system for a very long time but it is used for cutting down the operation cost of the system only. The process of working with 5G technology is very different from other systems as it purely depends upon the usage of automation to perform all the activities. The use of this technology can be done to initiate the communication between large machines. There is an SLA delivery model present in the system which needs the presence of automation as the number of variables present in such systems is very large and cannot be controlled by humans. With the help of this system, the process of network slicing can also be performed and thus required objectives can be achieved in the best way possible. There are many benefits of this system such as it helps to enhance the efficiency by reducing the management process and complexity of all the operations, diversifying the different aspects that are present in the system and performing all the actions with utmost quality and significance (Aires et al. 2019). These are some of the benefits of the 5G networking system that makes an ideal choice for all the parties present in the market involved in performing mobile network data analysis.
Theme 5: 5G network automation poses different challenges that are required to be handled in an effective manner
The use of 5G systems in the network helps to provide advantages to the system in a variety of manner; however, it also increases the complexity of the system to a marked extent. The increase in the complexity of the system increases the efficiency, speed and profitability of the company (Zhao et al. 2021). Therefore, in order to avoid these problems, it is very important that proper steps and measures are taken to solve this problem. There are many challenges that can be effectively solved with the help of network automation. Automation provides the opportunity to solve the problem of management of a large number of network slices so that all the customers of the system can be handled adequately. The solution for complex cloud-related 5G operations can be done in an easy manner by the elimination of manual operations and thus enhance the operations. The management of customers can be done in a better manner and thus the satisfaction level of the customers can be increased to a large extent (Kousaridas et al. 2019). These are the different challenges that can be effectively solved with the help of 5G network automation and thus the process of mobile network data analysis can be performed as per the requirements of the work.
Theme 6: The complete life cycle of network automation consists of three phases
The system process of operation of network automation takes place in three different phases. The name of the processes is designed, deploy and then operate. In the first stage of the process, that is design, all the operations as per the objectives of the work are designed such that the process of network automation can be done adequately. In the second phase of the system called deploy, the working of the designed system is tested so that improvement areas can be determined and hence modifications can be done for enhancement purposes (Leng et al. 2020). Then, in the last stage of the process, which is to operate, the designed 5G system is applied to the system in order to get the results. These are the various insights that can be used for the purpose of performing various operations and realizing the objectives of the given work in a proper manner. The process also helps to improve the efficiency of determining the details of mobile network data and hence use that information to perform different activities in the given system.
The analysis provides a detailed understanding of the various aspects of mobile network data analysis and ways that can be used to perform these operations. The process of using the Falcon suite for determining the details of mobiles has been shown in the given work in a detailed manner and adequate results have been gathered (Gawron et al. 2018). The process of development of automation in the system can be very much beneficial as there are different types of advantages that are associated with the given work. The merits associated with the use of 5G networks are improved efficiency, reduction in the level of the cost incurred in the system, better performance and decrement in the level of errors present in the system.
The construction and analysis of the cell towers matrix include several techniques like the use of Falcon, 5G simulation, and many more have already been discussed (Ahmad et al. 2020). This section of discussion in the dissertation deals with different cellular networks that are involved.
Equipment that is needed for the cellular network
The basic equipment that was found important was the tower structure of the cell phone which is found to be of different types and it needs a proper way of support to be provided so that such structures could be able to make their evaluation which is above the ground level (Pattnaik et al. 2022). Radio Frequency and baseband equipment are considered to be of two different types and they are indoor mounted or roof-mounted. The equipment that is based indoors is usually placed in rooms. The indoor equipment is generally connected to the equipment that is outside like the antenna through the use of a coaxial cable.
The types of equipment that are based on the radio frequency have the ability to convert the information that is broadband-based into the form that is found to be compatible with the purpose of transmission or for the received radio frequency of the antennas. The equipment that is baseband can provide the users with the data equipment that is interfacing with it. The telecom carrier makes use of the multiple antennas for the building design of the cell tower. The number of antennas that were increased was on the basis of the increase in the subscriber's capacity. Some other utilities which could be found in order to have the successful design of the cell tower were to include the power supply, and the rectifier for converting from Alternating current to the direct current that is widely used for the electronic circuits.
The UPS was used as the system of the backup for the battery in the case of a failure that is providing the main power (Pereira et al. 2020). The cell sites of the cell tower are formed because of the different types of interfaces with the wired telephony with the presence of connectivity of the Internet and the presence of other types of cell towers.
Types of cellular towers found
There are many types of cell towers present but the most well-known are monopole tower, guyed tower, and the lattice tower.
