Computer Graphics Editing And Database Concepts Assignment Sample

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Computer Graphics Editing And Database Concepts Assignment

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Task 1: Editing Photos and creating illustrations using computer graphic editing techniques

1.1 Steps in Photoshop

There are various photo editing tools available. This software helps to provide various options to enhance photographs. By using photo editing tools any photo can be made interactive through using various features available in photo editing tools (). There are various graphics designing tools including Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Sketch, Adobe In Designer, GIMP, CorelDraw, etc. In this study it is focused on using Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator as computer based graphic editing tools for editing photos.

  • Crop and straighten

Crop tool in Photoshop allows trimming the edges of a photo, changing the size and shape of that photo as well as straightening the horizon or crooked shoreline. In order to Crop and straighten a photo the steps required to follow are discussed as follows:

  1. Selecting File Menu in the Menu Bar can be seen at the top of the screen in Adobe Photoshop software.
  2. Selecting the Automate option, and then need to choose the “Crop and Straighten photos”
  3. For manual operation, in cropping and straightening a photo Crop Tool can be selected from the Tools panel in the Photoshop software.
  4. After cropping the desired section of an image press Enter is required in Windows OS whereas Return option can be used in Mac OS to finalize the cropped section.
  • Improve lighting and color

Brightening a photo can be required in editing a photo by using Photoshop tool. In Photoshop software, the Light panel is used for adjusting the contrast and exposure of a photo. The steps for improving color and lightning or exposure of a photo by using adobe Photoshop is discussed below:

  • Adjusting light
  1. Select Photo> Click on the Edit button on the right for accessing the editing panels.
  2. Choose the light panel and by clicking the Auto button will adjust the panel sliders automatically.
  3. There are various types of sliders that can be used for improving the light and color of a photo. Sliding the Exposure slider to the left will darken a photo and slider to the left will lighten the photo.
  4. For increasing contrast, Contrast Slider needs to be soldered to the right and to left for reducing the contrast.
  5. By dragging the shadow slider to the right for lightening the image and this brings out all the details in the dark areas.
  • Adjusting Color saturation
  1. In order to control the color intensity, Saturation and vibrancy sliders can be used.
  2. Go to the color panel> Choose Saturation and vibrancy sliders for adjusting color intensity.
  3. For reducing the intensity of color it is required to drag the “Saturation slider'' into the left and for increasing the color intensity this slider needs to be dragged to right.
  4. The Vibrancy slider allows adjusting the saturation in a more suitable way than the “Saturation slider. By sliding the “Vibrancy slider into the right side helps to add saturation regarding those colors that are required most and also it helps to protect the color of skin while editing any portrait from being oversaturated.
  • Eliminate distracting elements

In order to eliminate the distracting elements from a photo by using Photoshop tool, Spot Healing brush is commonly used to remove the elements.

  1. The first step is to identify the distracting elements or objects.
  2. Choose the “Spot Healing brush'' and for selecting the brush size “bracket keys” of the keyboard can be used.
  3. Then, brush over the element to be removed and release the brush tool. For viewing the changes.
  4. From the Menu bar Brush setting panel needs to be chosen for adjusting brush properties including hardness, size, spacing, angle, roundness, etc.
  5. Then removing the selected element through Spot Healing brush will completely remove the unwanted elements from the photo (Li et al. 2020).
  • Add creative effects

There are various features in the Photoshop software that allows you to add various creative effects while editing a photo. For example converting a colored photo into black and white photo, adding an old -fashioned look into a photo as well as focusing any part of the photo or creating blur through using the “Tilt-shift blur filter”.

 Also it offers to add different layering effects such as adding shadow, embossed and beveled edges, overlay patterns and colors, glow effects, steam effects, etc. The steps are discussed as follows:

  1. Selecting the layer from the layer panel
  2. Choosing layer style and effects from the sub menu. Also add “Layer style” from the layers panel, from the dropdown menu effects can be selected.
  3. Clicking the “Preview” check box on the top-right of the interface allows you to view the effects applied.
  4. From the settings menu, different options can be adjusted through using sliders, entering values in the text boxes.
  5. By clicking on Ok button will apply the selected effects.

1.2 Techniques used

In the Above image the illustration of the given image is generated. There are several techniques that are followed to draw the illustration of the image.

