Employment Law (EML) Assessment Activity Assignment Sample

Legalities of Employee Monitoring and Surveillance

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Introduction Of The Employment Law (EML) Assessment Activity

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Employment regulations are the legal norms and regulations, as well as the institutions involved in forming, controlling, and organising employee relationships. Different tactics, administrative regulations, and executive directives, as well as backdrop rules that serve as central bodies to monitor the agreements between companies and individuals, are used to bring affirmative interventions into employment relationships. In the western areas, there are primarily two types of labour relations tactics in use. The first put regulations on the parameters of salary negotiations directly. The other statute gives labour and management legal authority to participate in collective self-regulation.

Direct employment regulation consists of statutes that allow for the establishment of minimum salaries and limit work hours. It also makes it easier for employees or workers to get power over particular welfare requirements, as well as regulation of employer-based pensions, health insurance, and anti-discrimination protection. The collective employment regulation, on the other hand, is made up of statutes that enable employees to organise unions and bargain with their employers about working conditions, wages, and benefits.

As a result of increased globalisation, it is expected that jobs would be shifted as part of the changing international system. Legislation is the primary and most current source of employment law. The source of national law usually brings agreed-upon rights into effect. The extra rights are outlined in the employment contract. Each employer must be aware of and adhere to the established employment rules. The fundamental purpose of this is to guarantee that all employees in the business, regardless of their rank, are treated equitably. These rules also give guidelines on employee-employer interactions. This has been the standard in many enterprises, particularly Hell's Kitchen, a hotel chain that is trying to grow by acquiring the Zuzu Newcastle hotels. Managers at Hell's have implemented a variety of policies to address employee wellness, most of which are not in place at Zuzu. In comparison to what has previously existed, this has immediately resulted in an improved management approach for all Hell's stakeholders. It is critical to comprehend the key aims and objectives of employment standards for this major function.

Main aims and objectives of the employment law

It is suggested that the goal of employment legislation be to sustain the employee-employer relationship (Pitt, 2014). Regulation of employment, commonly known as employment law, establishes standards and expectations for both the employer and the employee at the same time to ensure uniformity and justice on both sides (Underhill and Quinlan, 2011). When both employers and employees are subjected to arbitrary judgments or behaviour, the law of employment protects both parties (Keeman, Näswall, Malinen, and Kuntz, 2017). It helps to sustain the connection between employer and employee by ensuring that rules are adhered to on both sides, particularly when it comes to dismissing or hiring employees (Carayon et al., 2015). Employment law is made up of public law, European law, and legislation. All of them have the same goal in mind: to help provide bias-free working circumstances for everyone.

Tribunal and Courts System

This section describes how employment legislation is enforced through the courts and tribunals. When there is a dispute between employers and employees, the tribunal and court system primarily serves as an arbitrator. The hierarchy of the tribunal courts is especially beneficial for employees who are subjected to unjust treatment by their employers. If an employee is dissatisfied with something done by the employer or a co-worker, the system will listen to the problem and provide a remedy. Employees can file complaints about things like unjust dismissal, salary cuts, harassment, and discrimination.

Employment tribunal structure

The employment tribunal structure comprises sitting alone and judging and includes awarding compensation, making a recommendation and ordering re-employment in discrimination cases. The tribunal structure of employment comprises 5 phases which are the initiation of a problem, pre-consultation, consultation, policy development and then reporting. Employment Management Law includes an Employment tribunal and this describes important facts in this law. This part of management law includes rules and regulations in mainly three parameters such as unfair dismissal, unfair pay deductions and discrimination (Gov.uk, 2022). These three parameters include the management law to make a judgement in legal disputes and this benefits employees while working in an organisation in the UK.

Employment tribunal structure" has been also composed of the Employment judging capacity and sitting alone or certain types of cases by judging with the legal members (Judiciary. uk, 2023). The Employment Tribunals have also been claimed about the employees and employers by claiming the differentiations of attributes related to “Discrimination, Wrongful dismissals, Deductions from wage deductions, and equal pay" by resolving the rates of disruptions through early conciliation. For instance, "The Paternity and Adoption Leave Regulations 2002" have been focusing on Paternity leave among workers for 15 days and made the availability of multiple kinds of aspects related to "Adoption Leave, Paternity Leave, Provisions Applicable concerning both adoption leave and paternity, and General” (Legislation.gov.uk, 2023).

However “The Maternity and Parental Leave etc Regulations 1999" have been also getting approval from the "Parliament" and making establishments by generalising the new rights to improve the cultures of existing rights to improve cultures of maternity leave (Legislation.gov.uk, 2023).

