Analysis Of Commercial Antacid Tablets Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Analysis Of Commercial Antacid Tablets Assignment

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Task 1: Plan

Nowadays gastric problems and heartburn are major problems (Krisanti et al 2021).So we need to take antacids for that and people are eager about which brand is best as an antacid.To analyze this perform the following experiment. It is known that hydrochloric acid (HCL)is the substance of acidic. It is mainly found or observed in the juice of gastric..It is found in the body part of the lining of the stomach portion. One chemical reaction that needs to be catalyzed for many purposes in the analysis of antacids hydrochloric acid is also catalyzed by the enzyme which name is pepsin (Boya et al 2021).The function of that enzyme is to increase or enhance property of digestion of our body .Heartburn occurs when the stomach contains greater amount of acid and the process is called hyperacidity. In this paper antacids will be used as a base which neutralizes the acid which causes heartburn and gastric problem. In all commercial antacids act as a weak bases to remove or neutralize excess stomach acid (Orman et al 2022).The bases which are present those are hydroxides, bicarbonates and carbonates. the following list is based on the neutralization of some bases present in the antacids react with the excess acid present in the stomach. Antacids used to relieve the symptoms of many diseases like indigestion, Gastroesophageal and the heartburn problem.

Aim

To proceed this experiment knows about the average mole of acid neutralized by the base present in antacids and which is more effective and budget friendly (Singh, S., 2022).Then it will be helpful to those people who have gastric and heartburn problems and they get relief from these problems (Ogedengbe et al 2019).In the conclusion of this experiment of several commercial antacids, one brand will be best and it will be suggested to everyone who has a problem with these diseases.

Background Information

The Compound Present in various types of antacid.

Chemical Formula of these compound

The Chemical Reaction

Aluminum hydroxide

Al(OH)3

Al(OH)3(s) + 3 HCl(aq) à AlCl3(aq) + 3 H2O(l)

Calcium carbonate

CaCO3

CaCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) à CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

Magnesium carbonate

MgCO3

MgCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) àMgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

Magnesium hydroxide

Mg(OH)2

Mg(OH)2(s) + 2 HCl(aq) à MgCl2(aq) + 2 H2O(l)

Sodium bicarbonate

NaHCO3

NaHCO3(aq) + HCl(aq) à NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

From this table it is known about the various types of antacid’s property and capability(Allison et al 2021) .This is known the number of mole of acid present in the stomach portion of body is neutralized by the weak bases present in that various types of antacids. This procedure of analysis is called back titration. Known amount of excess HCL is used in this experiment and it is reacted with the weighted various antacid tablets. After the experiment some amount of HCL is remained after the reaction with these and the present of the excess amount of HCL is determined with the standard NAOH solution with the help of universal indicator(Eraga et al 2018).In this experiment that universal indicator is phenolphthalein and the result is come from the end point.

Materials, Variables and Parameters:

Then one question occurs: why the excess amount of hydrochloric acid is used? The answer is because the moles number of this acid which is neutralized by the weak bases present in the various antacids it is measured from the difference between the reading of the number of moles of acid present in the initial stage and the number of moles of HCL which is titrated with the using of weak base NaOH(Allison, R.B., 2021). So the following equation should clear the purpose in proper way:

 HCL(initial)-HCL(titrated)=HCL(neutralized)

The following materials need to proceed the analysis of several types of antacids:

- Hydrochloric acid (HCl) 0.16M Concentration

- Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) 0.1M Concentration

- Universal indicator (Full range indicator and Phenolphthalein)

- A variety of antacid tablets (Gaviscon double action,Superdrug original,Gaviscon Double action Liquid, Pepto-Bismol,Rennie Liquid)

