The Gig Economy's Impact on the Traditional Employee-Employer Relationship Assignment Sample

Economic Paradigm Shift: Analyzing the Gig Economy's Labor Market Effects

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Introduction Of The Gig Economy Has Been Eradicating The Traditional Relationship That Is Existing Between Employees And Employers

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The paper will be focusing on the way that the gig economy has been eradicating the traditional relationship that is existing between employees and employers. The focus will be given to the effects of the gig economy on the labor market and the way it has changed the relationship between employees and employers (Kuhn et al., 2021). A special focus has been provided on the benefits that the gig economy has brought to both employees and employers in terms of finance and job stability. The challenges that are faced by gig workers while working in an industry such as web development and content writing.

The gig economy has been pretty dominating in the market, with heavy dependence that has been observed in the free market where temporary positions are common in organizations such as content writers, agents of shopping malls, and construction companies. However, the gig economy is bringing huge profits both for employers and employees. The employers do not have to go for a contract that includes certain benefits that are given to the employees who are working in the organization for a long time (Markman et al., 2021). Similarly, the employees do not have to go into a contract with the organization where there is an involvement of various norms. However, studies and research have portrayed a picture that has revealed how these policies harm the traditional relationship between employees and employers. However, the introduction of the gig economy in the free market harms the future of employment.

1.2 Rationale

The researchers have focused on the way that the gig economy harms the traditional relationship that has been existing between employees and employers for years. The growth and popularity of the gig economy in the free market have observed that various employees are working as freelancers or in independent positions in the organization. Although, various benefits have been noticed that the gig economy brings to employees and employers (Wood and Lehdonvirta, 2021). Yet the challenges are, it ruins the future of employment. The significance that has been observed is that various issues have been observed although it is a trend that has been working in the free market. Various challenges have been observed that might harm the future of employment strategies in the country. There is a major difference that has been observed between the gig economy and the traditional relationship that used to exist between employees and employers. Although, it has been dominating the free market. Yet, challenges have been noticed such as there is limited support that is offered in the advancement of jobs. There is uncertainty that has been observed in the field of employment. Thus, the futures of the employees might be at stake. Most importantly, there is no strong bond that is being created between the employers and the employees.

Aim and objectives

Aim:

Understanding the reason the gig economy has eradicated the traditional relationship that has existed between employers and employers.

Objectives:

  • To analyze the effect of the gig economy on the labor markets
  • To determine the benefits of the gig economy for employers and employees
  • To examine the opportunities of the gig economy
  • To identify the challenges faced by gig workers

Research questions

RQ1: What are the effects of the gig economy on the labor market?

RQ2: What are the benefits of the gig economy for employers and employees?

RQ3: What are the opportunities of the gig economy?

RQ4: What are the challenges that are faced by gig workers?

Chapter Two

Brief literature review:

2.0 Introduction

The central aim of this research proposal is to explore the gig economy and its nature. The research will also aim to provide detailed insight into the shifting nature of employment and the employee due to the influence of the gig economy. Thus, the research proposal must accumulate literature related to the gig economy and its effect on labor markets. Emphasis must be made to gather the benefits of the gig economy for employers and employees. Moreover, the brief literature review must also focus on the opportunities and challenges in this economic sphere.

2.0.1 Effect of the Gig economy on labor market:

According to Graham and Anwar (2019), the gig economy has tremendous effects on the labor markets. This economic sphere is shifting and transforming the traditional labor force of the world. The labor market all around the world is changing along with the gig economy as it permits organizations and businesses to recruit a flexible workforce. These workforces are hired on a short-term basis at a minimal cost. This changed the orthodox and traditional labor force into the gig economy in this globalized modern world. Thus, the study shows that the gig economy is a specific kind of labor market that fundamentally relies on temporary or short time employment mainly undertaken by freelancers and independent contractors. Whereas the traditional labor market is made up of full-time workers, mostly permanent in their employment. With the gig economy, the relationship between employers and employees is changing, in turn changing the labor market of the modern world. Studies by Graham and Anwar (2019), show that almost a third of the total workers in the United States of America are engaged in this labor market. As gig working hours are flexible, seventy percent of people globally work in these flexible hours, permanently changing the traditional labor market. The labor market in general is increasing at a rapid speed due to this gig economic development. The study also focuses on the effects the gig economy has in transforming the labor market in the context of the age of the workers. People around the age of 18-34 are participating in this field due to the benefits that follow. The labor market is shifting towards an independent mode of working with the gig economy as mostly the workers are freelancers, devoid of any supervision. This new independence is favorable to almost eighty-two percent of gig workers, as studies showed because it makes them more productive.