The holiday allowances have also been making a statutory right, generalising the flexibilities, and developing the cultures of "Parental Responsibility" by making a statutory decision and developing the cultures of regulations. "The Parental Bereavement Leave Regulations 2020" have been also treated as a regulation that has been providing one-week leaves and taking up around two weeks and making consecutive cultures (Legislation.gov.uk, 2023). In this regard, the regulations have also been entitled to taking up for attending about the two weak leave and the parental bereavements can be improving the cultures around 56 weeks within the respective date of child's death.

Hierarchy and Appeal process

All the cases are dealt with in specific manners and have different results as well into the Court of Appeal. All the criminal cases in the employment tribunal structure start with a hierarchical process like the Magistrates' court and if it is revealed that the case is much more serious then it is transferred to Crown Court. After the Crown court, it will go to the High Court and then after the Court of Appeal or Supreme Court of the UK. The tribunal system mainly has a structure which deals with appeals and cases.

Implementation of EML and relating it to precedents

EML is a civil law that considers two parties the claimant and the respondent (Cipd.co.uk, 2022). This law focuses on the employment part in the UK to consider the judgement in any case regarding employment. As an illustration, the claimant refers to an employee in an organisation, the respondent refers to the employer, and the case considers suing the claimant to the respondent regarding a case of either pay issues and unfair dismissal or discrimination in the organisation (Ekpombang, 2020). Therefore, this law considers making a judgement fairly by checking the facts of the scenario and delivering an action for giving justice. Precedents consider a previous similar case that will help in future for similar cases to make judgement easily.

Employees have the right to bring a claim to a tribunal if they consider they have been treated unfairly (Sorensen, et al., 2018.). An employment critique and two other persons will assess if an employee's working rights have been satisfied during a hearing, and then make a judgement in favour of both the company and the employee, reliant on the facts provided and maintained (Bagenstos, 2013). The tribunal procedure is said to play a significant function in employment law because it sends a signal to the employee that might otherwise go unnoticed. Current employees, leftover employees, or people who have been rejected for a job will frequently bring up these issues (Samad, 2015). Criminal and civil courts can decide on employment legislation. Criminal cases are brought to criminal courts under the HMRC and the Public Prosecutor's Office which are government-regulated agencies (Krekel, Ward, and De Neve, 2019).

The “Equality Act, of 2010” has also protected individuals from discrimination in the wider society and the workplace cultures by making anti-discrimination laws with a single act (Gov.uk, 2023). It has also been replaced around the strengthening cultures and improving the cultures of fostered relationship rates by the creation of ultimate ranges of estimation in the development of advanced quality modules. It has also been focused on the different kinds of attributes mitigation of workplace discrimination have been also considered one of them.

An essential role of the tribunal and court systems is to ensure that organizations adhere to the laws that have been established. There are certain businesses that would rather use shortcuts to attain their goals than obey the rules. Companies that violate the law can be penalized in a variety of ways, including fines and closures to set an example. The system monitors different firms on a regular basis to ensure that they are adhering to the rules. This is especially true for companies whose employees may not be able to use the system to make grievances.

In the following case, ACAS Early Conciliation is mandatory in this case as it asks both the respondents about the dispute by providing them with a chance to meet an agreement before the court tribunal.

Haq v Audit commission" has been creating restricting exercises that have made the involvement of the protection and pay cultures by making an "Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT)" and allowing the commission's appeal. It has also been followed by the determined the making several guidelines by evaluating the cultures of quality and expertise about the three kinds of attributes related to "Authority, Trustworthiness, and Expertise" by determining the rates of quality and improving the cultures of potential outcomes. The identification of issues that have been faced by the employees related to "Bonus, Wages, Payments, and Incentives" facilities can also improve the cultures of the satisfaction rates. The setting out of a respective company as well as making a wider range of developments activities can be recognised in the policy infrastructures and generating the opportunities in an sustainable manner.

As a consequence, the defendant must fight the case without any concern that the evidence presented is fraudulent or otherwise established by the criminal court (Pad, and Roche, 2014). In civil court, different processes require all parties to prove their claims based on "equal opportunity," including an employee establishing that his employer broke the law or the company demonstrating that this was not the claim. Before taking legal action, specific actions must be followed to remove all alternative possibilities (Burke and Signal, 2010). Third-party alternatives, such as alternative conflict resolution, mediation, and arbitration, are free and should be explored first if feasible to obtain a more equitable conclusion (Rasool et al., 2021). If all else fails, the employee should call ACAS before going to court to try to resolve the disagreement through early mediation before going to court.

Before the trial time ends, a payment agreement signed by both parties may be presented voluntarily (Kern et al., 2014). It should be emphasised that this does not necessarily result in the employment contract being terminated; the employer may have evaluated the complaint but wants a peaceful resolution (Shah et al., 2016). Unless they are successful in negotiating safely between the employer and the employee, both parties may be fined if the issue is settled in formal court or civil court.

