Advanced Thermodynamics And Fluid Mechanics Assignment Sample

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Advanced Thermodynamics And Fluid Mechanics Assignment

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Part A

The compression ratio of the topping cycle is 2.

The efficiency rate of the compressor is 88 %.

The maximum temperature of the gas cycle is 1400 k.

The efficiency rate of the gas turbine is 84 %.

Water’s mass flow rate is 50 kg/s, and the pinch point is 18 K.

Fuel's calorific value is 50 MJ/kg.

The condenser pressure of the bottoming cycle is 0.1 bar.

The pressure of the steam entry is 72 Bar, at 480o C.

The efficiency rate of the steam turbine is 85 %.

The efficiency rate of the water pump is 98 %.

The system is expected to deliver 180 MW of power.

P1 = P4 = 1 Bar

P2 = P3 = 72 Bar

T3 = 4800 C

M = 50 kg/s

? = 0.1

Cp = 50 kg

rp= 72/1 = 72

So, η= 1 - rp {(1/? ) - 1}

η= 1 - 72 {(1/0.1) - 1}

η= 6.47%

T2/T1 = (P2/P1)(1- 1/?)

So, T2 = T1 (P2/P1)(1- 1/?)

So, T2 = (15+273.15) * 72(1-1/0.1)

So, T2 = 5.55*10-15 k

Φin = M Cp (T3 - T2)

So, Φin = M Cp (T3 - T2)

So, Φin = 1.6*50{(880+273.5) - (5.55*10-15)}

So, Φin = 992.8 kw

We know that,

η= Pnet / Φin

So, Pnet = Φin * η

So, Pnet = 0.647*992.8

So, Pnet = 642.34 kw

Now, T4 / T3 = (P4 / P3)(1- 1/?) 

So, T4 = T3 * (P4 / P3)(1- 1/?) 

So, T4 = (880 + 273.15)(1/72)(1-1/0.1)

So, T4 = 5.996*1019 k.

Model-able engines and commercial heavy framework machines are the two types of gas turbines used in power plants (Zamberi et al. 2018). Aero derivative turbines evolved from aviation jet engines. Aero derivatives are compact and quick to start, with an electrical output of up to a hundred megawatt. On a thermal efficiency fuel basis, the most effective aero derivatives in simple cycle operations are a little over 40 percent efficient. Gas turbines with a heavy framework were designed primarily for mechanical motion and electric power production. The power output spectrum of these gas turbines is exceptionally wide, ranging from individual megawatt units to engines with outputs of over five hundred megawatts in fifty Hz operation (Nazzal and AlDoury, 2019). The much more effective heavy frames machines have an LHV performance of over 40 percent.

It is proposed to construct a combined heat and power generation. Gas turbines with an operating pressure of twenty two will be used to build the power station (Aziz et al. 2018). The turbine powers a generator which generates six-hundred megawatts of electricity. This generator has a 95 percent efficiency rating.

A combined heat and power generator heat exchanger denies the turbine's temperature. The HRSG generates steam that powers a Rankine cycle of a turbine. The Rankine cycle of a turbine is coupled to a 95 percent efficient electric engine (Zhong et al. 2020). At six-hundred psia and seven-hundred degrees F, steam exits the HRSG, as well as the condenser of the Rankin cycle works at one psia.

There is need two quantities to compute the compression ratio as clearance volume and displacement volume. These figures allow to calculate the capacity of the cylinder and combustion chamber at the top of pre-compression and bottom of compression of the piston stroke as post-compression.

The volume of air mixtures that is moved as a consequence of the piston pressing down is referred to as displacement volume. So when cylinder is at the bottom level, the clearing volume refers to the amount of mix or area that remains. So "(displacement volume + clearance volume) / clearance volume)" is the method of calculating compression ratio.

Part B

Mainly there are three processes, which can help to develop the performance of the Rankine cycle (Mousa et al. 2021). Those three processes are superheating of steam, increasing the pressure of the boiler or increasing the inlet steam pressure of the turbine, and another process is reducing the pressure of the condenser.

Superheating the system

Superheated steam is mainly the steam at a specific temperature, which is more than its boiling temperature. This steam helps to saturate the steam at the specific and same pressure (Khan et al. 2019). At the time of saturated steam production, the boiler is wide open at a higher temperature, and the temperature of this helps to increase the temperature of boiling. The steam which is saturated passes through another heating device, which helps to deliver extra heat by radiation or by contact. This process is not used for heat exchangers, because of the “low heat transfer coefficient” (Aslfattahi et al. 2020). This process is mainly used for cleaning and stripping purposes across the hydrocarbons and refining industries. The main properties of this process are not close to vapor but close to gas. This process has no direct connection with pressure and temperature. Superheat steam is known as the insulator, and the value of this process lies in the internal energy of, which is possible to use as kinetic energy of the turbine (Yasin et al. 2019). The main advantage of this process is, it can discharge and supply steam.

 superheating the system

(Source: http://www.ecourses/)

Increasing the pressure of the boiler

According to the second method, if the boiler’s operating pressure is increased, and then the temperature of the boiling steam increases automatically (Rasli et al. 2019). The blue area represents a higher network, whereas the gray area represents a lower network for a certain temperature in the turbine inlet. Additionally, the moisture content of the vapor rises, which is an unfavorable side effect. The reheat Rankine cycle can be used to correct this negative effect by heating up the steam.

