Information Systems In Organisations Assignment Sample

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Introducing Information Systems In Organisations

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Task 1: Identification and Analysis

Introduction

The Information management system is very much influential and effective to be implemented in many different organizations. Information management systems help to enhance the data management capabilities of an organization in dealing with the various problems of maintaining various kinds of data. In order to get full benefits from the new technologies related to information management, it provides interaction between organization culture, policies and management, operating standards and various decision-making factors that can be made effective with the help of an Information management system. Information systems or information management technology has become very much popular in the past decades. It supports backend support for different organizational processes and has now become the backbone of modern business or any other organization. It includes various software as well as the hardware supports to achieve the desired task for an organization related to managing data such as structuring data and retrieving data in order to perform data analytics.

 This study is focused on analyzing a real-life case study regarding the implementation of a particular type of Information technology for an organization. The study has selected a case study to be evaluated on the implementation of a "Health information System in African countries". According to Aime et al. 2021 has discussed that in Developing countries like Africa, health information systems (HIS) have various possibilities to enhance the performance of the existing infrastructure of the healthcare systems. Therefore the study has identified that the health information system faces many difficulties in producing quality data. The case study has discussed that the lack of resources and related information makes it much difficult for developing health policies.

The aim of the Health Information system is to improve the healthcare sector in African countries and enhance the existing healthcare system with proper data or information management through maintaining various data into the healthcare system database.

Case Study link:

https://bmcmedinformdecismak.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12911-021-01597-5

Project Definition

The study has performed a secondary data analysis by evaluating various articles to analyze data regarding the implementation of Information systems in the Healthcare sector in Africa and the system can be called a "Health information system' that helps to maintain information related to patients, healthcare facilities, resources, disease as well as maintaining financial data. As per the case study most of the African countries have given options that to improve this, it is necessary to effectively do the data warehousing operation. This approach of data warehousing could help in providing reliable data. Another issue the study has identified as related to the funding donors, lack of governmental strategies.

 By using the CATWOE analysis tools the various factors in the case study scenario can easily evaluate the information system factors and identify problems of the system implementation.

CATWOE

Service providers

Service recipients

Policymakers

Customers

Patients and families, Insurance, resources

Patients and families

Nurses, Physicians, Pharmacist, Diagnosis centres, private hospitals

Actors

Managers and policymakers, nurses, pharmacists, etc

Implementation of “Patients rights”

Ministry of health, service providers, insurance and st

Transformation

a. Leadership and governance

b. Human resource

c. Drugs and other technologies

d. Financial services

e. Information system

f. Service providers

a. Leadership and governance

b. Human resource

c. Drugs and other technologies

d. Financial services

e. Information system

f. Service providers

a. Leadership and governance

b. Human resource

c. Drugs and other technologies

d. Financial services

e. Information system

f. Service providers

World View

Offering fast and effective health services as well as involving a clear payroll system based on the global standards

Offering Promotions as well as maintaining the health of the patients through benchmarking method

Maintaining accountability and health, promoting public health, maintaining the health infrastructure based on successful global models

Owner

Administrative organizations and employment, medical science related universities

Supporting patients rights as well as Organization

Ministry of health

Environment

Salary rates, Threats regarding Mental health and life

Various medical expenses, lack of healthcare facilities and equipment

Low budget, lack of equipment and resources and prioritization

Table 1: CATWOE table regarding Health information system

(Source: Self-created)

Project Assessment

This study thus discusses the various possibilities of implementing the health information system in order to improve the facilities of the existing Healthcare system in developing countries such as African countries. It is also a factor that collecting different pieces of information from the non-harmonized tools makes this system difficult in managing storing data related to various paper-based forms or electronic forms (Al-Azzeh, 2018). The inadequacy and the less reliable data in the generalized HIS it is required to follow various approaches in making the information system included with various data that can be effective for improving the existing health care facilities. The study has identified that the healthcare facilities across the developing countries nowadays still face difficulties in getting accurate and reliable data regarding healthcare support and related information. For this reason, it becomes much more difficult in obtaining effective health results (Walsham, 2020). Therefore, this study is aiming to provide an overview of the factors of the Health Information system in limited resources and settings. Different Design approaches thus can be developed for structuring this Health information system and providing information about various requirements in this project.

Problem Analysis

In this section, the study has given a rich picture of the health Information system that includes various features and factors that the following HIS can include for the effective operation of the system. The various factors the HIS must include to eliminate the problems regarding low data availability, improper management of resources as well as retrieving data related to the health care systems (ChePa et al. 2017). The various processor functions the Information can include are as follows and described through the rich picture, these are as follows:

  1. Leadership and governance
  2. Delivery of health service
  3. Health-related information (i.e. Electronic medical records)
  4. Health workforce data
  5. Financing
  6. Resources and products

Task 2: Approach Selection

IS Development Philosophy

The information system philosophy is the approach that is focused on processing information, representation of information and integrating that information with the help of technological means or technological supports. There are two different approaches that can be followed in order to develop the Information system for Healthcare sectors in the African Countries as these are developing countries and face various problems regarding the management of information related to the healthcare organizations. These two approaches or philosophies for developing an Information system are either by following socio-technical approach and engineering approach.