Main requirements of the law on business transfers

A variety of statutes apply to the Employment Protection Act (TUPE), including the Trade Unions and Employment Act 1992. (Hildebrand, Daher, and Akaighe, 2021). The legislation protects employment by ensuring that contract conditions are not jeopardised, workers are not laid off, and potential employees are not informed of potential concerns (Mukherjee, Gupta and Nallusamy, 2012). In Peter's situation, TUPE is applicable since Hell's Kitchen was considering opening another restaurant, The Business Transfer Regulation 2006 now guarantees the qualifications and ongoing employment of UK employees under the same terms as before the transfer if a firm is transferred to a new owner through one of these "major transfers"(Vveinhardt and Sroka, 2020). This factsheet explains how to carry out the transfer of undertaking (Hamilton Skurak et al., 2021). There is a list of current and inactive TUPE instances, as well as a checklist to discover if it applies to specific cases (Ali, 2014).

The TUPE has been standing for "Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment)" that can be also transferred from one employer to another. The respective service has also been making contractual facilities that can be improving the cultures of liabilities by developing the cultures of employment ability. As a result, the higher ranges of productivity as well as rates of efficiency can also be effectively improved by making an commitment environments with the organizational sectors. Besides that, the developments of morality and healthier coworker relationship criteria have increased the rates of retention facilities of the respective organisational sectors. Thus, the employee's engagements can also be notified of the multiple kinds of attributes related to "Increased workers safety, Betterment of employee health” have been considered one of them. In addition,

“Happier employees, Greater employee loyalty, Lower absenteeism, improvements of greater employee satisfaction, Higher retention" have been also sustainably generated by the continuous rates of development activities in worker engagement rates.

The main advice to Peter Palmer about managing the process of reaching a Settlement Agreement with Michael is that he should be well-versed in all applicable legislation. According to the key stages of the ACAS Code of Practice 4, understanding the TUPE laws is also beneficial since they safeguard employees by ensuring that their affairs are handled fairly. Peter must be aware of the concerns surrounding business transfers and ensure that he does not break any rules in taking over Zuzu's. Another crucial concept he must grasp is service transfer, in which Hell's should take over all of the services in a seamless transition that will not negatively impact any of the employees.

Steps of TUPE transfer

TUPE transfer considers simultaneously checking parameters, decision part, preparation of TUPE, information and consultation, contracts and staff management part (Yago et al. 2018). This entire process includes the TUPE transfer to evaluate and execute the needed process in the organisation.

Settlement agreement

The settlement agreement is a mutual negotiation between both parties to make solutions in the employment dispute case. The EML provides the right for taking into consideration the settlement agreement between both parties. This agreement will include several stages in it and is to make completion of an agreement need to count 2-3 months duration. The first step will consider a conversation process between employer and employee and this process deals with the issues that have already arisen. After that, the management will suggest a settlement to mitigate the issue and this discussion part will consider a meeting. During this meeting, the respondent will approach the claimant about their relationship and the reason for the issue and this will end by delivering a suitable agreement between both parties (Dabala, D. M., & Sefara, 2020). After that, the respondent will deliver a written agreement where the entire contract will describe properly.

The "Employment Rights Act 1996" under "Section 203(3) & (c)" has been regulating the validity of settlement agreements and this provides different agreements. The agreements must be associated with the particular proceeding, identify the adviser, in writing and relevant independent adviser. A settlement agreement is an effective contract offered through employers or owners, generally during the employment contract of an employee or workers has come to an effective end (Duttongregory.co.uk, 2023). Also, the employer or owners wishes to obtain the employment of the employee a better end. There is the different possibility for employees to obtain a claim against the employers as per the Employment Tribunal, High court and Country Court (Duttongregory.co.uk, 2023). The “Employment act 1996" has consolidated the entrancements by making an interlinked with employment rights by covering the differentiations of areas “Dismissal and redundancy payment protection” in wages have been considered one of them.

The attributes regarding “Flexible working, Sunday working, Suspension from work, Zero hour contracts, and Termination of employment” have been also changing the cultures of future date and improved the rates of production activities in a sustainable manner. Without prejudice offers, a claimant will have a safety protocol measurement so that no one can restrict or can injure the claimant while claiming a case of employment to have justice (Erensü, 2018). In addition, this includes the claimant can raise an objection if any issues occur during this time and can defend themself to have protection.

