Institutions Of Criminal Justice Assignment sample

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Introduction Of Institutions Of Criminal Justice Assignment sample

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The major development which took place in the last two decades in the field of security as well as policing has been called the pluralization of policing (Eikenaar 2019). Several countries have been facing that there were various new providers of security and policing, additionally with the regular policies (Eikenaar 2019). In contrast, considering this to a crucial degree of these proceedings of the pluralization which is considered as a local phenomenon. Generally, there are new forms of policing which are being concentrated on surveillance, and also, there is control of such crime, which are petty. There is also a high possibility of social disorder in the places of the public (van Stokkom et al., 2018). There is also the availability of multiple providers, which are both private as well as the public in nature, and might be involved in the prevention and the governance of petty crime as well as the disorder which are social. The studies which are held at the international level are required for a better understanding of plural policing as well as its results or the outcome at a broader means (van Stokkom et al., 2018).

Additionally, it could also be stated that there are various crucial similarities which could be expected that as there are different levels of jurisdictions, in the same way, there are also some important differences in plural policing. These important differences can also be seen in the legal as well as political and social as well as economic contexts. Even there are important differences that can be seen in the impact that this evolution is having on security as well as in the domain of security (van Stokkom et al., 2018). It might also be expected that while in some of the countries the policy of pluralization might conclude to raise a different kind of issues and that different types of the strategies which could be created for coping up with these problems. Some special problems would focus on the policy of pluralization of the public places found in different countries, which are European (van Stokkom et al., 2018). There are most of the subjects where discussion have taken place regarding the origin as well as the organizations, settlement in the legal areas as well as implementation of the policy of the pluralization in the one specified country that treated as the member states of the European Union (da Silva Lopes 2018).

The consequences of the operational independence that gives the reason that why it has required the police are (da Silva Lopes 2018)-

  • For having a higher degree of independence as well as professionalism from the concept of political influences (da Silva Lopes 2018);
  • For acting in conformity with the law, which has been established as practices.
  • For being operated based on the consent of the public, which is considered as evidenced by various levels of confidence in the public (da Silva Lopes 2018).
  • For taking responsibility for the work done by them as operation as well as for their decisions, also they would accept liability whenever it would be required and also for the exhibition of full transparency in the decision, as well as an openness to the scrutiny done at an external level (da Silva Lopes 2018).

Consequences of the pluralization policing-

There are various issues which are being dealt with, and that includes the infrastructure in legal areas, or the public who are residing in the local area, as well as the policy of privatization, and also the issues regarding legitimacy as well as the accountability (Bowling 2019). There are also issues found in the areas of the operational setting, as well as being cooperative with the police and the public police, as well as the practices of the various providers of policing which are non-police in nature such as city-wardens, inspectorate, police support officers and many others (Bowling 2019).


It is also seen that some relevant elements have been found for each country under the European Union as the member states and considered very much specified for the policy of the pluralization, in that national context would also be dealt with (Sheptycki 2020). The pluralization of policing is defined as well; there is an increasing form of disconnection between the policing and the public police. Consequently, there is pluralization policing which generally implied that there is a shift away from the policing framework that is centred on the state as a member of the European Union (Sheptycki 2020).

The term of policing of pluralization is simply utilized for various reasons, which are discussed below as-.

  • It helps in recognition of the plurality of the powers of policing as well as the personnel involved there and thus also have been acknowledging the existence of such economy which is mixed and neither social nor economical (Sheptycki 2020).
  • It also includes breaking free from the dichotomy which is not so helpful between the private police and the public police (Spiller et al., 2019), who would be recognizing that sometimes there are public police who could serve as private as per circumstances and with such parochial interests and the private spaces police or the privately-owned spaces that could or might have become public in their character (Nøkleberg 2020).
  • It would also not prioritize the role of any kind of provider who is particular (Spiller et al., 2019).

While considering the brief examination of the variety of the European countries and their experiences regarding pluralized policing and most of these countries appeared in such a way that they were feeling as an increasing level of the importance in the use of such providers that are non-police, of the policing either to a lesser or to a greater extent (Spiller et al., 2019).

Failure of the pluralization policy-

The reasons behind this were considered as the making a point towards the failure of the police that they could not meet the expectation that they would make their presence in presence in public spaces through the process of surveillance patrols (Uhnoo et al., 2018). This might be possible because of similar economic as well as social circumstances in each of the countries of the European Union (Uhnoo et al., 2018).

The rise in the economy and its night-time economy has also been responsible for raising the expectations of security and for raising the threats in both areas, either nationally or internationally (Uhnoo et al., 2018). Whatever might appear to have occurred is treated or considered as the shortage or the lack of the resources in which one could focus and is so-called as a crime which is petty or petty crime. In simple words, they could be stated as a low-level disorder, which in turn is responsible for hurting the community and its feelings of security as well as safety (O'Neill 2019). But consequently, either the public policy or the regular police have been focusing upon tasks or functions which are considered core in nature like crime-related with fighting or might be dealing with the complexity which is ever increasing and globalization of the picture of the crime (O'Neill 2019). The major negative impact of this pluralization policing has been seen as well as felt at the local level of the public place where it has been believed that it somehow been responsible for directly causing an impact upon the people as well as upon the trust of the people residing there and also on the support from the police (O'Neill 2019). As a result, there were various local solutions to this issue that has appeared to be the main drivers for being newer types of police who are uniformed such as guards in the city, or the wardens or the guard at the private security level, who have been operating together with the public policy or with the regular police (O'Neill 2019).