The Socio-technical approach is known as the most effective approach for developing information systems that are much more acceptable as well as focused on delivering values to the end-user and stakeholders. This approach allows building research based on an independent approach, investigation of the design of the information system, cognitive engineering, "computer-supported work" (Fraua, 2019). The following socio-technical framework includes both the social, human and technological factors depending upon the organizational aspects. The social-technical approach of the implementation of information systems helps to address the various socio-technical issues and this method is rarely used. This approach has five different characteristics that include the following:

  • The following information system must be having an independent parts
  • In an external environment, the information system needs to adopt and achieve goals.
  • The development of an Information system based on a socio-cultural approach needs to have an "interval environment" that consists of independent, separate social and technical subsystems.

 On the other hand, the engineering approach of developing information systems follows a systematic approach in order to reach the end goal of the following information system and eliminating the issues (Udekwe and Andre, 2017). This is often known as Method engineering that offers an effective approach to configure various methods related to the development of an Information system. The engineering method of the development of information follows various technological steps to develop an information system but it requires various engineering solutions to achieve the desired goal of the information system. This engineering approach follows various integrated social supporting systems and design approaches. This approach follows various software development methodologies like Agile, scrum and various other software development methodologies. The various phases of implementing this engineering approach follow six phases and these are analysis, requirements, identifying requirements, object and vision of the project, design of the system, design, development and the implementation of the system. The engineering approach involves project characteristics that include various factors related to the contingency factors and based on that it determines the different aspects that needs to be followed during the implementation of the information system (Gesulga, 2017).

This study is focused on discussing and developing a conceptual plan for the development of a health information management system. The following health information management system can be implemented in different healthcare facilities or organizations in developing countries in Africa. Hence, it is essential to follow a particular methodological approach to implement the following information management system and in this case, it can be effective to develop the information system by following the engineering method instead of the socio-technical approach (Stepanenko and Kashevnik, 2017). The engineering method follows to evaluate the various processes, information, organizational background, behavior and the various other aspects that need to be included for identifying the required components and the software functionalities that are required to be followed. Therefore, based on the case study analysis the following information system will be related to the healthcare systems in the developing countries in Africa and it will involve different software such as database management systems, cloud-based storage systems, data analytics tools. For eliminating the issues related to the lack of data it also includes various related data regarding diseases and treatment procedures, medicines, testing methods etc for enhancing the system implementation properly.

IS Development Model

Selection of the development model for the implementation of the Information system is very crucial and it provides instrumental support regarding the modeling tasks. In this case, the end system is the Health information management system that needs to be developed based on a system development model. There are various development models by following these information systems. These are the waterfall model, V-model, Incremental model, RAD model, Interactive model, Spiral model, prototype model, Agile model etc. The study has followed the case study with shows that the existing health care systems in developing countries in Africa require to develop of a Health information management system that can effectively allow managing the data of the patients, disease, physicians, nurses, lab testing results, disease control methods etc and various other types of data that can be collected from the medical databases and websites (Holohan and Mcdonagh, 2017). For this reason, it is essential to follow a particular method within a Software development lifecycle (SDLC) for the development of this Health information system. The following SDLC regarding the HIS is in the healthcare domain and provides a framework that can be used to improve the existing infrastructure of the healthcare system by managing large amounts of data properly.

This study follows the Socio Technical model for the development of the following HIS. The model includes different processes including requirement analysis, planning, designing the system, building the system and testing the system (Sheykhotayefeh et al. 2017). This process goes in two parallel phases to make the end health information system effective. The requirements analysis process involves collecting various pieces of information regarding the functional and non-functional requirements and collecting data from various medical databases. Then requirement analysis also includes identifying various software and hardware components that will be required for the development of the information system. A conceptual design of the system including a data flow diagram, database design and table constraints will also be developed for understanding the system more easily. The two different phases are Information system implementation and Human activity system implementation.

Socio-technical Methodology

Task 3: Design

Project Requirements

The project in this case requires various hardware and software and involves various stages. These technical requirements need to be followed through healthcare standards. These include software acquisition, Hardware acquisition, Data conversion and preparation, installation, testing the system, collecting healthcare data for following standards, Data mining, Communication. The system also requires to form User group operators training.

Software acquisition- The following system must make decisions regarding the software acquisition. The software the system can include is an operating system, a proper Database management system that is related to the software application. The database is very important for this system as it stores all the data regarding patients, Hospital staff including Physicians, Nurses, Laboratory staff, Hospital rooms and different departments (Jeppesen et al. 2018). The database also includes various data related to the Medical data, disease data and treatment, Payment data. Through the database with integrating with a Business information system, it can easily generate Statistical reports.