According to the research study of MacDonald and Giazitzoglu (2019), the gig market has heavily impacted the UK labor market. This study, however, encapsulates the difficult side of the gig economy, as Uber has undergone several challenges in the matters of the labor force. Gig labors very often lack basic facilities, and the UK court has given a verdict that the drivers must have sick leaves and holiday pay. This ruling transformed the labor market, especially connected with the gig economy.

2.0.2 Benefits of the gig economy for employers and employees:

In the studies of Donovan, Bradley, and Shimabukuru (2016), the benefits of the gig economy have been traced. This specific kind of economy has benefited both employers and employees. Here in this study, emphasis has been provided to the benefits found by the employees. The gig economy firstly provides flexibility in working hours. This economic sphere offers work that is not a traditional 9 to 5 job. Here, one can work at their convenience. Sometimes, laymen use the phrase that in the gig economy, one is their boss. The place of work, the working hours, and the duration of work all are decided by the workers themselves. This element of flexibility is enjoyed by the majority of the workers, especially employees of younger ages. With flexibility comes the freedom of the employees, who now can select their workplace, their working hours, the time duration of the lunch break, and so on. As the employees are working in their own private space, studies have shown that they tend to be quite productive. This independence vests the employees with the responsibilities of meeting deadlines properly as well. The gig economy provides employees with an alternative in which they can earn more to meet ends by working part-time or on their timetable. The gig economy offers a more rewarding lifestyle to employees.

According to Schwellnus et al., (2019), employers at the same time are benefited from the gig economy. Through this type of economy, businesses and employers saw a wide array of benefits, which positioned them in an advantageous position. Some companies across the globe received a competitive advantage by using freelancers and exploiting the transformed labor market. The employers realized that the gig economy produces the most favorable feature for their businesses in the market, that is, cost-effectiveness. One of the most significant benefits of the gig economy is to essentially cut down costs and expenses. The reason behind this is primarily that employers now can hire employees off-site who are contract-based and not permanent. These employees are essentially non-costly to maintain, saving capital for the business. Thus, employers realized that the gig economy reduces the responsibility of maintaining workspace and offices. The businesses now do not need to provide their temporary gig workers with various benefits, which in turn plays a role in cost-effectiveness.

The studies of Oranburg (2018), have traced that employers can directly recruit employees without the help of any middlemen, or recruiter who matches the company demands with the employees. This benefits employers to reach out to the perfect workers for the work. As the world is changing, employee behavior is also transforming itself. Workers now value independence in their workplace, and the gig economy provides them with that. As studies show, gig workers work better in their personal space, employers are now trying to provide exactly that. Employers now are receiving better production results from their employees, as they work in their own comfortable free space. With better production results, the employers and their companies in turn are receiving high output production.

2.0.3 Opportunities of the gig economy:

According to the studies done by Roy and Srivastava (2020), there is a myriad of opportunities for the gig economy. The gig economy is flexible, dynamic, and ever-changing, creating new opportunities and opening doors for workers and employees all around the globe. The employees across have benefited from the gig economy opportunities. They now can follow a life, where there is a variety of work available. As the gig economy does not engage a person from 9 to 5, the workers find a variety of work, tasks, and projects. This helps them to earn more money and to exploit their talent for creativity and innovation. As the gig economy is not expensive but rather cost-effective, it is an opportunity for small companies and businesses to grow by using the gig workforce. It is their opportunity to fish out talents from the labor market and exploit them to the company's benefit by investing less money and cutting down costs.

According to the study by Goswami (2020), gig workers have a great opportunity to build in the corporate world. Corporations nowadays are focusing on increasing more on their profit lines and this increases the opportunities for gig workers. As corporates tend to hire temporary freelancers, gig workers have an upcoming opportunity to release their talent in the corporate world. The gig economy is also providing opportunities for workers to work in the field of digital marketing, freelance content writing, Instagram marketer, and many more. The gig economy not only might benefit corporations, but it might also open new avenues of opportunities for developing nations. The workforce is large there that can be exploited effectively to boost the production system as a whole.