  1. Several Layers are created.
  2. The main image is pasted in one layer.
  3. The opacity of the main image is decreased.
  4. Locked the main image and 4 layers are created.
  5. Pen tools are used for drawing all the parts of the body.
  6. Eye drop tool is used to match the color from the real image.

1.3 Steps for including animate with steam effects

There are varieties of steps that need to be followed to draw animate the steam effect in one image. The steps are written below,

  1. New Layer is created.
  2. Brush tool is selected.
  3. The brush tool color is set as white.
  4. The hardness of the brush is set to 0%
  5. The opacity of the brush is set to 50%.
  6. Draw some squiggly steam and make it more intense.
  7. Filter has been selected and the radius needs to be selected in 33 pixels.
  8. Filter is selected and from there blur and surface blur and then set the radius into 11 pixels and also the threshold is set to 22 levels.
  9. The opacity of the layer is set is 50%
  10. Create a duplicate layer.
  11. Transform the layer.
  12. Wrap transform is selected.
  13. Dimensional effect is generated by manipulating the second layer.
  14. Another layer is generated
  15. Blend mode is changed into overlay and the opacity is set to 50%.
  16. Add the Layer Mask and convert it into three layers then brush tool is used for masking out the overpowering elements . `

Task 2: Creating Database system

2.1 Relational Database management systems (RDBMS)

A relational database is basically a database used for storing and maintaining data either in a local computer or in the cloud. A relational database uses structure that helps to access and identify different data in relation with the other data in a database. The relational database stores all the data in a tabular format (Aristidou et al. 2018). The relational database management system (RDBMS) is considered as the program allows creating, detele, updating as well as administering a relational database. Hence, the Relational database management system is the type of database management system that keeps records of data in a table structure and all the data are stored in a row-based form. Additionally the RDBMS also includes features that allow it to maintain the accuracy, security, data consistency and data integrity. Therefore, the RDBMS uses a different approach in storing, interpreting and maintaining data effectively compared to a file storage system. Most of the RDBMS use SQL (Structured query language) for storing, modifying, retrieving and interpreting data. The tables in relational database management systems can grow large and have many different columns, tables. These tables are known as entities whereas the column name refers to the attributes of a particular entity. Example of RDBMS is as follows:

  1. MySQL- it is mostly used in web applications and accessed using PHP
  2. PostgreSQl- It is also an open source SQL database.
  3. Oracle database- This is developed by Oracle Corporation and mostly used in business organizations and banking industries.
  4. SQL Server- This SQl is owned by Microsoft and has various features usable for enterprise level applications.
  5. SQLite- This type of SQL can also store the whole database on one single SQL file and it is open source.
  6. PHPMyadmin- It is a cloud based RDBMS that can be used for server based storage of data. This RDBMS is very much effective for cloud based storage.
  7. MariaDB- This is an open source

Difference between DBMS and RDBMS

The relational database management system and Database management system may seem similar in general, but there are huge differences. However both the DBMS and RDBMS are used for storing data into a physical database. The main logical difference between RDBMS and DBMS are discussed as follows:

RDBMS

DBMS

It stores different types of data into a tabular form

It stores data in file form

In RDBMS it uses Primary key as an identifier for storing and retrieving data systematically.

In DBMs the data are being stored in hierarchical or navigational form.

RDBMS requires normalizations in terms of eliminating different types of dependencies

Normalization is not required

It defines the data integrity constraints based on maintaining ACID properties (Atomicity, Consistency, Durability and isolation).

DBMS does not include any security constraints regarding the data manipulation.

RDBMS stores the data based on a relationships between different tables by utilizing foreign key concept

As DBMS stores the data in file system, hence there is no relationship between different tables

DBMS deal with small data that can be used in small organizations. It supports only single users.

RDBMS supports multiple users and is designed for handling a large amount of data. Hence, effective in managing Big data.