Hardware acquisition- In this stage, the system must involve developing different hardware components on which the software will be run. Therefore, the hardware includes computers, networking devices, telecommunication equipment and various other peripheral devices. The network components include servers, routers, cloud data services, etc.

Data mining and data preparation- In this process, the data needs to be prepared depending upon the type of data and structure. in this process all the Clinical data as well as disease-related data. As this project requires replacing the existing/old data there needs to transfer of these data into the new Health information system. Hence, for data transferring the data mining and data warehousing are needs to be performed.

Healthcare data standards- In any healthcare information system needs to follow the data standards for accountability of the system. The data standards that the following HIS needs to follow are related to Datasets with clinical practices, standardized measures, healthcare infrastructures, information model, "Clinical document architecture", etc (Saxena and McDonagh, 2020).

Testing- This process is very much important for the development and implementation of the information system. In this process the complete system is being evaluated for testing whether the new Health information system operates effectively and also identifying various follows that may still exist in the system. After identifying the flaws through testing it is required to mitigate these issues with proper tools and modifications of the system.

Formation of the user group- This process involves forming the user groups including all the users of the system i.e. hospital receptionists, lab employees, nurses and also the involvement of Insurance providers. 

Hardware requirements- In order to develop the Health information system to be implemented in the Healthcare sectors in developing countries like African countries where the existing system has various issues related to improper data management, ineffective patient handling techniques, it makes the system time-consuming in providing healthcare service to the patients. The HIS requires different computing devices for displaying the data regarding patients and various clinical processes (Kaldahl and Kostveit, 2020). The system also requires developing a network with various devices in the healthcare facilities that may include servers for storing data, Routers, Switches, IP phones for communication.

Software requirements- The system requires various software systems for integrating with the hardware. These include proper Interfaces of the system, database management system, Business information system, Cloud-based services including cloud storage, security measures, etc.

Task 4: Implementation Plan

Actions

The study in this section provides a brief implementation plan for the Health information system where there can be various software and hardware required for the successful implementation of the plan. By implementing the following health information system, it will improve the existing clinical system in African health organizations with effective administrative operations. The HIS is a tool used for improving the administrative and clinical operations in Hospitals with ineffective patient and clinical staff management operations. For the implementation of HIS, the top management of the health organizations requires to have an understanding of the various things for the system adoption as well as it is important to understand the weaknesses of the existing healthcare process in order to have a realization of the potential system and take preventive actions (Kobusinge et al. 2018). Therefore, during the implementation of the HIS in Healthcare organizations different actions and time scales are needed to be followed. The various actions include strategic action, operational actions and tactical actions.

Strategic actions- The strategic actions required to have a management involvement where the role of managers in the implementation of the Health information system is to identify the capabilities of the system and some certain limitations of the HIS. The manager\ment also requires to establish a proper goal for the following system, making a strong commitment for introducing the system and also communicating with the clinical staff regarding the IT strategy. Along with that, it is also very much important to allocate resources, defining goals to the clinical staff for successfully achieving the goals of the healthcare organization both in the short term and long term period.

Technical actions- The implementation of the system must be done based on the re-engineering approach. It means that the system must be developed by considering the existing working flow in the Health care sectors (Hospitals, Primary care organizations, etc) and adjusting the working process by utilizing the health Information system features or functions. In general, there can be two types of healthcare processes that are related to the infrastructure and operational functions (Lowry et al. 2017). The operational functions include various medical functions i.e. patient support, medical services, medical data gathering, etc. The infrastructural process is more like administrative operations, e.g. implementing and establishing strategy as well as managing physical assets, human resources and information systems. Therefore, the HIS implementation needs to integrate both processes.

Operational Actions- These actions define the various operations required to be performed for making the HIS to be performed effectively. These are as follows:

  1. User Involvement- During the implementation of the system in Healthcare organizations, the users need to go through a transition period regarding using software systems, Machines and cloud-based operations. Therefore, the users need to be given time and proper training to learn the system operating process and allow patients to get quick and effective healthcare support (Muhaise and Kareeyo, 2017).
  2. Developing Compatible hardware and software- In this process, the various hardware and software are required to be identified for developing the following information system by the system developers. These requirements can be hardware platforms, operating systems, databases, medical databases, payment processes etc.
  3. Training and Education- For the HIS implementation and allowing healthcare systems in developing countries to get benefits it is essential that the clinical staff utilize the system on a daily basis (Sardjono et al. 2020). Therefore, order to promote the individuals or the staff in using HIS requires training and education. Effective training helps to allow staff to provide effective support to the patients and manage the health care organizations.

Conclusion

The study has discussed the importance of the information system for enhancing business operations. The study has identified that in various developing countries healthcare organizations face problems in managing patients. These problems can be eliminated or reduced with the implementation of an Information system that helps to manage patients by keeping the records of the different processes involved in the healthcare sectors. The study has provided a conceptual design of the system implementation process as well as discussions about the implementation plan. The study has provided a timeline of the implementation plan. As there are various benefits of the Information system it can be effective to make the existing infrastructure of the healthcare organizations in developing countries but it is also essential to allow the users to have knowledge regarding the usability of the system and various training make this process much easier.