The monopole tower requires the checking of the foundation and the height should not exceed the range of 200 feet. The monopole towers have their antennas to be mounted on the exterior part of the towers. It mainly consists of one pole or one step that is anchored to the ground. The monopole tower can be divided into two categories and are circular pole which is a kind of pole that has a cross-section or the diameter of the panel remains similar from the top to bottom while another type of monopole which is a tapered pole is a type of pole which has the varied type of diameter of the cross-section size such that the diameters that are being used are smaller than the usual (Sonkki et al. 2020). The installation of the monopole structures on any ground should be engineered using the registered design professional and while doing the design certain points should be noted such as the installation should be on the basis of the laws that were applicable and the regulations.
The installation design should be on the basis of the recommendations that are done by the manufacturer. The structure of the monopole should be frilled and be constructed in compliance with the resolution of zoning of NYC including the requirements of the heights. A monopole tower consists of steel beams, angles, channels, and some similar components that may be used with the help of steel arms that are horizontally placed.
Lattice cell towers are the towers that are seen constructed along the highways (Alimi et al. 2021). They may be used as the towers for transmission of the electricity mainly for the voltages that are above 100 kilovolts, sometimes as the radio towers, and sometimes as the tower for observation. They are usually constructed using the steel members that are connected and usually galvanized so that they could be used for a longer time. These cell towers are designed and built whose main aim is to get connected from the steel frame of a single profile so that it can become stiff and the shape can be that of a strong frame.
Guyed Tower- This cell tower tends to cover a wide area and is very cheap to construct. This cell tower is mainly used by radio stations and television stations (Alimi et al. 2021). The tower makes use of the guy wires that are always connected to the ground and help in providing support to the tower that is straight
Eigenvalue analysis of the data to create a finite element model that would help in analyzing the “Generalized regression neural network” (GRNN). The main analysis regarding different variables shows the dependency of worker matrix functions within a device that can be related to data like text, messages and more (Aslam et al. 2021). The coherent ids of data would help in making the trajectory of the network more suitable for acquiring the project objectives by describing the methods used for this task. Trip interference has been noticed by vehicles inferring with the tips in the trajectory of the network which follows computation geometry. All the towers are labeled to identify the modes of carriers of the network that would show the trajectory path according to which steps can be taken for effective and secured communication.
(Source: Alimiet al. 2021)
Decoding phase for the control channel of LTE
This is important to perform general activities to begin the control channels of decoding as well as procure the bandwidth of the channel, which has been conducted in this case. In addition, the researcher took this course of action for cell identity, length of cyclic prefix and duplicating mode as well as other information that are system related. This data is mostly conveyed through the message of MIB, and for that reason, these messages had been decoded in the first place (Jordi et al. 2022). These courses of action are elaborated in a descriptive way within the specification of LTE. After that, the decoding of DCI has been performed. As per the earlier chapter, it can be stated that the messages of DCI have transmitted the scheduling information of either the downlink or uplink at a single time from the "eNodeB to destination UEs. This has been conducted in order to make an identification by the UEs for the assets that are needed to either transmit or receive the data (Jung et al. 2020). Before processing the decoding course of action of DCI the researcher, in this case, has performed the search of the cell as well as selection activities, therefore procuring the information related to the original system. This has involved the procurement course of action for the slot and also the synchronization of the frame. This has helped the researcher to evaluate the identity of the cell and MIB decoding path.
Monitored features of FALCON during implementation
At the time of the utilization of cell towers, this analytical tool has been monitored with two main features that need to be discussed. They are a) core features and b) modular features.
The core features involve:
- A single platform which has managed every single activity related to automation (for example request submitting, processing of the application, and allocation of the approval, certificate or permit).
- Accessibility of portal, this indicates the ingress into the portal via the web anytime. The developer in this case has implemented the requests from any place via the web.
- The workflows that are automated are based on the procedures and processes of the internal business.
- The FALCON has a simultaneous ingress over more than one user (like government entities, operators, regulators and others) and with this ability, the researcher in this case has managed to track particular applications by uploading relating data for existing sites. This has also permitted the evaluation of opportunities (sharing) as well as compliances (Muhammad et al. 2021). The task management of this analytical tool has given permission to the researcher to make a site inspection.
The modular feature involves:
- The optimization of the network infrastructure: This aspect has permitted the researcher for optimizing the utilization of the assets of the network as well as the researcher with the use of this has managed the operation of the detection in an automatic manner (Pappalardo and Simini, 2018). The main clause of this access was if two towers are close enough to one another, the tower that is encouraging will reduce and share costs.
- Permitting and management of property: With the use of tracking for leases and permits the researcher had procured the ability to procure a clear overview at the time when lease agreements end and dispatch notifications as well as reminders for procuring payments (Vasjanov and Barzdenas, 2018).