The "Employment Rights Act s.111A" enables confidential conversations between the employee and employers (Cambridgelegal.co.uk, 2020). It has been observed that in different pathways this provision is simultaneous to the without any kind of prejudice’ principle. The ERA 1996 under section 111A stated that protecting conversation has been dangerous. Employers have been relaying regarding the legal protection that provides protected conversations ostensibly but has continually unknowing of the pitfalls. Employees have been at significant disadvantages during taking through surprised by the mangers or employer imposing and requesting a protected conversation for termination of employment discussion. According to case law, Michael is not able to consider the settlement agreement against the organisation if the deal has validity as per terms and conditions.

The "public sector equality duty (PSED)" is one kind of legal duty for every worker in the public sector. Under this duty, people must stop harassment, victimization and discrimination against customers, employees and other staff of their services (Acas.org.uk, 2023). It helps to support equal opportunities and equality in the daily bases running activities of the organization. Along with that, it assists to make better relationships by promoting understanding and tackling prejudice on all protected features. It has been observed that managing a non-discriminatory way in the workplace through providing anti-discrimination training to their staff on regular bases and one-to-one catch-ups between their line managers and employers regularly to assist in establishing positive working relationships. Another, essential piece of advice for Peter is that he should concern with the Employment Rights Act 1996 that governs Settlement Agreements (ERA96 S.203 ss3&4). The Employment Rights Act 111a provided a protected conversation as this enables employers to broach the issue with their employees when no dispute is being managed.

The handling of TUPE Transfer has been briefly divided into four kinds of stages related to “Before committing, Preparation of transfer, The Transfer and After Transfer” that can be also improving the cultures of “Outgoing, Incoming Employer and Transfer Occurring activities[Refer to course materials]. The worker's potential sales and consideration of services have been improving the cultures of compensation that have created a remedy in the civil courts. Thus, the “Workers conditions and entitlements, Job security and unfair dismissals" have been also improving the cultures of safety and security structures. The right to participate in decision-making can also be refused the affection and developing the cultures among enhancements of workplace equity as well as enhancements of treated fairly conditions with the workers (Gov.uk, 2023).

Risks to Hell’s Kitchen

Principles of discrimination law in recruitment and selection

The act of discrimination prohibits the unfair elimination of employees from getting the merit position under the Equality Act 2020. Some of the practices that can improve recruitment processes are helpful for individuals and organisations as they are protected through these activities. These processes are;

  • Employers should be mindful that recruitment inefficiencies might result in business unions. Faced with legal issues that might result in penalties and a loss of respect (Terry and Anderson, 2011). Ttt7
  • Despite his objections, the applicant may file a claim with an employment tribunal. It is tough for businesses to justify challenging hiring decisions in this situation (Page and Vella-Brodrick, 2012).
  • Organizations can be found guilty of discrimination, either directly or indirectly. The complainants' charges, as well as their ignorance or reluctance, provide no defence. To locate the proper personnel, institutions usually recruit publicly and equitably (Rathelot and Romanello, 2012).

Risks to Hell’s Kitchen" has considered as an easy contestants that can be eliminated immediately and taking psychiatric evaluations to make a sure contestants by someone else or killing themselves. The workers have been also creating inefficiencies by the generations of values and improving the cultures of decision-making attributes. Organisations have also addressed the quality of discrimination in an effective manner and complaints about the charges by ignored about the reluctance' by improving the cultural attributes regarding recruitment facilities. The legislation related to the "Equity Act, of 1996" has been also providing a legal framework through regulation of the labour-practising cultures around constitutions. Thus, the chances of establishments and enforcements of basic conditions can be providing different kinds of facilities among the workers related to “Retirement, Paternity Pay, Holiday pay, Maternity pay and Sick Pay” by developing the cultures of income stability of entitled with the paid leave.

In this circumstance, it is difficult for firms to justify making difficult personnel decisions (Cabrelli, 2020). There are two types of discrimination under the Equality Act (2010) that direct and indirect discrimination. The allegations, as well as the complainants' ignorance or hesitation, give no defence. Institutions frequently recruit publicly and fairly to find the right people (Barnard, 2020).

The Citizens Advice Bureau (2019) lists nine protected actions under the Equality Act (2010), such as:

  • Age
  • Disability
  • Gender
  • Marital status
  • Pregnancy
  • Race
  • Faith or belief
  • Sex
  • Sexual orientation

“Equality Act 2010” introduced different specific legal requirements and unlawful discrimination against any person due to characteristics including Nationality, racism, religion, colour, race and ethics. Employees can also file personal injury lawsuits if their employers' carelessness creates discrimination, which leads to accidents (Gov. uk, 2022). Unlawful and unwanted conduct related to the purpose or effect of violating an individual’s dignity strict action is considered under this law.

Direct discrimination occurs a person if they are treated unfavourably just because of some protected attribute whereas indirect discrimination occurs when a rule appears to be neutral and completely the same for every person as they have been covered by the act.