- Plain white paper

- Electronic Balance

- Pestle and mortar

- Burette 50cm3 with set of stand and clamp

- Graduated cylinder 100ml

- Conical flask 250ml

- 100ml baker

- Plastic funnel

- Glass Stirring rod

- Spatula

- Pipette

- Test book and pen

- Lab coat

Procedure

  1. At first the Burette is taken from the lab and it is cleaned, rinsed by the distilled water and then it is filled with the weak base(The solution of NaOH).Then arrange burette properly and take the reading of the molarities of that solution and the volume of this solution which is recorded in it at the initial stage of the experiment(Garg et al 2022).
  2. Next choose any one antacid tablet from those several tablets and then it is put on a paper and weighted with the help of a boat of weighing and then the reading of the mass is recorded with pen and paper and after that the sample is transferred to a mortar which is cleaned earlier and then started to crush with the help of pestle and convert it into the fine powder(MH, A. and MK, M., 2021).Then take a 250ml Erlenmeyer flask and clean it properly and then 0.2 grams(+0.01) of the fine powder is transferred very carefully.
  3. Then take the flask and 20 ml (+0.02mL) of the HCL which is transferred to the flask and after that note the readings of the initial and final stage which is recorded in burette and also get the molarity of HCL(Tian et al 2019).
  4. After that added 20 ml of partially digested food into the flask.
  5. For the dissolve of those antacids the flask swirled properly (Bini et al 2019) .Then noticed that much of the tablets were not dissolved in the water because they contained inert ingredients and the liquid became very cloudy.
  6. Then take the droppers from the lab and take 3 to 4 drops of universal indicator (in this experiment the universal indicator is phenolphthalein) are added to the flask and that solution of HCL acid to phenolphthalein endpoint is titrated with the NaOH solution and wait for the cloudy nature of liquid and then record the final volume of NaOH (+0.02 mL) and then the color is changed at the end point but it is hard to detect particularly.
  7. The same procedure is repeated for the other four brands.

Ethical Practical and safety issues

  1. Safety gloves and goggles should be worn all the time (Baptista et al 2021).
  2. Both the sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid are harmful so try to not touch the skin portion.
  3. Always wear Apron in the practical lab and if you touch any reagent you do not know about its property you should wash your hand immediately.

Task 2:

1. Practical and results:

To follow the above procedure analyzes the five brands of antacids:

Readings from the burette:

Gaviscon double action

Reading 1 :0 ml(initial) – 5.5 ml(final) Reading 2: 5.5 ml – 11 ml

Readings 3 :11 ml -16.5 ml

 Therefore,16.5 mL of NaOH used/3 readings=5.5mL

Rennie Liquid

Reading 1: 16 ml – 27.5 ml Therefore, 34 ml of NaOH used / 3 readings = 11.33mL

Reading 2: 27.5 ml – 39 ml

Readings 3: 39 ml -50 ml

 Gaviscon Double action Liquid

 Reading 1: 0 ml – 7.5 ml Therefore, 23 ml of NaOH used / 3 readings = 7.666mL

Reading 2:7.5 ml -15 ml

Reading 3:15 ml – 23 ml

Superdrug original

Reading 1:0 ml – 2.2 ml Therefore, 6.6 ml of NaOH used / 3 readings = 2.2mL

Reading 2:2.2 ml – 4.4 ml

Reading 3:4.4 ml -6.6 ml

 Pepto-Bismol

Reading 1:14 ml – 17.2 ml Therefore, 10.2 ml of NaOH used / 3 readings = 3.4mL

Reading 2:17.2 ml – 20.6 ml

Reading 3:20.6 ml – 24.2 ml

2. Change of procedure

0.2 gm of antacids of any brands as a sample

20mL of hydrochloric acid

Burette filled with NaOH

4 drops of Universal Indicator( in this case we use phenolphthalein)

At first measured these antacid tablet on scale 0.2 as a sample and then crushed it properly(Divya, et al 2021).After that 20 ml of HCL is measured with a measuring cylinder and then the crushed fine antacid powder is transferred on that solution and swirled it properly and then used or give 3 to 4 drops of universal indicator in this case used phenolphthalein indicator and then the solution swirled in easy way and then the color turns to pink after that the titration with weak base NaOH is started and continue still the pink color convert to green color. if get green color properly then the experiment will be successful(Hemmatti et al 2018).

 -

3. Precision And accuracy

There are the basic precision to perform any chemical experiment that are to protect eye and skin and always wear lab coat and gloves and always concern about the compounds used in chemical lab will not get touched with the skin because some time it can be harmful for the skin and in this experiment HCL and NaOH is used so this two substance also affect the skin and always follow rule or instruction to use any instrument of chemistry lab(Thiab, S.H., 2018). Always take accurate results from the titration and accurately measure any substance otherwise get wrong results.