Reference List

Journals

Al-Azzeh, J., 2018. Information technologies for supporting administrative activities of large organisations. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology38(3), p.187.

ChePa, N., Jasin, N.M. and Bakar, N.A.A., 2017, October. How change management can prevent the failure of information systems implementation among Malaysian government hospitals?. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1891, No. 1, p. 020037). AIP Publishing LLC.

Fraua, L., 2019. Research evolution on implementation and adoption behaviour of Information Systems by Senior Managers in Commercial Organisations over the last 40 years.

Gesulga, J.M., Berjame, A., Moquiala, K.S. and Galido, A., 2017. Barriers to electronic health record system implementation and information systems resources: a structured review. Procedia Computer Science124, pp.544-551.

Holohan, J. and Mcdonagh, J., 2017, June. How information systems managers align business and information systems strategies in public service organisations: A practice-based taxonomy. In 17th European Academy of Management Conference (Vol. 21, pp. 21-24).

Jeppesen, E.M., Klee Olsen, K., Richter, A. and Richter, S., 2018. USER ATTITUDES AND SUPPORT IN HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION–THE CASE OF THE DANISH SUNDHEDSPLATFORMEN.

Kaldahl, E. and Kostveit, M.H., 2020. Health Information Systems in Developing Countries (Master's thesis, NTNU).

Kobusinge, G., Pessi, K., Koutskouri, D. and Mugwanya, R., 2018. An Implementation Process of Interoperability: A Case-Study of Health Information Systems (HIS).

Lowry, P.B., Dinev, T. and Willison, R., 2017. Why security and privacy research lies at the centre of the information systems (IS) artefact: Proposing a bold research agenda. European Journal of Information Systems26(6), pp.546-563.

Muhaise, H. and Kareeyo, M., 2017. Electronic Health Information Systems Critical Implementation Issues (E-HMIS): District Health Information Software Version. 2 in the Greater Bushenyi, Uganda. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)34(1), pp.205-212.

Sardjono, W., Selviyanti, E. and Perdana, W.G., 2020, February. Modeling of development of performance evaluation on health information systems implementation. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1465, No. 1, p. 012025). IOP Publishing.

Saxena, D. and McDonagh, J., 2020. Exploring Enterprise Information Systems Procurement in Public Service Organisations. Electronic Journal of e-Government18(1), pp.pp69-83.

Sheykhotayefeh, M., Safdari, R., Ghazisaeedi, M., Mohammadzadeh, N., Khademi, S.H., Torabi, V., Jebraeily, M., Maserat, E. and Farajolah, S.S.S., 2017. Hospital information systems implementation: an evaluation of critical success factors in northeast of Iran. Global Journal of Health Science9(2), pp.91-101.

Stepanenko, V. and Kashevnik, A., 2017, April. Competence management systems in organisations: A literature review. In 2017 20th Conference of Open Innovations Association (FRUCT) (pp. 427-433). IEEE.

Udekwe, E. and Andre, C., 2017. The use of human resource information systems in two retail organisations in the Western Cape, South Africa. SA Journal of Human Resource Management15, p.7.

Walsham, G., 2020. Health information systems in developing countries: some reflections on information for action. Information Technology for Development26(1), pp.194-200.