2.0.4 Challenges faced by gig workers:

According to Koutsimpogiorgos et al., (2020), the first challenge faced by gig workers is the lack of employer-based facilities and benefits. The gig workers as they are not part of the traditional, permanent workforce do not achieve any sort of financial, or worker benefits from the corporations in which they work. The workers lack medical, health, and life insurance, and the companies do not provide retirement plans to these freelance workers. This lack of benefits and facilities makes them vulnerable to financial risks and problems. Another challenge that has been traced here is the lack of stable income. The workers, as they are most contractual or freelancing, do not have a permanent hold over income. This challenges the employees with a situation of a financial crisis. Fifty-six percent of gig workers have this worry of losing the steady flow of income, and it has been labelled as their biggest concern. As freelance work can provide opportunities to work various jobs at the same time, the challenge that the workers might face is the deteriorating conditions of their health due to stress and burnout. With no health insurance, this issue becomes a heavy challenge for gig workers.

Another important financial challenge traced in the work of Tan et al., (2021), faced by gig workers is that they are entitled to pay self-employment taxes and other kinds of taxes as gig workers. This drains the employees of their income. The gig economy provides freedom to their workers, which to some works as an incentive, but not to all. Some employees might feel isolated and confused and without any organizational guidance, the workers might lose focus, affecting the quality of the work.

Research Gap Quite an extensive amount of research has been done in the field of gig economy. Research across the world, often specified in different sectors have classified and focused on the positives and negatives of this type of economic or work practice. The study has highlighted its systematic research on the scopes, opportunities of this type of economy. The study focuses on the various challenges the gig economy is facing in the modern world. However, the area of research does have a gap in it. Extensive research can be done in the negative aspect of the economy on the workers. Gig economy has many positive attributes, and among it flexible work hours is the one, however, research has not been taken into consideration on how the flexible working hours are silently violating the standard working hours, and how it is also breaching the human rights. Research has not been made in this area, and that provides a scope for further study in this matter. Research gap is also present in the extensive effects that the working hours of gig economy inflicts on its laborers. How the workers are physically and mentally effected by this pattern of economy, and what are ways in which they deal with it. All these factors are mostly not researched, and provides a gap as well as a scope for future research purposes.

Theoretical Framework Gig economy is a type of economy that is characterised by its unique features of work culture. According to the study of Schwellnus et al., (2019), the hours are less rigid and there is a hint of freedom for the employees. Gig economy is basically a type of work culture that has jobs like freelancing that are mostly contract-base. It has been a phenomenon of the modern world, and the studies of Graham and Anwar (2019), shows that the labour market of the world is changing and transforming due to the contribution of gig economy.

Gig economy structure:

There are various theoretical structures that explain this rather modern happening in the economic sphere. Here focus will be made on the gig economy structure that explains all the attributes of this economic system. The gig economy structure has several parts, namely, the features of freelancing, freedom in choice of work, independent contracts, free agents, flexibility in working hours, on-demand work. All these structural attributes explains the phenomenon in a better way, like, the gig economy workers has no fixed job time, they can work from home and not office. They are free to make choice on their own regarding contracts, and they are having a flexible life that is balanced with work and personal time. This theoretical framework provides a holistic insight about the gig economy and the benefits it offers, which in turn modifies the labour market to a greater extent.

Gig economy structure:

Chapter Summary Chapter Two deals with the literature review in which a summarized comments of various research has been done about the theme focused on gig economy. Initially the chapter begins with a short introduction or a preview about the aims and goals of the chapter named literature review. Then the first sub chapter begins by analyzing the effects of the gig economy on the labor market, and it traced the pattern in which the labor market has faced drastic changes in the recent times following the practice of gig economy in the larger context. The labor market and its nature underwent drastic changes and the first sub chapter traces that part. The second sub chapter emphasizes on the positive impacts that are received from the gig economy, for instance, the flexible working hours and comfortable work place. The chapter also focuses on the finding how the flexibility and good income from the gig jobs are attracting people all across the works, especially of young generation. The third sub chapter focuses on the further areas of development an individual gets from the system of gig economy. The chapter traces the opportunities that an individual can explore if they works in a job that constitutes the gig economy. Lastly, the fourth sub chapter focuses on the problems or issues faced by the gig workers, for example, challenges like uncertainty, extra working hours, and no financial stability forms the greatest challenges of the gig economy and they are traced in this chapter.

Brief methodology

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

3.0

3.1 Research approach

Research approaches refer to the techniques used by researchers to gather or get data. The researchers must use a variety of methodologies, including mixed, qualitative, and quantitative approaches. When there is systematic query into the social phenomena, it is called qualitative approach. The survey that is conducted to understand the amount of time that is called quantitave approach.Two of the choices are inductive and deductive reasoning. It is recommended that an inductive research approach be employed to move from routine observation to specific procedures. To help in the identification of the right factors for analysis, a detailed investigation must be conducted. Detailed research will be done on factors that have determined that the gig economy is eradicating the relationship between employees and employers. Therefore, it is essential to do inductive research that will allow for an in-depth analysis of the numerous factors that must be taken into account.