Conducting a validation of the function (that are correct) of a PDCCH was a big challenge to the researcher. A differentiation between the allocations of resources (which are decoded) and spectral occupancy does not give a metric of evaluation (which is reliable). However, for the activity evaluation of this analytical approach, the researcher has configured a system of measurement with three recorders (synchronized) for monitoring three cells from dissimilar "MNOs (mobile network operator)” (Taheri et al. 2021). All of the recordings have been triggered during the 5 min intervals for apprehending 5s from every single cell and they are processed in a direct manner by the FALCON as well as OWL decoders. All the recorders were positioned in a proper place. The FALCON has helped the researcher to deliver the procured location data that are most recent (Syed et al. 2020). In addition, this FALCON has acknowledged which information is more current and logged the information (respective) at the time when conducting operations (that are non-trip) such as managing events of high G, evaluating the inputs of analogue, calculating the readings that are temperature probes and others (Zhang et al. 2022). Moreover, the researcher has utilized the Wi-Fi information (supplied) from the FALCON for assessing an operation on the basis of geo-location for translating the data of the Wi-Fi into corresponding coordinates of the GPS.
At the time of delivering the data of the Wi-Fi from “original equipment manufacturer (OEM)” to “Technical Guidance (TG)" any information that is Wi-Fi based has prompted automatically for procuring the GPS coordinates for every single telemetry entry within TG.
Chapter 6.0: Conclusion
6.1 Linking to the objectives of the research
It can be concluded by saying that when a cell tower is able to predict the location properly, it can help the operator in providing a well-formed idea about the cellular coverage of the surrounding area. It can prove to be helpful in deploying the nodes of the network if some case of failure in the tower arises during any type of disaster situation. In order to obtain the coverage of the map, each individual provider can make use of the crowd-sourced data which may prove to be an alternative approach. The database that is crowd sourced in the cell tower is known as it contains a wide value range for each individual tower. If the operators can utilize those wide range values with the tower that is being predicted have the potential to give a reliable and excellent source of the map coverage that can be generated in the future.
The exact location of the towers that are present physically is known to be available partially. This particular fact makes it necessary to have the mapping of the cell towers that are already being predicted to a location that is considered to be approximate or partial. It is shown in the dissertation that the mapping of the location of the cell tower is referred to as NP-complete. The mapping problem was tried to reduce as much as possible to another problem of NP-Complete in the time of polynomial. It also helped the operators to develop an algorithm method of heuristic for resolving the problem of mapping properly.
The inclusion of these features has helped in developing a more accurate prediction ability from the data that are crowd-sourced and helps in removing the dependency on the provider of wireless data to the FCC or any present third-party like reported data. In this dissertation, it has been tried to utilize the data of the location and the counts of the samples that are present in the OpenCelliD data, also the algorithm that is weighted by k-means was used for the prediction of the locations of the cell tower. The accuracy of the cell tower was determined by making a comparison between the two different sources of the location of the tower. Also, the prediction showed the matching in both of the cases that has a significant change within it. It was also estimated that comparisons of towers were unreliable and for this reason, there is a need for locations of towers that are made from the data that are crowd-sourced.
6.2 Need for determination of cell tower location
The idea of determining the cell tower location is very important for the purpose of coverage in the network of the provider of the cellular network. So, as the trend of deploying small cell towers increases, it has become a lot more challenging for the operators to identify and differentiate the location of the provider’s tower. The cellular providers are found to be very reluctant in providing the coverage of the actual maps for the purpose of business concerns. It is also seen in most of the cases that the providers of the cellular network tend to provide the locations of the cell tower that are present at a certain height above than the normal like in The US it was seen that 200 feet above, the towers were registered to the FCC (Federal Communications Commission). It is observed that these types of towers host their antennas having multiple numbers of cellular operators. Still, it is seen that the providers of the cellular network are not able to comply and are unable to reveal the cover of the actual maps of the cellular tower location.
The truthful map coverage if needed then there is the utmost requirement of the location of the cell tower provider. Although, the providers do not seem to provide the information that is actually present, and the organizations that are responsible for the working of the cell tower properly do not have the data that could be enough for the process of validation so it becomes very essential for the operators to find an alternate solution so that the location of the cell towers can be identified and the map coverage could be generated with ease. The benefit of using the crowd sourced data is much similar to having the experience of perceived wireless of the cellular sources. Due to this fact, the source of data becomes much more reliable for the generation of the coverage of the actual map. If the nature of the communication is known, then the infrastructure that is present can be able to enhance the modalities of the alternative communication during the major failures or the sudden disasters. So, in those scenarios, a prompt response is a necessity in order to minimize the effects.