<h2><strong>Introducing Information Systems In Organisations</strong></h2><p>Task 1: Identification and Analysis</p><p><strong>Introduction</strong></p><p>The Information management system is very much influential and effective to be implemented in many different organizations. Information management systems help to enhance the data management capabilities of an organization in dealing with the various problems of maintaining various kinds of data. In order to get full benefits from the new technologies related to information management, it provides interaction between organization culture, policies and management, operating standards and various decision-making factors that can be made effective with the help of an Information management system. Information systems or information management technology has become very much popular in the past decades. It supports backend support for different organizational processes and has now become the backbone of modern business or any other organization. It includes various software as well as the hardware supports to achieve the desired task for an organization related to managing data such as structuring data and retrieving data in order to perform data analytics.</p><p>&nbsp;This study is focused on analyzing a real-life case study regarding the implementation of a particular type of Information technology for an organization. The study has selected a case study to be evaluated on the implementation of a "Health information System in African countries". According to Aime <em>et al. </em>2021 has discussed that in Developing countries like Africa, health information systems (HIS) have various possibilities to enhance the performance of the existing infrastructure of the healthcare systems. Therefore the study has identified that the health information system faces many difficulties in producing quality data. The case study has discussed that the lack of resources and related information makes it much difficult for developing health policies.</p><p>The aim of the Health Information system is to improve the healthcare sector in African countries and enhance the existing healthcare system with proper data or information management through maintaining various data into the healthcare system database.</p><p>Case Study link:</p><p><u>https://bmcmedinformdecismak.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12911-021-01597-5</u></p><p><strong>Project Definition</strong></p><p>The study has performed a secondary data analysis by evaluating various articles to analyze data regarding the implementation of Information systems in the Healthcare sector in Africa and the system can be called a "Health information system' that helps to maintain information related to patients, healthcare facilities, resources, disease as well as maintaining financial data. As per the case study most of the African countries have given options that to improve this, it is necessary to effectively do the data warehousing operation. This approach of data warehousing could help in providing reliable data. Another issue the study has identified as related to the funding donors, lack of governmental strategies.</p><p>&nbsp;By using the CATWOE analysis tools the various factors in the case study scenario can easily evaluate the information system factors and identify problems of the system implementation.</p><table><thead><tr><td><p>CATWOE</p></td><td><p>Service providers</p></td><td><p>Service recipients</p></td><td><p>Policymakers</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>Customers</p></td><td><p>Patients and families, Insurance, resources</p></td><td><p>Patients and families</p></td><td><p>Nurses, Physicians, Pharmacist, Diagnosis centres, private hospitals</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>Actors</p></td><td><p>Managers and policymakers, nurses, pharmacists, etc</p></td><td><p>Implementation of &ldquo;Patients rights&rdquo;</p></td><td><p>Ministry of health, service providers, insurance and st</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>Transformation</p></td><td><p>a. Leadership and governance</p><p>b. Human resource</p><p>c. Drugs and other technologies</p><p>d. Financial services</p><p>e. Information system</p><p>f. Service providers</p></td><td><p>a. Leadership and governance</p><p>b. Human resource</p><p>c. Drugs and other technologies</p><p>d. Financial services</p><p>e. Information system</p><p>f. Service providers</p></td><td><p>a. Leadership and governance</p><p>b. Human resource</p><p>c. Drugs and other technologies</p><p>d. Financial services</p><p>e. Information system</p><p>f. Service providers</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>World View</p></td><td><p>Offering fast and effective health services as well as involving a clear payroll system based on the global standards</p></td><td><p>Offering Promotions as well as maintaining the health of the patients through benchmarking method</p></td><td><p>Maintaining accountability and health, promoting public health, maintaining the health infrastructure based on successful global models</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>Owner</p></td><td><p>Administrative organizations and employment, medical science related universities</p></td><td><p>Supporting patients rights as well as Organization</p></td><td><p>Ministry of health</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>Environment</p></td><td><p>Salary rates, Threats regarding Mental health and life</p></td><td><p>Various medical expenses, lack of healthcare facilities and equipment</p></td><td><p>Low budget, lack of equipment and resources and prioritization</p></td></tr></thead></table><p><strong>Table 1: CATWOE table regarding Health information system</strong></p><p>(Source: Self-created)</p><h4><strong>Project Assessment</strong></h4><p>This study thus discusses the various possibilities of implementing the health information system in order to improve the facilities of the existing Healthcare system in developing countries such as African countries. It is also a factor that collecting different pieces of information from the non-harmonized tools makes this system difficult in managing storing data related to various paper-based forms or electronic forms (Al-Azzeh, 2018). The inadequacy and the less reliable data in the generalized HIS it is required to follow various approaches in making the information system included with various data that can be effective for improving the existing health care facilities. The study has identified that the healthcare facilities across the developing countries nowadays still face difficulties in getting accurate and reliable data regarding healthcare support and related information. For this reason, it becomes much more difficult in obtaining effective health results (Walsham, 2020). Therefore, this study is aiming to provide an overview of the factors of the Health Information system in limited resources and settings. Different Design approaches thus can be developed for structuring this Health information system and providing information about various requirements in this project.