Analyse The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Vertical Integration In Fashion Industry Assignment Sample

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 Introduction of Analyse The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Vertical Integration In Fashion Industry Assignment 

One of the main purposes behind conducting this study is to do a thorough research on the module of functioning of a fashion industry. The topic which has been selected for this study is related to advantages and disadvantages of vertical integration in fashion industry. In that case vertical integration can be defined as the tactics that permits a firm to rationalize its function by accepting straightforward possession of different phases of its manufacturing technique instead of depending in outer suppliers. In order to further conduct the study the company which has been selected is Zara and the two of its competitors selected are H&M and Burberry. Keeping in mind this concept a full supply chain of Zara and its two selected competitors will also be discussed in detail.

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Zara is a well-known Spanish garments retailer which is actually originated in Arteixo, A Coruña, Galicia, and Spain. Zara concentrates in trendy fashion as well as items which usually take in dresses, make-up items, accessories, footwear, swimming wear and colognes (ZARA, 2022). H&M is Swedish brand which also deals in fast fashion that includes cloths for men and women, adults and kids. It is the 2nd biggest international fashion retailer after Spain based Zara. Burberry however is UK based luxury fashion brand whose mail office is located in London. These days the company is focuses on designing as well as distributes readymade garments comprising jackets, leather products, shoes, accessories, sunglasses and perfumes (, 2022).

Meaning of vertical integration in fashion industry

As per the actual meaning, vertical execution happens by means of the consolidation or amalgamation of organizations at various phases of creation or dispersion inside a similar sector. To oblige and uphold the requests of quick design, this incorporation model assists with fortifying the production network. Notwithstanding the separation, vertical integration additionally helps organizations in the accompanying ways:

  • Regulator of significant worth chain
  • Decrease of conveyance costs
  • Expands 'admittance to more creation inputs, dispersion assets and cycle and retail channels'
  • Arrangement of speed with altering style

Overall the vertical integration helps the fashion industry in smooth functioning of the companies starting from maintaining proper supply chain to final delivery of the products to its customers.

Transaction cost theory in the vertical integration decision of ZARA and its competitors

Zara follows the business prototype of integrated tactics which usually covers plan, production, allocation as well as retailing of the cloths. This helps the organization in adjusting the manufacturing to need observed within the shops as well as also helps in achieving the lead time of max to max two weeks. As per the transaction cost theory Zara usually manufactures time-bound product at a dozen production subsidiaries inside the market of Spain that is calculated around 50% of the entire manufacturing. On the other hand if we look into the use of transaction cost theory by H&M it can be seen that they usually keep their focal on item research, plan, stock , allocation as well as retailing. The developments of the items along with attaining them is administered by means of the mid purchasing office in Stockholm which organize with the sellers are 16 manufacturing departments within entire Europe and Asia. Now considering the functioning of Burberry they need to deploy additional vertical integration as its transaction entails of resource specificity, maximum indecision as well as regularity. Overall it can be said that as per the theory Zara and H&M is in a much better position as compared to Burberry since they follow vertical integration in a proper manner (Phil, 2018).

Fashion Value Chain

The existing renowned apparel industry is an extremely controversial arena, with competitive ascertained denominations in the region, striving categories who yearn to increase a perimeter, and mature, minor, and medium-sized entrepreneurs, every one of whom is competing for the extremely promising. In this setting, huge and conventional brands frequently have identical business prototypes, while yearning, mid-spectrum, and entrepreneurs are striving to distinguish through the creation and phenomenal business outcomes (Abeysekara et al.,2019).


Zara's fashion value chain includes inbound logistics which is to control the supply chain, operation committee to take up fast needy major decisions. It further encompasses outbound logistics whose purpose is to expedite the method from manufacturer to shoppers as soon as possible. They also include the marketing and sales stage to create relevant marketing strategies and also to keep the company updated with the new style. Their value chain further includes the service sector to maintain customer satisfaction (Chen, 2019).


With the peculiarity of the contractors of H&M who supervise the transportation, the corporation regulates all logistical facets internally, furnishing the corporation with an important supply of goods. The diffusion tracks of the corporation's commodities assure that goods are obtained, enabling the corporation to maintain commodity supply and demand. Product storage is maintained at a minimum level, and the corporation's stores have zero inventory to plunge their back on. Inbound logistics of H&M should be discerned as a benefit as it assists the corporation to diminish terrible buying judgments and enhances its flexibility (Erdil, 2019).