4. Methods

For this purpose take 5 different test tubes and label it with the name of the 5 different antacids and proceed the above mentioned procedure for each test tube for measuring the effectiveness of these antacids to reduce or remove excess portions of acid found in the stomach( Heirangkhongjam et al 2021).

 

5. Results

We take 5 brands of antacid to analyze them. These are:

  • Gaviscon double action
  • Rennie liquid
  • Gaviscon double action liquid
  • Superdrag original
  • Pepto bismol

6&7. divide the mass of a dose by the mass of a sample to give the samples per dose

Gaviscon double action – 1 tablet = 1.35g

High dose = 4 tablets = 1.35 x 4 = 5.30g

 Sample of Gaviscon = 0.2g

 Mass dose = 26.5samples per dose

 Rennie Liquid – 1 dose = 5g

 High dose = 4 x 5g = 20g

 Sample of Rennie Liquid = 0.2g

 Mass dose = 100 samples per dose

 Gaviscon Double Action Liquid – 1 dose = 5g

 High dose = 4 x 5g = 20g

 Sample of Gaviscon Double Action Liquid = 0.2g

 Mass dose = 100samples per dose

Superdrug Original – 1 tablet = 1.17g

High Dose = 2 tablets = 2 x 1.17g = 2.34g

 Sample of Superdrug Original = 0.2g

 Mass dose = 11.7samples per dose

 Pepto-Bismol Multi symptoms – 1 tablet = 1.10g

 High dose = 2 tablets = 2 x 1.10g = 2.20g

 Sample of Pepto-Bismol = 0.2g

 Mass dose = 11samples per dose

 8. Multiply moles neutralized per sample by samples per dose. This gives moles neutralized per dose.

Moles neutralized per sample 0.00265 x 26.5 samples per dose (Gaviscon double action) = 0.070225 moles neutralized per dose.

 Moles neutralized per sample 0.002067 x 100 samples per dose (Rennie Liquid) = 0.02067 moles neutralized per dose.

 Moles neutralized per sample 0.0024334 x 100 samples per dose (Gaviscon double action liquid) = 0.24334 moles neutralized per dose.

 Moles neutralized per sample 0.001 x 11.7 samples per dose (Superdrug original) = 0.0117 moles neutralized per dose.

 Moles neutralized per sample 0.00286 x 11 samples per dose (Pepto-Bismol) = 0.03146 moles neutralized per dose.

 10. Find the price per dose of each antacid

Gaviscon double action 24 tablets for £3.90= £0.1625 for 1 tablet

 4 x 0.1625 = £0.65 for dose

 Rennie Liquid 150ml- £3.90 for 30 doses (1 dose 5g/ml) = £0.13 for dose

 4 x £0.13 = £0.52 for dose

 Gaviscon double action liquid 300ml - £9.00 for 60 doses (1 dose 5g/ml) = £0.15 for dose

 4 x £0.15 = £0.60 for dose

 Superdrug original 48 tablets for £2.40 = £0.05 for 1 tablet

 2 x £0.05 = £0.1 for dose

 Pepto-Bismol 12 tablets for £3.30 = £0.275 for 1 tablet

 2 x £0.275 = £0.55 for dose

 11. Divide £1 by the price per dose. This gives the doses per pound

Gaviscon double action 24 tablets - £1 / £0.65 = 1.53846154 doses per pound

 Rennie Liquid 150ml - £1 / £0.52 = 1.92307692 doses per pound

 Gaviscon double action liquid 300ml - £1 / £0.60 = 1.66666667 doses per pound

 Superdrug original 48 tablets - £1 / £0.1 = 10 doses per pound

 Pepto-Bismol 12 tablets - £1 / £0.55 = 1.81818182 doses per pound

 12. Multiply doses per pound by moles neutralized per dose to find the moles neutralized per pound

Moles neutralized per pound = doses per pound x moles neutralized per dose

 Gaviscon double action 24 tablets - 1.53846154 x 0.070225 = 0.10803846 moles neutralized per pound

 Rennie Liquid 150ml - 1.92307692 x 0.02067 = 0.03975 moles neutralized per pound

 Gaviscon double action liquid 300ml - 1.66666667 x 0.24334 = 0.40556667 moles neutralized per pound

 Superdrug original 48 tablets – 10 x 0.0117 = 0.117 moles neutralized per pound

 Pepto-Bismol 12 tablets - 1.81818182 x 0.03146 = 0.0572 moles neutralized per pound

Draw a graph

Tablet Name

Moles Neutralized per pound

Gaviscon double action

0.10803846 moles

Rennie Liquid

0.03975 moles

Gaviscon double action liquid

0.40556667 moles

Superdrug original

0.117 mole

Pepto-Bismol

0.0572 moles

Figure Graph of moles neutralization per pound of 5 different antacid tablets.