</p><h4><strong>Problem Analysis</strong></h4><p>In this section, the study has given a rich picture of the health Information system that includes various features and factors that the following HIS can include for the effective operation of the system. The various factors the HIS must include to eliminate the problems regarding low data availability, improper management of resources as well as retrieving data related to the health care systems (ChePa <em>et al. </em>2017). The various processor functions the Information can include are as follows and described through the rich picture, these are as follows:</p><ol><li>Leadership and governance</li><li>Delivery of health service</li><li>Health-related information (i.e. Electronic medical records)</li><li>Health workforce data</li><li>Financing</li><li>Resources and products</li></ol><h4><strong>Task 2: Approach Selection</strong></h4><h3><strong>IS Development Philosophy</strong></h3><p>The information system philosophy is the approach that is focused on processing information, representation of information and integrating that information with the help of technological means or technological supports. There are two different approaches that can be followed in order to develop the Information system for Healthcare sectors in the African Countries as these are developing countries and face various problems regarding the management of information related to the healthcare organizations. These two approaches or philosophies for developing an Information system are either by following socio-technical approach and engineering approach.</p><p>The Socio-technical approach is known as the most effective approach for developing information systems that are much more acceptable as well as focused on delivering values to the end-user and stakeholders. This approach allows building research based on an independent approach, investigation of the design of the information system, cognitive engineering, "computer-supported work" (Fraua, 2019). The following socio-technical framework includes both the social, human and technological factors depending upon the organizational aspects. The social-technical approach of the implementation of information systems helps to address the various socio-technical issues and this method is rarely used. This approach has five different characteristics that include the following:</p><ul><li>The following information system must be having an independent parts</li><li>In an external environment, the information system needs to adopt and achieve goals.</li><li>The development of an Information system based on a socio-cultural approach needs to have an "interval environment" that consists of independent, separate social and technical subsystems.</li></ul><p>&nbsp;On the other hand, the engineering approach of developing information systems follows a systematic approach in order to reach the end goal of the following information system and eliminating the issues (Udekwe and Andre, 2017). This is often known as Method engineering that offers an effective approach to configure various methods related to the development of an Information system. The engineering method of the development of information follows various technological steps to develop an information system but it requires various engineering solutions to achieve the desired goal of the information system. This engineering approach follows various integrated social supporting systems and design approaches. This approach follows various software development methodologies like Agile, scrum and various other software development methodologies. The various phases of implementing this engineering approach follow six phases and these are analysis, requirements, identifying requirements, object and vision of the project, design of the system, design, development and the implementation of the system. The engineering approach involves project characteristics that include various factors related to the contingency factors and based on that it determines the different aspects that needs to be followed during the implementation of the information system (Gesulga, 2017).</p><p>This study is focused on discussing and developing a conceptual plan for the development of a health information management system. The following health information management system can be implemented in different healthcare facilities or organizations in developing countries in Africa. Hence, it is essential to follow a particular methodological approach to implement the following information management system and in this case, it can be effective to develop the information system by following the engineering method instead of the socio-technical approach (Stepanenko and Kashevnik, 2017). The engineering method follows to evaluate the various processes, information, organizational background, behavior and the various other aspects that need to be included for identifying the required components and the software functionalities that are required to be followed. Therefore, based on the case study analysis the following information system will be related to the healthcare systems in the developing countries in Africa and it will involve different software such as database management systems, cloud-based storage systems, data analytics tools. For eliminating the issues related to the lack of data it also includes various related data regarding diseases and treatment procedures, medicines, testing methods etc for enhancing the system implementation properly.</p><h3><strong>IS Development Model</strong></h3><p>Selection of the development model for the implementation of the Information system is very crucial and it provides instrumental support regarding the modeling tasks. In this case, the end system is the Health information management system that needs to be developed based on a system development model. There are various development models by following these information systems. These are the waterfall model, V-model, Incremental model, RAD model, Interactive model, Spiral model, prototype model, Agile model etc. The study has followed the case study with shows that the existing health care systems in developing countries in Africa require to develop of a Health information management system that can effectively allow managing the data of the patients, disease, physicians, nurses, lab testing results, disease control methods etc and various other types of data that can be collected from the medical databases and websites (Holohan and Mcdonagh, 2017). For this reason, it is essential to follow a particular method within a Software development lifecycle (SDLC) for the development of this Health information system. The following SDLC regarding the HIS is in the healthcare domain and provides a framework that can be used to improve the existing infrastructure of the healthcare system by managing large amounts of data properly.