 Increasing the pressure of the boiler

(Source: http://www.ecourses/)

Reducing the pressure of the boiler

A T-s diagram illustrates the effect of decreasing the condenser volume over the Rankine cycle performance (Minichiello et al. 2021). Inside the condenser, vapor departs as a saturated mixture at the saturated temperature that corresponds to the tension in the condenser. Reduce the pressure in the condensation, which lowers the heating value, which is the heat removal temperature. The decrease in condenser pressure causes the network to rise in the blue highlighted area.

 effects of reducing the pressure of the condenser

(Source: http://www.ecourses/ebook/thermodynamics/ch10/sec102/media/th100203p.gif)

Evaluation of improved Gas Turbine System:

The GT (Gas Turbine) is mainly known as the “Combustion turbine”. Inside the turbine there is a motor, which helps to remove energy from the generated hot flow of gasses. This gas flow is mainly generated in the combustion gas chamber (Tritjahjono et al. 2019). The gas turbine has an axial flow or radial air flow compressor. This compressor is connected with the combustion chamber and upstream turbine mechanically. Here energy is incredible with the help of the ignition and mixing of air pressure over the chamber (Prashanth et al. 2022). The energy is generated with the help of the power of the shaft. Gas turbine system is mainly recognized as the prime mover.

Gas turbine systems have high reliability and high efficiency rate as well, and for this reason GT systems are used as the reliable base load vastly. Regular availability and flexibility rate of GT is also very high.

The CCGT system helps to give proper direction to the exhausted gas, which is coming from the gas turbine system over an exchange. The general gas turbine's performance study is primarily concerned with determining the plant's power usage (Shahsavari and Moradi, 2021). Even though heat input variables are the electricity that must be acquired at extreme temperature, as well as net power generation is the response to the energy which must be acquired, a plant's performance has clear economic advantages. When the turbine's inlet temperatures are decreased, the GT performs poorly, resulting in reduced efficiency. Poor Pout is generated due to the GT's lesser performance (Qasim et al. 2021). TPP performance is affected by a number of parameters, including fuel type, capacity, heat sink and age.

Combustion turbines, sometimes known as gas turbine, which is a rotating engine that harvests energy from the flow of combustion air. The combustion chambers, gas turbine, and compressor are the three main components of a gas turbine. Steam turbines, together with accompanying components, are compact in mass and size when compared to traditional steam generation with massive steam turbines with bulky condensers. Turbines allow for the use of a variety of gaseous and liquid fuels. Turbines are divided into two categories such as aero industrial and derivative. The Brayton cycle governs the functioning of a gas turbine.



Zamberi, M.M., Ani, F.N. and Abdollah, M.F., 2018. The application of calcium oxide from waste cockle for biodiesel production from used cooking oil via microwave heating system. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences49(2), pp.92-100.

Nazzal, I.T. and AlDoury, R.R.J., 2019. Exergy and Energy Analysis of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Diesel–Corn Oil Blends. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences63(1), pp.92-106.

Aziz, A., Thalal, T. and Mainil, A.K., 2018. Effect of Cooling Load on the Performance of R22 Residential Split Air Conditioner when Retrofitted with Hydrocarbon Refrigerant (HCR22). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences48(1), pp.100-108.

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Khan, M.S., Lal, B., Sabil, K.M. and Ahmed, I., 2019. Desalination of seawater through gas hydrate process: an overview. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences55(1), pp.65-73.

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Ibrahim, T.K., Mohammed, M.K., Al Door, W.H.A., Al-Sammarraie, A.T. and Basrawi, F., 2019. Study of the performance of the gas turbine power plants from the simple to complex cycle: A technical review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences57(2), pp.228-250.

Touaibi, R., Köten, H., Feidt, M. and Boydak, O., 2018. Investigation of three organic fluids effects on exergy analysis of a combined cycle: organic Rankine cycle/vapor compression refrigeration. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences52(2), pp.232-245.

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Phu, N.M. and Luan, N.T., 2021. A review of energy and exergy analyses of a roughened solar air heater. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences77(2), pp.160-175.

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