Research design

The logical process through which data must be gathered in logical and coherent ways is known as research design. The research teams employ a variety of research designs that are used by the researcher (de Janasz et al., 2022). Yet, the researcher has chosen an explanatory research design that will be used by the researcher in understanding the underlying reasons behind eradicating the relationship between employers and employees due to the gig economy. The researcher will be exploring various angles that are known to be the underlying causes of the relationship that is being perished due to the gig economy.

Data collection

Data analysis

The data that is collected for conducting the research and after that the data are analyzed and used in the research to understand the reason behind the gig economy is known to be perishing the relationship between employees and employers (Alyakoob and Rahman, 2022). There were interviews taken with 5 different managers from 5 different companies such as Website developers, the Logistics sector, Content writers, Shopping mall agents, and construction.

Ethical consideration

Ethical consideration is known to be an important part that requires to be followed by the researcher while performing the research. It has been observed that there are certain norms that the researchers cannot violate. The researcher cannot force any individual to participate in the interview process (Muldoon and Raekstad, 2022). The names and the identification of the employees require to be kept confidential will help in protecting the privacy of the participants of the interview.

Conclusion

There have been various methods have been applied to understand the relationship that is existing or has perished between employees and employers. The interviews that have taken of 5 managers from 5 different organizations will help in providing an overall resolution regarding the issues that are being faced by both the employees and the employers due to the growing trend of the gig economy in the free market.

Methodology

Chapter 4: Findings and discussion

Theme 1: Analysis of the gig economy and the labor market

Upskilling and reskilling opportunities are one of the scope of the gig economy for the workers. People working in the gig economy have numerous routes where they can obtain robust upskilling and reskilling options (Vallas and Schor, 2020). The global upskilling process generates a skilling environment that would have otherwise been completely unreachable, especially given how digitally improved, economical, and accessible it is (Cho and Cho, 2020). The learning curve that occurs as a result of a significant amount of empirical knowledge being ingested and understood through specialized knowledge is one that gig economy partners and employers genuinely enjoy (Tan et al., 2021). The process of obtaining skills in this way aids in measuring and substantiating the worker's level of progress in professional efficiency, leading to better recognition and higher-paying projects in the future. Peer group interaction and, frequently, an interchange of occasions and abilities that results in natural knowledge transfers are involved in this.

Airbnb is an online marketplace that offers short homestays and experiences to its clients and customers. Along with offering stays the organization also provides separate rents for pools and pet-friendly rooms.

The organization has 7 million listings around the world. According to Forbes, the organization has a worth of around 38 billion as of 2018. Airbnb is one of the corporations that allows gig workers to generate $ 924 per week by renting space within the user's residence (Refer to appendix 1).

The gig economy is continuing to expand as a result of the epidemic, fast digitization, and rising desire for flexibility. The freelancing economy's entire addressable global market is $1.5 trillion. Currently, over 77 million freelancers work from offices in Europe, India, and the US, with North America home to more than half of all freelancers worldwide (Steinbaum, 2019). The global gig economy is seeing a large need for tech freelancers as a result of the lightning-fast advancement of technology, and the IT sector has added various new work roles. There is an increase in freelancers in nations with few domestic job possibilities, such as India, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Ukraine. Organizations are eager to hire qualified professionals from around the world because they are acclimated to remote working now. Numerous helpful and mission-driven platforms have appeared as the demand for independent contractors has increased (Hyers and Kovacova, 2018). These platforms, businesses, and freelancers are building an ecosystem where everyone's requirements are addressed. In addition to assisting freelancers in finding jobs and opportunities, freelancing platforms offer assistance in developing their skills through online training, advice, and specialties. These online marketplaces are rising to the challenge and bridging the supply-demand gap between businesses and independent contractors. Several businesses that are hiring qualified workers are using freelance platforms to locate and entice the best candidates. As a result, internet platforms for independent contractors are serving as catalysts to link contractors with businesses and vice versa.