Supports “Distributed database”

Do not support “Distributed database”

Table 1: Difference between RDBMS and DBMS

(Source: Self-created)

Categories of data integrity in RDBMS

The data integrity in one “Relational database management” system refers to the overall completeness, consistency and accuracy of the data. The role of data integrity is to eliminate the chances of duplicate data in a database and also keeping the database updated. By using different constraints, these data integrity can be achieved (Krawczyk, 2018). The data integrity constraints help to define various rules based on the fact that different operations such as deletion, updating and insertions occur. These are as follows:

  1. Domain Integrity
  2. Referential integrity
  3. User-Defined Integrity
  4. Entity Integrity

Domain Integrity

The domain addressed the range of different accepted values. These values are stored in a selected column of a database. The data type can be integers, variable character, text, date, decimal etc (Faber et al. 2019). Hence, the entry for data in a column needs to be available in that particular domain regarding the types of data. Likewise, in order for storing salary data in one database table it should be integer. Therefore, the entry which is not an integer cannot be inserted into the column.

Entity Integrity

The rows in a database table or entity need to be identifiers uniquely. This process is being done by implementing a primary key. Hence, these integrity constraints cannot be null otherwise the data in each row cannot be identified uniquely. For example, In a product table of a business related database each product needs to be uniquely identified with its product id or code. Hence this Id or code can be made as the primary key for identifying a particular product.

Referential Integrity

It is used for maintaining consistency between different tables. This states that, if one table’s foreign key can be used for the purpose of taking the reference with respect to the primary key of the different table, then the entire values foreign key of the first table need to be present in the second table or can be null.

Process of ensuring data integrity

Data integrity can be preserved by using different methods in order to eliminate the issues of data integrity including human error, security errors and misconfigurations, “Unintended transfer errors, cyber attacks, malware and insider threats, compromised hardware. There are various types of activities that can be performed in terms of ensuring data integrity. These are as follows:

  1. Validating input
  2. Removing duplicate data
  3. Validating data
  4. Keeping backup of data
  5. Maintaining Audit trail data
  6. Access controls

2.2 Database Design

  • Entity relationship diagram
  • Creating Database

Data definition language (DDL)

Create database ABC_Hospital;

Use ABC_Hospital;

Create table Doctors (Doctor_id int not null,

Doctor_name Varchar(50) not null,

Age int not null,

Doctor_type Varchar(50) not null,

Licence_no Varchar(100) not null,

Specialities Varchar(100)not null,

Doctor_fee int not null,

Primary key (Doctor_id));

Create Table Patients (Patient_id int not null,

patient_name Varchar(50) not null,

Gender Varchar(10) not null,

Age int not null,

Address Varchar(255) not null,

Contact_no int not null,

Primary key (Patient_id),

Unique key (Contact_no));

Create table Departments (Department_id int not null,

Department_name Varchar(50) not null,

No_of_staff int not null,

Department_head Varchar(50),

Primary key (Department_id));

Create table Rooms (Room_id int not null,

Room_type Varchar(50),

Ward_type Varchar(50),

Primary key (Room_id));

Create table Nurse (Nurse_id int not null,

Name Varchar(100) not null,

Date_of_joining date not null,

Salary int not null,

Department_id int,

Foreign key (Department_id) References Departments(Department_id),

Primary key (Nurse_id));

Create table Staffs (Staff_id int not null,

name Varchar(50) not null,

Gender Varchar(10) not null,

job_role Varchar(50) not null,

Contact_no varchar(20) not null,

Salary int not null,

Department_id int,

Foreign key (Department_id) References Departments(Department_id),

Primary key (Staff_id));

Create table Patient_appointment (Record_id int not null,

Appointment date not null,

Description Varchar(100) not null,

Doctor_id int,

Patient_id int,

Foreign key (Doctor_id) references Doctors(Doctor_id),

Foreign key (Patient_id) references Patients(Patient_id),

Primary key (Record_id));

Create table Patient_Admission (Admission_id int not null,

Admission_date date not null,

Patient_condition Varchar(100),

Discharge date,

Patient_id int,

Doctor_id int,

Room_id int,

Department_id int,

Foreign key (Patient_id) references Patients(Patient_id),

Foreign key (Doctor_id) references Doctors (Doctor_id),

Foreign key (Room_id) references Rooms (Room_id),

Foreign key (Department_id) References Departments(Department_id),

Primary key (Admission_id));

Data manipulation language (DML)

  1. Inserting data into Doctors table

Insert into Doctors Values

(1, 'Albert Gomes', 45, 'Male', 'General Physician', 'D10540585', 'MBBS in Clinical Immunology', 1500, '789456123'),