For example, the England football team that played a European Championship qualifier in Bulgaria showed some disgusting chants targeting black players of England and the game was suspended twice and there was also a risk of a match being abandoned (Claimsaction.co.uk, 2022). So, legally discriminative abuse, it has the responsibility of all the managers and backroom staff to protect their personnel against this type of activity in the event of any personal injury claim going to court.

Direct and indirect discrimination are both possible. When someone is treated differently because of who they are, it is assumed that they are unwanted. Indirect discrimination includes treating everyone the same, which can be harmful to persons who have one or more of the aforementioned conditions (Wiley and Bagenstos, 2020). Indirect discrimination in the selection of organisational jobs is thought to be widespread.

Direct and indirect discrimination

The "Equality Act 2010" has introduced in 2006 in the UK that protected people of all ages regarding employment such as reward, recognition, promotion, recruitment, vocational and redundancy training (Cipd.co.uk, 2022). The provision has been applied to all employers’ providers of trade unions, vocational training, employer’s organizations, professional associations, managers and trustees of occupational pension schemes. The occupational pension has been covered through the circumstances, as employers' contributions regarding personal pensions although, usually the path in which the schemes work of pension is not affected.

Direct discrimination includes the case of being treated unfavourably by someone in the organisation and the reason behind discrimination is protected characteristics such as sex, colour, race, religion, etc. This discrimination arises if anyone denies giving equal opportunities to someone. Whereas, indirect discrimination deals with policies and rules in the organisation that consider an application of policies on someone among a group of people (Griffith & Gates, 2019). This indirect discrimination will include the discrimination of a single person or discrimination of a group of people due to preferring a single person in the organisation.

Bernard Reader Zuzu’s Newcastle - recruitment and selection practice

Bernard Reader is being discriminated against in this case by not being allowed to ask questions for training and learning and during the advertisement process. However, their issues of discrimination can be avoided by improving the recruitment process as mentioned above. Some of the examples from the case regarding anti-discrimination is elaborated below;


In the case of Bernard v Reader, the organisation faced issues due to discrimination in terms of age criteria. The manager of the organisation did not behave properly with Bernard and commented Bernard being an old person, will not be suitable to do the job. This creates issues due to discriminating against the person according to his age. Another case of Mangold v Helm (2005) shows that Mangold appealed this case as the organisation provided benefits and training facilities as per age criteria and this raised the issues of discrimination in the organisation as the organisation counted differentiation among employees in the organisation.

In the Bernard v Reader case, discrimination occurs due to separating the employees as per age criteria and this needs to count various stages of judgement as the court can order both parties to verification of the person's ability to do the assigned job (Rivard, 2022). If the court finds that the person can complete the job then the court will put a punishment on the organisation and if not found, then the court will suggest the organisation maintain a proper analysis of someone's ability before making any comment. This will end the case suddenly by delivering justice for the case.

The consultation process is a two-way communication process which needs to be used for staff employed at Zuzu’s in the last two years. Zuzu's. A transfer of undertaking occurs in one of two situations: when a corporation is transferred or when the provider of services changes (Merrill et al., 2013). This is why employers are required to consult in a good way with all the employees before making certain changes in the employment process. Considering what workers confess before making the decision is necessary.

Advertise to everyone

Line Managers should focus on the abilities and expertise required for Zuzu Newcastle's job post (Saini, 2010). The wording should be simple, and none of the above-mentioned categories should be excluded from applying.

Job interview discrimination

Line managers from Zuzu's Newcastle should avoid addressing issues that they feel are discriminatory. They should refrain from asking questions if they are focused on the protected characteristics of others. There must not be any discrimination in the training and learning of employees. They should ask the same questions about all candidates when asking inquiries regarding crucial criteria (Cihon and Castagnera, 2013). If someone has answered a question, they should be permitted to ask a follow-up question that is unrelated to the original question. They provide each candidate with the opportunity to demonstrate why he or she is the greatest in the industry in this way (Fields and Cheeseman., 2021). Although the candidate may be stressed, this should not influence his or her selection if he or she possesses the requisite abilities.

The “Employment relation act 1999" has also provided legislation on "Annual leave, salary discrimination, dismissal and other areas" by providing the minimum numbers of benefits and workers can also be making an establishment of the legislation. The multiple kinds of aspects related to "Efficiency, Voice, and Equity" have made a positive side by improving the differentiations of attributes related to “Public goods, Externalities, Information gaps, and equity and voice can foster efficiency”.

Making an offer

It is time to choose the winners now that the interviews have taken place. Line managers must ensure that they concentrate solely on their suitability for the position (Weiner et al., 2018). They should explain why they chose successful applicants. It provides them with feedback, and they will hire the same person again in the future (Stiegler., 2015). As long as they are employed, people can typically inquire about their health or incapacity. They should act positively.