Issues regarding accountability

Accountability is the contentious part of any policy of pluralized form. Public policy is no more the monopoly power in respect to the provision of the police force, or it could be said that the monopoly power is no longer with only those police officers who are entrusted by the government authority according to the state-sanctioned force. The institution now broadly offers more than nineteen policing, excluding the state (Frevel 2017). The most important one is through the private organizations whose purpose is also commercial as per their own will. The largest advantage of the policing by the democratic organizations contracted for the public is their accountability (Frevel 2017). They are accountable to every resident by means of their duties as a government representative. This is particularly very crucial in the terms and the condition for helping the police in achieving the full confidence of the public as this is the key of effective policing, where the police have the authority to functions which could be carried out further based on legitimacy rather than force itself. As the scholar has rightly pointed out, that there are various provisions of the policing which are pluralized, and thus it includes both private as well as the public bodies, which could make an introduction of the challenges which are being responsible for ensuring that the policing is under the influence and the control of the democratic model of the policing (Frevel 2017).

On the other hand, the commercial policing organizations contracted on a private basis are at last accountable to their shareholders (Frevel 2017). Also, there are well-known scholars have stated that accountability is the most important part of the success of democratic policing. These seminar writers were supported by many of the necessary documents based on the democratic policy of Europe regarding accountability as mentioned in the publication in the year 2008 by the organization of security and cooperation Europe or OSCE, in the year 2008 (Meško et al., 2018). The main principles of democratic policing, and thus, it has been described in the above-mentioned publication. This particularly describes transparency and accountability. As per the publication, the main requirement of these democratic policing is the police force is and have to consider themselves accountable to the following (Meško et al., 2018):

  1. Their representatives
  2. The citizens or the residents (Stenning et al., 2018).
  3. The law and
  4. The state (Meško et al., 2018).


These are controlled and operated by the municipal authority, and the police force, respectively and are not found to be dominated or managed by them. As per Terpstra 16, the importance of local police is increasing, and the safety policies of the regional level come under them in various parts of the European countries (Christensen et al., 2020).

Despite the resonance existing in the introductory part of the pluralized policy framework of these European countries, it cannot be doubted that a course of dissimilarities exists in the manner of the operation of non - police force-personnel (Christensen et al., 2020). They are taking an instance of some of the countries where a compulsory legislative contract or agreement is made for the manner of the operation of every group, having a good relationship between the police and the non - police individuals (Søgaard et al., 2017). Still, there could happen some distance in between the security guards and the police while performing their respective public duties. Different countries also vary in respect to the manner of enforcement of the duties by the private police force. Belgium is the country where there are private guards are not found, having tasks to perform in public or who gave patrol (Søgaard et al., 2017). This is because, as per the consensus, these are the work that should be performed or enforced by the public itself. Again, if we take the example of the local authorities of the Netherlands, it is found that they could make contact with the private security guards, who already have some of the formal legislative powers. At the same time, the residents have the power to make contracts with the private security guards for providing security patrols (Strudwick et al., 2019).


Bowling, B., 2019. The politics of the police. Oxford University Press, USA.

Christensen, M.M. and Albrecht, P., 2020. Urban borderwork: Ethnographies of policing.

Da Silva Lopes, C., 2018. Plural policing and public opinion in Brazil. Security Journal, 31(2), pp.451-469.

Eikenaar, T., 2019. Plural policing as professional strife. Municipal officers and police officers in the Netherlands. International Journal Of Police Science & Management, 21(3), pp.146-155.

Frevel, B., 2017. Plural Policing–Sicherheitsarbeit durch Kooperation. In Handbuch Polizeimanagement (pp. 1073-1093). Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden.

Meško, G. and Lobnikar, B., 2018. Police reforms in Slovenia in the past 25 years. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice.

Nøkleberg, M., 2020. Examining the how of plural policing: moving from normative debate to empirical inquiry. The British Journal of Criminology, 60(3), pp.681-702.

O'Neill, M., 2019. Police community support officers: cultures and identities within pluralized policing. Oxford University Press.

Sheptycki, J., 2020. The politics of policing a pandemic panic. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 53(2), pp.157-173.

Søgaard, T.F., Houborg, E. and Pedersen, M.M., 2017. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's clubland. International Journal of Drug Policy, 41, pp.118-125.

Spiller, K. and L'Hoiry, X., 2019. Visibilities and New Models of Policing. Surveillance & Society, 17(3/4), pp.267-271.

Stenning, P.C. and Shearing, C.D., 2018. Governing plural policing provision: legal perspectives, challenges, and ideas. In Comparative Policing from a Legal Perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Strudwick, K., Jameson, J., and Rowe, J., 2019. Developing volunteers in policing: assessing the potential volunteer police-community police officer. Policing: a journal of policy and practice, 13(4), pp.397-410.

Uhnoo, S. and Hansen Löfstrand, C., 2018. Voluntary policing in Sweden: media reports of contemporary forms of police-citizen partnerships. Journal of Scandinavian studies in criminology and crime prevention, 19(1), pp.41-60.

van Stokkom, B. and Terpstra, J., 2018. Plural policing, the public good, and the constitutional state: an international comparison of Austria and Canada–Ontario. Policing and Society, 28(4), pp.415-430.

Institutions Of Criminal Justice Assignment sample

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