</p><p>This study follows the Socio Technical model for the development of the following HIS. The model includes different processes including requirement analysis, planning, designing the system, building the system and testing the system (Sheykhotayefeh <em>et al. </em>2017). This process goes in two parallel phases to make the end health information system effective. The requirements analysis process involves collecting various pieces of information regarding the functional and non-functional requirements and collecting data from various medical databases. Then requirement analysis also includes identifying various software and hardware components that will be required for the development of the information system. A conceptual design of the system including a data flow diagram, database design and table constraints will also be developed for understanding the system more easily. The two different phases are Information system implementation and Human activity system implementation.</p><p><strong>Socio-technical Methodology</strong></p><p><strong>Task 3: Design</strong></p><h4><strong>Project Requirements</strong></h4><p>The project in this case requires various hardware and software and involves various stages. These technical requirements need to be followed through healthcare standards. These include software acquisition, Hardware acquisition, Data conversion and preparation, installation, testing the system, collecting healthcare data for following standards, Data mining, Communication. The system also requires to form User group operators training.</p><p><strong>Software acquisition- </strong>The following system must make decisions regarding the software acquisition. The software the system can include is an operating system, a proper Database management system that is related to the software application. The database is very important for this system as it stores all the data regarding patients, Hospital staff including Physicians, Nurses, Laboratory staff, Hospital rooms and different departments (Jeppesen <em>et al. </em>2018). The database also includes various data related to the Medical data, disease data and treatment, Payment data. Through the database with integrating with a Business information system, it can easily generate Statistical reports.</p><p><strong>Hardware acquisition- </strong>In this stage, the system must involve developing different hardware components on which the software will be run. Therefore, the hardware includes computers, networking devices, telecommunication equipment and various other peripheral devices. The network components include servers, routers, cloud data services, etc.</p><p><strong>Data mining and data preparation- </strong>In this process, the data needs to be prepared depending upon the type of data and structure. in this process all the Clinical data as well as disease-related data. As this project requires replacing the existing/old data there needs to transfer of these data into the new Health information system. Hence, for data transferring the data mining and data warehousing are needs to be performed.</p><p><strong>Healthcare data standards- </strong>In any healthcare information system needs to follow the data standards for accountability of the system. The data standards that the following HIS needs to follow are related to Datasets with clinical practices, standardized measures, healthcare infrastructures, information model, "Clinical document architecture", etc (Saxena and McDonagh, 2020).</p><p><strong>Testing- </strong>This process is very much important for the development and implementation of the information system. In this process the complete system is being evaluated for testing whether the new Health information system operates effectively and also identifying various follows that may still exist in the system. After identifying the flaws through testing it is required to mitigate these issues with proper tools and modifications of the system.</p><p><strong>Formation of the user group- </strong>This process involves forming the user groups including all the users of the system i.e. hospital receptionists, lab employees, nurses and also the involvement of Insurance providers.&nbsp;</p><p><strong>Hardware requirements- </strong>In order to develop the Health information system to be implemented in the Healthcare sectors in developing countries like African countries where the existing system has various issues related to improper data management, ineffective patient handling techniques, it makes the system time-consuming in providing healthcare service to the patients. The HIS requires different computing devices for displaying the data regarding patients and various clinical processes (Kaldahl and Kostveit, 2020). The system also requires developing a network with various devices in the healthcare facilities that may include servers for storing data, Routers, Switches, IP phones for communication.</p><p><strong>Software requirements- </strong>The system requires various software systems for integrating with the hardware. These include proper Interfaces of the system, database management system, Business information system, Cloud-based services including cloud storage, security measures, etc.</p><p><strong>Task 4: Implementation Plan</strong></p><p><strong>Actions</strong></p><p>The study in this section provides a brief implementation plan for the Health information system where there can be various software and hardware required for the successful implementation of the plan. By implementing the following health information system, it will improve the existing clinical system in African health organizations with effective administrative operations. The HIS is a tool used for improving the administrative and clinical operations in Hospitals with ineffective patient and clinical staff management operations. For the implementation of HIS, the top management of the health organizations requires to have an understanding of the various things for the system adoption as well as it is important to understand the weaknesses of the existing healthcare process in order to have a realization of the potential system and take preventive actions (Kobusinge <em>et al. </em>2018). Therefore, during the implementation of the HIS in Healthcare organizations different actions and time scales are needed to be followed. The various actions include strategic action, operational actions and tactical actions.</p><p><strong>Strategic actions- </strong>The strategic actions required to have a management involvement where the role of managers in the implementation of the Health information system is to identify the capabilities of the system and some certain limitations of the HIS. The manager\ment also requires to establish a proper goal for the following system, making a strong commitment for introducing the system and also communicating with the clinical staff regarding the IT strategy. Along with that, it is also very much important to allocate resources, defining goals to the clinical staff for successfully achieving the goals of the healthcare organization both in the short term and long term period.