(2, 'Henry Ford', 53, 'Male', 'Neurologist', 'D478464161', 'MBBS, D.M.(Neurology)', 3500, '193746825'),

(3, 'Jems Karlman', 48, 'Male', 'Pediatrician', 'D6464113156', 'MBBS, MD in child Specialist', 2250, '097638541'),

(4, 'Anjelina Jolle', 37, 'Female', 'Endocrinologist', 'D541898101', 'MBBS, specilized in Fertility treatments', 2500, '903041789'),

(5, 'Steve Couple', 55, 'Male', 'Psychiatrist', 'D8465354650', 'MBBS (Mental health)', 2800, '900564173'),

(6, 'Harry Potter', 43, 'Male', 'Orthopedic', 'D084841052', 'Doctor of osteopathic medicine', 2700, '984611891');

Output

  1. Update record in Doctors table

Update Doctors

Set Doctor_fee = 2650, Contact_no = '982307146'

Where Doctor_Name = ‘Jems Karlman’;

In this case the update statement is being used to update the contents in Doctor_fee and Contact_no, where the Doctor_Name is “Jems Karlman”. After the update statement has been implemented, the Doctor table will be updated. This is presented below.

  1. Delete record from Doctor table

Delete from Doctors

Where Doctor_type = 'Psychiatrist';

From the above Table it can be seen that the entry for Doctor_type as 'Psychiatrist' has no presence.

Reference list

Journals

Aristidou, A., Lasenby, J., Chrysanthou, Y. and Shamir, A., 2018, September. Inverse kinematics techniques in computer graphics: A survey. In Computer Graphics Forum (Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 35-58).

Faber, B., Michelet, G.C., Weidmann, N., Mukkamala, R.R. and Vatrapu, R., 2019. BPDIMS: A blockchain-based personal data and identity management system.

I Kyivska, K., V Tsiutsiura, S., I Tsiutsiura, M., V Kryvoruchko, O., Yerukaiev, A.V. and V Hots, V., 2019. A study of the concept of parametric modeling of construction objects. Tsiutsiura, Svitlana and I. Tsiutsiura, Mikola and V. Kryvoruchko, Olena and Yerukaiev, Andrii V. and V. Hots, Vladyslav, A Study of the Concept of Parametric Modeling of Construction Objects, pp.636-646.

Krawczyk, A., 2018. A concept for the modernization of underground mining master maps based on the enrichment of data definitions and spatial database technology. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 26, p. 00010). EDP Sciences.

Li, T.M., Luká?, M., Gharbi, M. and Ragan-Kelley, J., 2020. Differentiable vector graphics rasterization for editing and learning. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 39(6), pp.1-15.

Ma, R., Patil, A.G., Fisher, M., Li, M., Pirk, S., Hua, B.S., Yeung, S.K., Tong, X., Guibas, L. and Zhang, H., 2018. Language-driven synthesis of 3D scenes from scene databases. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 37(6), pp.1-16.

Mao, W., Wang, J., Tantai, S., Cao, Q., Zhang, Z. and Zhang, X., 2020, March. Computer Aided Drawing System Development of Corrugated Box with Auto CAD. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 768, No. 5, p. 052074). IOP Publishing.

Ojo, A. and Heravi, B., 2018. Patterns in award winning data storytelling: Story types, enabling tools and competences. Digital journalism, 6(6), pp.693-718.

SANTOS, V.D., SOUZA, É.F.D., Felizardo, K.R. and Vijaykumar, N.L., 2017. Analyzing the use of concept maps in computer science: A systematic mapping study. Informatics in Education, 16(2), pp.257-288.

Si, S.L., You, X.Y., Liu, H.C. and Huang, J., 2017. Identifying key performance indicators for holistic hospital management with a modified DEMATEL approach. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(8), p.934.

Tanwar, S., Parekh, K. and Evans, R., 2020. Blockchain-based electronic healthcare record system for healthcare 4.0 applications. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 50, p.102407.

Tewari, A., Fried, O., Thies, J., Sitzmann, V., Lombardi, S., Sunkavalli, K., Martin?Brualla, R., Simon, T., Saragih, J., Nießner, M. and Pandey, R., 2020, May. State of the art on neural rendering. In Computer Graphics Forum (Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 701-727).

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