Considering the following case, if Bernard Reader is found to be incapable of the job position, then informing the candidate that he is not making a commitment to them is a smart idea (Bhutkar et al., 2019). It is, however, a non-discriminatory way and would be beneficial for businesses to explain why they did not fire employees. Their motives are contingent on the circumstances, as long as they are done correctly. Giving positive input on what they require or how they may develop can aid them in their search for future employment (Demerouti et al., 2017). Inviting them to apply for future positions is another strategy to mitigate the effect of rejection following feedback. They may discover that a year later when they apply for a new job, they have accumulated a lot of experience and are qualified for the position.

Establishment of the contracts of employment

Contract law is the foundation of employment law. The employer and the employee are both parties to an employment contract. The employee agrees to labour for an employer in exchange for compensation from the employer. If any party violates this agreement, the other party may file a breach of contract lawsuit against the other.

An employment contract is a legally enforceable agreement between an employer and a worker (Demerouti et al., 2017). The employment contract does not have to be in writing and can be confirmed in the first application. The Employment Rights Act 1996 in the United Kingdom defines an employee as "a person who has entered into or is engaged under a contract of employment or training" (Joyce et al., 2010). The following statement determines that under Section of the Employment Right Act (1996), the employer must engage the employee with minimum information that must be offer in the form of a contract. Some of the important requirements of the Employment Right Act (1996) are that all the employees must abide by the changes according to the current amendments (i.e. on 6 April 2020). The employee must be provided with a section of ERA in the first two months of employment, other details include working schedule, paid leaves, benefits and remunerations, probations period, and entitled training. According to contract law, the following factors must be present to constitute a legally valid employment contract:

  • offer
  • acceptance
  • intention to create legal relations
  • consideration
  • Certainty as to terms.

The contract law that has been followed in the last two years by Zuzu is based on some key customs and practices that every employee is expected to sign an employment contract when they start working for a company. The employment contract lays forth the terms and conditions of the job. If either the employee or the employer violates the contract's conditions, the matter can be addressed in a labour court. The contract is particularly beneficial in professional jobs where individuals are expected to apply their expertise to complete a certain set of tasks.

"Employment Right Act 1996, section 139 covers some areas such as protection of wages, suspension from work, redundancy payments, unfair dismissal, flexible working and treatment of employment in mapping out a plan of action for Hell's Kitchen to follow to ensure a fair and compliant redundancy process. In the redundancy process, all the employees of Hell's Kitchen need to carry out work for a place where all the employer and employees are expected to cease or diminish the case.

TUPE applies if there is a need for the transfer of an economic entity in retaining the identity and building transferred at the time of transfer. A service provision change is also required while engaging a contractor for bringing the work in-house issues. It is essential for all the employers that are both transferee and transferer to plan well and seek all the earliest possible stages in the organisation.

The legislation related to “Redundancy law under 139” have been improved the cultures regarding the efficiency of the organisations by removing the underperforming workers by developing the cultures of motivational attributes. The motivation of workers has been also made redundant that can also improve the cultures of workplace sustainability (Gov.uk, 2023). Employment Rights Act 1996 under section 139 stated that under redundancy law "up to date with all modifications known to be in force on or before 27 January 2023" (Lexisnexis.co.uk, 2022). For the objectives of the redundancy act an employee or workers has been dismissed and taken to be dismissed through the redundancy reason. In case the dismissal has mainly attributed to carrying on the business operations for the objectives of the employees employed by him and in the place, the employees have employees by him.

"The Equity Act, 2010" set out the principle equal to those of comparators of the opposite sex while doing the work. The legislation governs the factors like working conditions, required effort and qualifications under which all the jobs are performed. Fostering good relations, advancing equality of opportunity and eliminating discrimination while carrying out the people are 3 kinds of "equal" provided.

Maternity employment rights

At least 21 days before the date on which she intends to satisfy the leave period to start and as soon as is reasonably practicable. In contrast, she notifies the employer of the expected week of childbirth and intends her maternity period to start (legislation.gov.uk, 2022). “A woman's entitlement to take up to 52 weeks off during her pregnancy is known as statutory maternity leave (SML)”. There is no waiting time for the leave, although there is a waiting period for certain statutory maternity pay.

Paternity employment rights

As per this right, both employer and employees can take 2 consecutive weeks of leaves if they have more than one child. A week is the same amount of days that parents normally work in a week.

Family-friendly employment rights

As per this right employees have been given the right of flexible working, additional child provision and sharing of both childcare between women and men that can fill the potential of the work (legislation.gov.uk, 2022).