(Source: Self-created in Ms. Word)

Molarity of NaOH 0.1 mol/cm3

Molarity of HCl 0.16 mol/cm3

Table of different 5 tablets materials

Tablet 1

Tablet 2

Tablet 3

Antacid brand name

Gaviscon Double Action

Rennie Liquid

Gaviscon Double Action Liquid

antacid tablet wt.

1.35g

5g

5g

crushed antacid sample wt.

0.2g

0.2g

0.2g

mL HCl used

20mL

20mL

20mL

moles of HCl

0.0032 moles

0.0032 moles

0.0032 moles

initial NaOH burette reading

0mL

16mL

0mL

final NaOH burette reading

16.5mL

50mL

23mL

mL NaOH delivered

16.5mL

34mL

23mL

moles of NaOH

0.00055 moles

0.001133 moles

0.000773 moles

moles of HCl neutralized by antacid sample

0.00265 moles

0.002067 moles

0.002427 moles

moles of HCl neutralized per antacid dose

0.070225 moles

0.02067 moles

0.2427 moles

cost per tablet

0.1625 £/tablet

0.13£/tablet

0.15£/tablet

cost per mol of HCl neutralized

0.10803846 £/mol

0.03975 £/mol

0. 0.4045 £/mol

Tablet 4

Tablet 5

Antacid brand name

Superdrug Original

Pepto Bismol

antacid tablet wt.

1.17g

1.10g

crushed antacid sample wt.

0.2g

0.2g

mL HCl used

20mL

20mL

moles of HCl

0.0032 moles

0.0032 moles

initial NaOH burette reading

0mL

14.02mL

final NaOH burette reading

9 mL

24.3mL

mL NaOH delivered

9 mL

10.3mL

moles of NaOH

0.000301 moles

0.00034 moles

moles of HCl neutralized by antacid sample

0.002899 moles

0.00286 moles

moles of HCl neutralized per antacid dose

0.0339183 moles

0.03146 moles

cost per tablet

0.05 £/tablet

0.275 £/tablet

cost per mol of HCl neutralized

0.34 £/mol

0.0572 £/mol

(Source: Self-created in MS Word)

Hypothesis and Record error

Gaviscon double action

 NaOH - 0.15/5.51666667ml x 100 = 2.7 % error

 Tablet 0.2g – 0.005/0.2 x 100 = 2.5% error

 HCl 20.12ml – 0.05/ 20.12ml x 100 = 0.25% error

Rennie Liquid

 NaOH - 0.15/ 11.3266667 x 100 = 1.3% error

 Tablet 0.2g – 0.005/0.2 x 100 = 2.5% error

 HCl 20.15ml – 0.05/ 20.15ml x 100 = 0.25% error

Gaviscon Double action Liquid

 NaOH - 0.15/ 7.72666667 x 100 = 1.9 % error

 Tablet 0.2g – 0.005/0.2 x 100 = 2.5% error

HCl 20.24ml – 0.05/ 20.24ml x 100 = 0.25% error

 Superdrug original

NaOH - 0.15 / 3.01 x 100 = 4.98% error

Tablet 0.2g – 0.005/0.2 x 100 = 2.5% error

HCl 20.26ml – 0.05/ 20.26ml x 100 = 0.25% error

 Pepto-Bismol

NaOH - 0.15/3.42333333 x 100 = 4.4%

 Tablet 0.2g – 0.005/0.2 x 100 = 2.5 error

 HCl 20.23ml – 0.05/ 20.23ml x 100 = 0.25% error

Risk Assessment

There are some risk to procedure this experiment that if the concentration of used HCL is somehow fluctuate then it will affect the result of the experiment and also concern in the timing of titration if few drops of NaOH is added accidentally then it will effect on the final result to detect the effectiveness of antacids.