The beneficial enactment of the Value Chain Analysis for the Burberry company can enhance the substance and commodity ebb due to enhanced market and deals for forecasting. The inventory administration furthermore expands as Burberry company can minimize the uncertainties by trailing movements throughout the whole supply chain.

Supply Chain Analysis


A rapid striding and outstanding coordinated supply convoy like Zara's compels chronic understanding to regulate it operating smoothly. Supply convoy planners and administrators maintain sight of consumer demands and align the manufacturing process and supply convoy undertakings. Continual improvements and adjustments to product generation ratios, automobiles, delivery highways, and schedules are expected to maintain this supply convoy operating well (Camargo et al.,2020).


The H&M company depends on a productive, integrated, and effective retail inventory administration strategy across crucial elements of its supply convoy, is prosperous in its inventory supervision administration, and stands at the high level on the Gartner list. In phrases of the market and economic abundance, H&M's supply convoy technique is globally comprehended as a prosperous and broadening retail ogre, whose supply convoy technique is the consecutive examination for aspiring markets (McMaster et al.,2020).


Burberry's supply convoy implies an intricate and complicated system of distributors, traders, transporters, warehouse capacities, and suppliers about the deal, delivery, and product generation of the denomination's unusual luxury welfare.

Benefits and drawbacks of vertical integration in the industry of fashion


The advantage of Vertical Integration of Zara is that it furnishes insight into what shoppers expect and flexibility in the category, abundance, and regularity of current styles they generate. The disadvantages of the Vertical integration of Zara are the layout or design on how to appease regional client intentions. Manufacturer integrity and perception problems can be another problem (Ahmad et al.,2020).


A contributing component to H&M's timely acknowledgment of capacities is its network of 20 to 40 product generation bureaus, which are found near their suppliers. These bureaus labor with customers and production installations to test the integrity and distinguish suppliers to filter each order.


The advantage of Vertical Integration of Burberry is that Burberry establishes, distributes, and peddles its commodities by abolishing the requirement for external elements such as the manufacturers, shipping, or additional logistical requirements. The disadvantage of Vertical Integration is that it will compel the company to produce the trendy clothes which are available in the market rather than implementing strategies to maintain efficiency (Chiu et al., 2018).


A corporation that is contemplating vertical integration requires an evaluation that is adequate for the clothing corporation in the extended run. If a corporation creates clothing that possesses buttons, it can purchase the buttons or prepare them. It may provide the corporation tremendous flexibility to shift button methods or colors. It may abolish the frustrations that appear with bargaining with their supplier (Nayak and Padhye, 2018).


Abeysekara, N., Wang, H. and Kuruppuarachchi, D., 2019. Effect of supply-chain resilience on firm performance and competitive advantage: A study of the Sri Lankan apparel industry. Business Process Management Journal.

Ahmad, S., Miskon, S., Alabdan, R. and Tlili, I., 2020. Towards sustainable textile and apparel industry: Exploring the role of business intelligence systems in the era of industry 4.0. Sustainability, 12(7), p.2632.

Camargo, L.R., Pereira, S.C.F. and Scarpin, M.R.S., 2020. Fast and ultra-fast fashion supply chain management: an exploratory research. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management.

Chen, C.L., 2019. Value creation by SMEs participating in global value chains under industry 4.0 trend: a case study of textile industry in Taiwan. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 22(2), pp.120-145.

Chiu, M.C., Chu, C.Y. and Chen, C.C., 2018. An integrated product service system modelling methodology with a case study of clothing industry. International Journal of Production Research, 56(6), pp.2388-2409.

Erdil, A., 2019. An evaluation on lifecycle of products in textile industry of turkey through quality function deployment and pareto analysis. Procedia Computer Science, 158, pp.735-744.

McMaster, M., Nettleton, C., Tom, C., Xu, B., Cao, C. and Qiao, P., 2020. Risk management: Rethinking fashion supply chain management for multinational corporations in light of the COVID-19 outbreak. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 13(8), p.173.

Nayak, R. and Padhye, R., 2018. Introduction to automation in garment manufacturing. In Automation in garment manufacturing (pp. 1-27). Woodhead Publishing.

Phil, H., 2018. Key stages of the fashion value chain: Key stages of the fashion value chain. Kristianstand University.

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