Gig Economy's Impact on the Traditional Employee-Employer Relationship

In the US, 57.3 million people work for themselves. The number of independent contractors is predicted to reach 86.5 million by 2027 (Huang et al., 2020). On the other hand, 36% of Americans work either their primary or secondary employment in addition to gig labor. The gig economy is the principal source of income for 44% of gig workers (Huang et al., 2020). An estimated 20 to 30 percent of people in the working age bracket in the United States and the EU-15 countries currently work independently, making the independent workforce greater than was previously thought. In 2018, it is anticipated that more than $1.4 trillion of US income will come from gig economy workers (Shaw et al., 2022). About 55% of gig employees also hold conventional, full-time jobs. In the United States, a significant portion of the population is favoring the gig economy; however, this trend is also present in emerging nations. 97% of people in Mexico and India are willing to work as independent contractors or freelancers. Countries with a higher proportion of younger workers tend to favor alternative working arrangements. When a gig worker gets access to benefits, it's frequently through a specialized organization. Only 5% of independent workers have access to short-term disability insurance, whereas 25% have dental assurance, 20% have life assurance, and only 40% of them have access to employer-sponsored medical insurance (Koutsimpogiorgos et al., 2020).

The gig economy also faces low wages in different sectors. This poor pay in the gig budget could result in reduced salaries across the board, not just in Great Britain but also in all of Europe. That might occur, in fact, as a result of the market's potential to replace a regular employee with a gig worker, as well as the apparent deregulation of the employment marketplace and the diminished influence of trade unions in wage talks. The economy affects both the employees and employers in the market. The decline of the gig economy results in low sales and profitability for employers in their relevant industries.

Theme 2: Effects of the gig economy on laborers and employers

Access to a large worldwide pool of independent contractors is advantageous for businesses that can complete work effectively in remote locations. For brief assignments, they can also recruit qualified contract staff. Many experienced copywriters carry out their business from the convenience of their homes for clients all around the world. Workers can perform low-intensity tasks while upgrading their skills for satisfying employment, which is one advantage of the gig economy (Kaine and Josserand, 2019). Compared to full-time employees, freelancers may be able to devote more time and effort to developing their talents. In industries like IT, design, and marketing, there is a significant demand-supply imbalance. Due to this, it is challenging for firms to locate qualified full-time personnel. Due to work and projects that require innovation, many freelancers have specialized knowledge in these fields (Bajwa et al., 2018). Employing experienced staff may be expensive for businesses even when they still require their abilities. Taking up freelancing is a great way for many qualified professionals to earn a side income, such as teachers and IT specialists.

The non-position-bound gig budget definition is advantageous for companies with a worldwide clientele. To meet client needs as they come up, they can engage workers in various time zones. Endless night hours have a negative influence on both the health and productivity of customer-facing employees (Meijerink and Keegan, 2019). It might also be able to reach out to untapped demographics like retired people with strong networks who aren't looking for full-time employment. They are both cost-effective and bring a wealth of expertise and accepting of client mindset to the table. If companies can hire temporary workers in the nations they want to grow into, the gig budget may also help corporations increase their brand awareness (Johnston and Land-Kazlauskas, 2018). Some businesses might be able to create a minimal workforce to comply with legal obligations.

Trademarks can sell and make money in these new places with little operational expense but big brand outreach activities. Having the ability to engage contract and part-time staff can reduce overhead costs. Instead of training permanent employees on skills they might not need, it may be less expensive to hire for a temporary position (Bajwa et al., 2018). For SMEs, onboarding expenses of over $40,000 can be virtually reduced by using gig workers. Furthermore, gig workers are not entitled to unemployment benefits or severance pay.

Industries with gig workforce

Figure 3: Industries with gig workforce

(Source: Statista.com, 2022)

Resentment that develops when non-permanent employees perform the same tasks as regular workers but are paid less is a prevalent issue. On the other hand, highly qualified temporary workers may make some regular staff feel threatened. Businesses must use creative workforce management techniques. Workers became resentful and angry when gig-based enterprises fought against protecting labor legislation. Such commotions can have a significant impact if a company already experiences ongoing cash flow and revenue generation issues (Kaine and Josserand, 2019). If a person is poorly trained and leaves before training resources are expended, the quality of the work could be low. Additionally, they can be unable to establish relationships with bosses and coworkers, creating a toxic work atmosphere.