It can be recommended that they should make use of the modalities that are recently emerging like communications that are device-to-device and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), this also can prove to be useful in the time of the disasters or any emergency if arises.
In recent times, several sites on the Internet are observed to show the cellular tower numbers which are present throughout the world. FCC is known to contain only the tower locations that are registered and which contain towers that are already dismantled. Due to this, it is seen that the cell tower number that is being provided by the FCC may prove to be different from the cell tower number that already exists within the mentioned area. Although, no sources were found that were authentic and which have the ability to provide the locations that are accurate from all the antennas that are present including the cellular providers and the cell towers which are not capable of sharing the information about the tower’s location. Only a few countries till now have been able to achieve accuracy to a greater extent.
The Internet sites that are present may be able to provide information that is based on the data of war-driving of the data that are being collected from the crowd-source. As there is no presence of a valid source of the required information and validation of the exact locations cannot be detected in the cell towers, so, it becomes much more important for designing the systems for the purpose of predicting the available data publicly. In order to optimize the cost and timing of the cellular tower location, crowd sourcing has always proved to be the most effective and the best solution. The cell tower which made use of the data-drive cell became very important because of the fact that the information was lacking and also the information about the wireless providers was missing.
The cell towers that are data-driven have the ability to make consideration of all types of data and are also able to access each type of data. The cell towers may not be able to make the differentiation between the antenna that is based on multi-operator which is known to host various cell towers to the providers that are having single access points or the presence of the base stations. The localization of the cell tower which is based on the OpenCelliD along with the direction of the cell tower from the measurements of the RSS has always been considered for the purpose of the cell tower designing and the implementation of the matrix that is present within it. Though, the prediction method is seen only to be present with the cell tower that is multi-sector and does not make consideration of the cell tower that is found to be Omni directional.
The crowd sourced data that are being collected from the users are able to represent a well-formed coverage for helping the location of the cell tower. The reported data are always found to be in the form of misled in spite of having various sources of the cell tower. In recent times, the usage of mobile devices has become very popular which is too brief and is competing with the other real demands that humans are making come to the attention. It becomes very important that the interactions of the applications be very rapid and also responsive in nature. In spite of the fact that mobile devices are becoming rich in resources, the time of the launching is expected to remain a significant challenge. This happens mainly because of the two distinct reasons and they are firstly due to the apps that are network-bound and are known to continue to face limitations that are posed by the latency of the fetched network, which can get constrained due to the cellular technology. Secondly, it is due to the fact that graphics are included and the apps that are media-rich which are known to make the target the phones that are up-market which is seen to perpetually leave the previous budgeted phones which somehow feel sluggish in launching new applications.
This crucial problem was dealt with through the use of the design made by the FALCON, which is already being described as the system that makes use of the temporal contexts and the locations for launching the applications that can make predictions about the location of the cell towers. If a launch predictor is made to use then it can help in adapting the latency of balance which in turn helps in reducing the benefit that is there with the cost of the launching energy. The launch predictions that were being made for the cell tower using the contexts are known to yield a reduction of the latency of almost fifty percent. The modifications that are made in the falcon to the operating system of the windows phone contain a manager of context resources and are also embedded with the launch predictor and the up call disaster that are under the event of prelaunch. These elements are seen to acquire very low space and consist of negligible processing energy.
The results that are obtained through the use of falcon are noted to have dramatic benefits, several improvements were made and opportunities were found that were yet to explore. One of the areas that were prominently noted was that of the elimination that is made on the external servers or the required cloud servers for the purpose of training the model that was based on the Falcon software. As a result, it helps in mitigating the need that arises for the fact of sharing the personal information with the providers that were being made by the external servers. In addition to this, another benefit that was observed was the cloud storage that was used for the designing of the cell tower was that the reliance could be reduced so that the adoption process becomes much faster while implementation. The radiation levels that were being analyzed were that of the cell tower having the 5G network that is being developed in the outdoor environment. When the constraints are analyzed that is under the limits of the exposure can face several challenges that may have to implement the design and the planning should be made to be aware of the radiations that are being imposed by the 5g simulations in the cell tower technology.
The ranges of the cellular tower are being reduced for the purpose of complying with the radiated power that is allowed at the maximum level. The cell tower may need the densification of the cellular network and thereby it may make it more costly than before for deploying the awareness of the radiation of the 5G network. The solutions of 5G simulation in the cell tower technology were mainly introduced due to making the limitation of the health risks that were associated with the radiation that may have the possibility to be generated while working and also the problems that were related to the economic barriers may arise while implementing the design that is being adopted for the purpose of making of the cell-tower. It can be expected that several improvements would be made in the technology of the cell tower matrix for ease of communication.
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