According to section 51 of the Act, the spread over for all employees should not exceed more than 10-12 hours.

Custom and practice include an unwritten agreement that directs unofficial activities in any organisation that has been considered a norm for the organisation. In addition, the custom and practices need to convey clear images of the deals to consider it as a norm of the organisation. Sometimes, this considers a law of reputation of rules that the organisation includes a law according to its daily practice in the organisation. For example, the Day of Conception in Russia is September 12 and the Pointing with lips in Nicaragua (Ngcobo, 2020). These two practices are examples of customs and this refers to a culture of an organisation, a society or a country.

Consultation is one kind of active process in that organization management open both formal and informal communication channel between the company and its stakeholders. Consultation process means considering and asking for the views of employees during making a decision in the workplace (Acas.org.uk, 2022). There are four kinds of consultation processes such as meetings, open days or public forums, workshops, house meetings and exchanges of letters. Consultation is during an employer listens and talks to workers or employees and trade union bout organizational change and issues that affect them. The aim of the consultation process is to work together to obtain an effective agreement and find out b the solution and changes regarding the issues.

The terms and conditions of the consultation process have been associated with collective consultation, "consultation under the law" and "good practice consultation". Consultation is important during dealing with changes towards work policy, procedures, practices and contract changes (Acas.org.uk, 2022). It assists in making decisions regarding a better future for the organization. It helps the employers to identify the challenges with suggested changes so that they are better prepared for addressing these issues. It is to be a relevant element in employment tribunal decisions for determining if exonerations were unfair. Consulting employees can build trust, find alternative solutions, improve employee engagement, reduce costs, keep better working conditions, increase job satisfaction and prevent potential disagreements.

There was no HR manager at Zuzu's for the previous years, therefore, no contracts for the employees. Even the contracts of employees who were employed before there was an HR manager have not been amended. Section 1 of the contract legislation specifies how employees who do not have formal contracts should design their contracts. It's also crucial to think about the culture of the company, especially if the employees don't have contracts. The contracts will be governed by culture and traditions. Furthermore, while drafting contracts, consultation is essential so that everyone may express their thoughts.

When there are disputes between employers and employees, formal legal procedures are used from time to time. Officials are in charge of ensuring that the procedures follow the rules and that everyone involved receives a fair hearing. This is accomplished by following a series of steps under the Acas Code of Practice;

  • The offended person must file a complaint as the initial step. Employees are typically the ones that get complaints. Employers, too, have the right to file grievances if anything happens that is beyond their control.
  • Following the presentation of the complaints, the officers involved review them with the goal of determining how to continue. There are a few small issues that can be rectified.
  • After determining the substance of the complaints, officials summon the complainant and any interested parties to explain how the complaints would be addressed. The stakeholders who have been called have been educated on the many laws at hand as well as the best approaches to resolving the concerns.
  • A hearing date is arranged after everyone concerned has been notified about the various concerns and how they will be handled. This is the date on which the parties concerned will submit their cases in the order in which they were harmed. Until their cases are concluded, the parties involved may be expected to attend many sessions.
  • Step five entails judges and authorities debating and making decisions on the problems at hand. This is done in accordance with the established rules and legislation. There is always the possibility of an appeal if a party believes the judgement was unfair. These include going through the problems again to ensure that the final decisions are fair and legal in every way.

If an employee refuses to sign the settlement agreement, the employer might pursue legal action by presenting further information demonstrating why the person was fired. Mike is fired at Hell's because he is unable to complete his tasks. If he rejects the proposed settlement, he may be forced to accept it by the labour court, or the settlement may be altered. When such situations arise, it is critical for the organisation to evaluate the law's 'without prejudice' clause. It's also crucial to recognise that similar incidents may occur in the future and to constantly be prepared as a result.

Recommended Actions

Economical, technical and/or organisational (‘ETO’) reasons for contract

Certain features of employment contracts may need to be changed on occasion. The most essential thing is to make sure that the adjustments are legitimate and recognised by the law. The TUPE clause permits an employer to give ETO reasons for lawfully changing a contract. The ETO cause has yet to be officially explained. This might, for example, be the case: Economic Reasons for Market Profit or Business Performance (Zamanian et al., 2013). Technical reasons for the equipment utilised or the production process. The reason for your organisation is to run or organise your business. It is not feasible to change a moved worker's contract to match the current circumstances of a worker in a similar job or position (Opoku, Kosi, and Degraft-Arthur, 2020). ETFs do not include salary reductions. If the modification permits it, the terms can be altered by mutual agreement, such as a few extra hours of work or additional leave.