Theme 3: Challenges and barriers in the gig economy

Even though the number of gig labors is rising globally, these gig labors face frequent difficulties in their pursuit for reliable admittance to high-excellence work and schemes. First, there are no rules addressing gender inequalities while applying for engagements on online gig marketplaces. Second, there is a deficiency of official backing and a framework for nurturing situations that are favorable for high-excellence work and developments, worker safety, and admittance to welfare offered by outmoded jobs (Kuhn et al., 2021). A noteworthy challenge and the need for new labor models are presented by the advent of the gig budget and online aptitude gateways, which have changed the definition of "jobs." Staffs and companies who do not fall under the purview of current labor laws are known as self-hired or micro businesspersons and are not permitted to the benefits that regular employees enjoy. The long-term requirements of the labors were meaningfully jeopardized by this new commercial ideal. Given its versatility, the short provision model is seen as less reliable and highly exploitable even if it guarantees a flow of funds (Scuotto et al., 2022). Another problem with gig labors is that there is no declaration of a reliable revenue, making it problematic to evaluate their affluence. This issue is significant in the context of other countries since there is no communal protection net for the unwaged. Legal knots and arguments may result from subjects with intellectual property and privacy. Maintaining statistics confidentiality and gaining an intellectual property for the goods and facilities provided by outworkers provide noteworthy experiments for businesses. Since there is no "non-compete" clause in casual labor agreements, the freelancers may be working concurrently for multiple competitors, endangering the interests of the business. Therefore, giving temporary employees access to sensitive information may be a cause for concern. Finding steady employment on digital platforms, whether for seasoned or inexperienced freelancers, poses the toughest obstacle (Roy, G. and Shrivastava, 2020). They also struggle with payment fortification after the positive completion of the service. Human capital management has certain particular difficulties as a result of the gig economy. A few challenges that firms must deal with include adhering to the Affordable Care Act's standards and keeping up with the evolving rules governing independent contractors. Additionally, the organization must spend valuable time and money managing these administrative chores (Kost et al., 2020). There could be opportunity costs that businesses deal with. Businesses should exercise adequate due diligence when choosing the tasks that can be completed by gig workers. It should simultaneously guarantee cost-effectiveness, privacy, and other resource optimization.

Chapter Summary

There are certain barriers and challenges for the employees in the gig workforce. Lack of technological equipment’s and weak policies and measures is one of the factors that results in challenges and issues for the gig employees in different sectors. Gender inequalities results in barriers for several employees in the gig economy. The gig employees results in positive impacts on the employers and the organization in the respective market. Diverse knowledge and skills of the employees is one of the factors that results in positive impact on the organizations’ having gig employees. On the other hand the wage structure of the gig employees is low as compared to full time employees. The low wage of the labors results in disrupted condition of the employees in the gig market.

Chapter 5: Recommendation and Conclusion

The gig workforce faces a lack of benefits and incentives in different organizations. Proper benefits should be provided to the employees where they can receive not entirely but maximum benefits that are received by permanent employees. Medical and health insurance are some of the policies that should be provided to part-time workers in the transportation and logistics industry (Adams et al., 2018). Part-time workers often receive less payment in comparison to full-time employees. Organizations in different sectors need to provide incentives to the gig workforce to motivate them and create job satisfaction. Providing incentives allows employers to focus on retaining part-time talents in their respective organizations (Adams et al., 2018). Corporate institutions in the present times are focusing on increasing the gig workforce. Hence, required technological resources should be provided to the gig workforces to accomplish their objectives (Adams et al., 2018). SMEs must increase the volume of freelancers to extract maximum outputs with minimum inputs.

The advance of technology and digitization has allowed an increase in the gig workforce and employment in different sectors. However, some employees are suffering in the gig economy due to the unavailability of technologies and the high expectations of the clients. This is one of the challenges that are faced by the gig workforce in the present times. Employees in today's times rely on the gig economy as a part of their income. It has been found that nearly 36% of Americans rely on gig employment along with their primary income. The findings of the report also illustrate that employers can gather a positive advantage from the gig economy as there are a lot of freelancers with innovative and creative thinking. Gathering those freelancers allows employers to generate profitability and sales in respective sectors. The findings also present that employees involved in customer service professions face challenges and issues while handling customers during non-working hours such as in transportation. This is one of the issues that has been found in this report.

Limitations of research

The limitations that have been observed in the primary qualitative research are the ideas and issues that are being faced by both the employees and the employees due to the gig economy in the free market has been established through the interview that has been taken from the various managers from 5 different companies. there has been no information has been taken from the employees of the organizations. Certain gaps have been existing between the version of both employees and the employers of the organization.

Directions for future research

The future research will include information and evidences gathered from employees towards gig economy and its influence on the employees. Future research will also include the process through which employers gather gig workforce in respective organizations. Various strategies and measures for gig employees will also be discussed through future research. Gig economy in different sectors is also considered for future research.

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