</p><p><strong>Technical actions- </strong>The implementation of the system must be done based on the re-engineering approach. It means that the system must be developed by considering the existing working flow in the Health care sectors (Hospitals, Primary care organizations, etc) and adjusting the working process by utilizing the health Information system features or functions. In general, there can be two types of healthcare processes that are related to the infrastructure and operational functions (Lowry <em>et al. </em>2017). The operational functions include various medical functions i.e. patient support, medical services, medical data gathering, etc. The infrastructural process is more like administrative operations, e.g. implementing and establishing strategy as well as managing physical assets, human resources and information systems. Therefore, the HIS implementation needs to integrate both processes.</p><p><strong>Operational Actions- </strong>These actions define the various operations required to be performed for making the HIS to be performed effectively. These are as follows:</p><ol><li>User Involvement- During the implementation of the system in Healthcare organizations, the users need to go through a transition period regarding using software systems, Machines and cloud-based operations. Therefore, the users need to be given time and proper training to learn the system operating process and allow patients to get quick and effective healthcare support (Muhaise and Kareeyo, 2017).</li><li>Developing Compatible hardware and software- In this process, the various hardware and software are required to be identified for developing the following information system by the system developers. These requirements can be hardware platforms, operating systems, databases, medical databases, payment processes etc.</li><li>Training and Education- For the HIS implementation and allowing healthcare systems in developing countries to get benefits it is essential that the clinical staff utilize the system on a daily basis (Sardjono <em>et al. </em>2020). Therefore, order to promote the individuals or the staff in using HIS requires training and education. Effective training helps to allow staff to provide effective support to the patients and manage the health care organizations.</li></ol><p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p><p>The study has discussed the importance of the information system for enhancing business operations. The study has identified that in various developing countries healthcare organizations face problems in managing patients. These problems can be eliminated or reduced with the implementation of an Information system that helps to manage patients by keeping the records of the different processes involved in the healthcare sectors. The study has provided a conceptual design of the system implementation process as well as discussions about the implementation plan. The study has provided a timeline of the implementation plan. As there are various benefits of the Information system it can be effective to make the existing infrastructure of the healthcare organizations in developing countries but it is also essential to allow the users to have knowledge regarding the usability of the system and various training make this process much easier.</p><p><strong>Reference List</strong></p><p><strong>Journals</strong></p><p>Al-Azzeh, J., 2018. Information technologies for supporting administrative activities of large organisations.&nbsp;<em>DESIDOC Journal of Library &amp; Information Technology</em>,&nbsp;<em>38</em>(3), p.187.</p><p>ChePa, N., Jasin, N.M. and Bakar, N.A.A., 2017, October. How change management can prevent the failure of information systems implementation among Malaysian government hospitals?. In&nbsp;<em>AIP Conference Proceedings</em>&nbsp;(Vol. 1891, No. 1, p. 020037). AIP Publishing LLC.</p><p>Fraua, L., 2019. Research evolution on implementation and adoption behaviour of Information Systems by Senior Managers in Commercial Organisations over the last 40 years.</p><p>Gesulga, J.M., Berjame, A., Moquiala, K.S. and Galido, A., 2017. Barriers to electronic health record system implementation and information systems resources: a structured review.&nbsp;<em>Procedia Computer Science</em>,&nbsp;<em>124</em>, pp.544-551.</p><p>Holohan, J. and Mcdonagh, J., 2017, June. How information systems managers align business and information systems strategies in public service organisations: A practice-based taxonomy. In&nbsp;<em>17th European Academy of Management Conference</em>&nbsp;(Vol. 21, pp. 21-24).</p><p>Jeppesen, E.M., Klee Olsen, K., Richter, A. and Richter, S., 2018. USER ATTITUDES AND SUPPORT IN HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION&ndash;THE CASE OF THE DANISH SUNDHEDSPLATFORMEN.</p><p>Kaldahl, E. and Kostveit, M.H., 2020.&nbsp;<em>Health Information Systems in Developing Countries</em>&nbsp;(Master's thesis, NTNU).</p><p>Kobusinge, G., Pessi, K., Koutskouri, D. and Mugwanya, R., 2018. An Implementation Process of Interoperability: A Case-Study of Health Information Systems (HIS).</p><p>Lowry, P.B., Dinev, T. and Willison, R., 2017. Why security and privacy research lies at the centre of the information systems (IS) artefact: Proposing a bold research agenda.&nbsp;<em>European Journal of Information Systems</em>,&nbsp;<em>26</em>(6), pp.546-563.</p><p>Muhaise, H. and Kareeyo, M., 2017. Electronic Health Information Systems Critical Implementation Issues (E-HMIS): District Health Information Software Version. 2 in the Greater Bushenyi, Uganda.&nbsp;<em>American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)</em>,&nbsp;<em>34</em>(1), pp.205-212.</p><p>Sardjono, W., Selviyanti, E. and Perdana, W.G., 2020, February. Modeling of development of performance evaluation on health information systems implementation. In&nbsp;<em>Journal of Physics: Conference Series</em>&nbsp;(Vol. 1465, No. 1, p. 012025). IOP Publishing.</p><p>Saxena, D. and McDonagh, J., 2020. Exploring Enterprise Information Systems Procurement in Public Service Organisations.&nbsp;<em>Electronic Journal of e-Government</em>,&nbsp;<em>18</em>(1), pp.pp69-83.</p><p>Sheykhotayefeh, M., Safdari, R., Ghazisaeedi, M., Mohammadzadeh, N., Khademi, S.H., Torabi, V., Jebraeily, M., Maserat, E. and Farajolah, S.S.S., 2017. Hospital information systems implementation: an evaluation of critical success factors in northeast of Iran.&nbsp;<em>Global Journal of Health Science</em>,&nbsp;<em>9</em>(2), pp.91-101.</p><p>Stepanenko, V. and Kashevnik, A., 2017, April. Competence management systems in organisations: A literature review. In&nbsp;<em>2017 20th Conference of Open Innovations Association (FRUCT)</em>&nbsp;(pp. 427-433). IEEE.</p><p>Udekwe, E. and Andre, C., 2017. The use of human resource information systems in two retail organisations in the Western Cape, South Africa.&nbsp;<em>SA Journal of Human Resource Management</em>,&nbsp;<em>15</em>, p.7.</p><p>Walsham, G., 2020. Health information systems in developing countries: some reflections on information for action.&nbsp;<em>Information Technology for Development</em>,&nbsp;<em>26</em>(1), pp.194-200.</p>

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