“TUPE Transfer” has been transferred by providing the contractual facilities from one company to another one and maintaining the improvements of worker's job opportunities with the generation of expectations. The maintenances of continuity in employment ability can also be written about the business planning cultures activities as well as making an organised cultures that have been based on the improvements of safety and security departments. It has also been providing protection facilities by improving cultures of possible obligations that can be creating a standard range of "Transfer of Undertakings” that has known as “Protection of Employment”. Therefore, the “TUPE Transfer” has also made a redundant facility and diminished the excessive ranges of costing facilities of automatically transferring the transferee.

ETO reason is a reason for economic, technical and organisation that helps to make changes in the terms and conditions part and this change includes the TUPE transfer process (Bothma & Rossouw, 2019). This offers an employee for claiming unfair dismissal through the TUPE transfer process to have a proper judgment of the employee’s dismissal from the organisation.

The redundancy process considers the termination or management of the employee's structure according to their performance and according to new updates in the job structure. This will benefit both the employees, and the employer as the employer will find suitable employees for the organization, and the employee will get time to find a suitable job to cover financial losses.

In contrast to Zuzu's, Hell's pays its employees at the end of the month, whereas Zuzu's pays its employees on the 15th. Peter needs to advise his top managers while transferring the TUPE who are moved are primarily affected by the changes that the modifications can be implemented in one of two ways considering it as a process of consultation or by discussing them with the staff or by implementing them without alerting them. It has been noticed that in the UK, employees have been able to get any maternity, paternity, or adoption, "Shared Parental Leave (SPL) and Statutory Shared Parental Pay (ShPP)". In case an employee is having a baby, adopting a child, using a surrogate regarding having a baby and fostering a child during planning to adopt (Gov.uk, 2022). An employee can share up to almost 50 weeks of leave and almost 37 weeks of payment. in order to obtain ShPP and SPL, employees need to fulfill the eligibility criteria such as parents using a surrogate, adopting parents, or birth parents and giving notice to their employees regarding maternity, paternity and adoption leave and payment. In order to obtain ShPP and SPL, employees need to fulfill the eligibility criteria such as parents using a surrogate, adopting parents, or birth parents and giving notice to their employees regarding maternity and adoption leave and payment.

Redundancy law

The "Employment Rights Act 1996" under section 98 sets out the employee's rights in a different context such as unfairly dismissed right, tight to notice for a minimum period of employment termination and redundancy pay rights. Under section 94 of ERA has been preventing the employers or owners from unfairly dismissing the workers or employees. An owner must specific reasons that outcome in the dismissal of employees (Netlawman.co.uk, 2021). The dismissal has been related to the "assertion of statutory rights", "health and safety concerns" and "request for flexible working". The fair or valid reason has been mentioned in section 98 regarding the dismissal of employees is associated with the qualification and capability of the work performance of the employees that have been employed through the employers to do. Along with that, it has been related to employee conduct, employee retirement and redundant employees.

Despite the frequent modifications, the legislation must meet certain basic standards to be effective.

  • Before any planned changes, an employee who has worked for an organisation for more than twelve years must be given a twelve-week notice.
  • An employee who has worked for an organisation for more than two months must provide a minimum of two weeks' notice; employees who have worked for the firm for more than two years must be given notices equal to the number of years they have worked there. This implies that an employee who has worked for the firm for five years requires a five-week notice period, while an employee who has worked for the company for ten years needs a ten-week notice period.

Check the employer's process

Employees can obtain information on the Hell Kitchen procedure in their contracts or handbooks. They must ensure that they know which method to follow if the Hell's Kitchen process is not specified anywhere (Kleiner, 2014). The system should spell out how dismissals are made, how long it takes to decide which meetings you may attend, and when and how you can appeal if you are fired. Hell's Kitchen should follow its processes in general, although they may deviate for good reason (Kim, Nussbaum and Gabbard, 2016). For example, if they say they will meet for work at a given time but the boss is unwell, they can reschedule the meeting.

The "Employment Relations Act 1999" under section 10 has to protect the workers or employees against blacklisting on the grounds of members and activities of the trade union (Lexisnexis.gov.uk, 2022). It helps to remove the trade union requirement in certain circumstances or events to identify to employers those employees will be ballot out on industrial functions and actions.

Individual employees should be met at least once before being informed of the final dismissal decision (Walters and Wadsworth, 2021). They should understand why redundancies are necessary, why they are being considered, what other occupations are available, or if they have any questions about what will happen next at this meeting (Umugwaneza, Nkechi and Mugabe, 2019). The meeting is a chance to explain why they should not be sitting around doing nothing. They should inform them if they believe they have not followed their processes appropriately or made a mistake.

It is critical to notify all Zuzu's employees to provide a fair redundancy. This will help people to comprehend the changes and prepare for them. incumbents should be included in the selection pool.


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