Task 3:

Scientific Report

Calculation and Graphs

1. Find the moles of HCl

NaOH concentration – 0.1mol/cm3

HCl concentration – 0.16 mol/cm3

HCl volume – 20cm3

 2. Find the moles of NaOH

Mass = concentration x volume = 0.16mole x 20 cm3/1000 = 0.0032 mole of HCl

Titration

Moles = 0.1 x 5.5/1000 = 0.00055 moles of NaOH. (Gaviscon double action)

 Moles = 0.1 x 11.33/1000 = 0.001133 moles of NaOH(Rennie Liquid)

 Moles = 0.1 x 7.666/1000 = 0.0007666 moles of NaOH(Gaviscon Double action Liquid)

 Moles = 0.1 x2.2/1000 = 0.0022 moles of NaOH(Superdrug original)

 Moles = 0.1 x3.4/1000 = 0.00034 moles of NaOH(Pepto-Bismol)

 3. Find the moles neutralized by the different antacid samples

 Neutralized moles = moles of HCl – Moles of NaOH

Sample I neutralized moles = 0.0032mole – 0.00055mole = 0.00265n/m neutralized mole (Gaviscon double action)

 Sample II neutralized moles = 0.0032mole – 0.001133mole = 0.002067 n/m (Rennie Liquid)

 Sample III neutralized moles = 0.0032mole – 0.0007666mole = 0.0024334 n/m (Gaviscon Double action Liquid)

 Sample IV neutralized moles = 0.0032mole - 0.0022 = 0.001 n/m (Superdrug original)

 Sample V neutralized moles = 0.0032mole - 0.00034 = 0.00286 n/m (Pepto-Bismol)

From this result it is conclude that Pepto-Bismol neutralized greater amount of acids or greater number of moles of acid which is 0.00286 n/m so it is clear that pepto bismol is more effective and working antacids among the five different brands of antacids.

Conclusion

After the completion of this experiment we can conclude that Pepto-Bismol is the most powerful and effective antacid which can neutralize the excess amount of acid from the stomach but Some antacids work instantly. It also has side effects: it wears off very quickly. It works best when it takes 30 to 60 minutes before eating. The effect of Histamine blockers started in an hour but it should be remembered that it will be taken twice a day for the prevention of heartburn diseases. Many people take two antacids at a time. This method is called combination therapy. The combination therapy is looks costly but if it is used properly then it give result in very short time that the monotherapy of antacids. There are also many side effects to take antacids in greater amount it is causes some diseases like cramps of stomach, constipation or diarrhea problem and getting or feeling sick or vomiting and also problem of flatulence. If antacids take in regular manners it will be harmful because most of the antacids contain calcium carbonate which may effect on the heart rate and changes of mood and also cause constipation, consuming greater amount of calcium leads to the various problems of heart and kidney. Many antacids contain sodium and it increases blood pressure. If antacids take in large doses and take it for long time then it will low the level of phosphate and it cause the weakness of muscles and unusual tiredness and also loss of appetite (wele et al 2019).It should be found that antacids reacts with the anti-inflammatory drug So someone take antacids then he should remember to avoid these anti-inflammatory drugs. There are many natural antacids which can prevent acidity that are baking soda which contain sodium bicarbonate and acids like juice of lemon and apple cider vinegar but physicians or doctor not giving instruction to take apple cider vinegar because there is not good or proper evidence that vinegar can reduce the acidity problem so for better result it is better way to take most effective antacids(Allison et al 2022).

 

Also taking milk which is alkaline and it can initially remove someone’s discomfort and ginger root is the also a natural elements to prevent acidity but it should not take in the case of heartburn problem. In the case of serious patient or serious problem it is better to take effective antacids medication and this is also inhibit by the changing of some natural daily routine these are things like losing weight and quitting the smoking habit and eating between small time gaps instead of gaping larger time and sleeping or lying down after some hour after eating. There are many fruits which can prevent the acidity that are watermelons, honeydew and cantaloupe. These properties can reduce acidity reflux. Always giving advice from physicians before getting antacids.

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