International Law And Armed Non-State Actors Case Study

Conflict Resolution: International Law's Application to Non-State Actors

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Chapter 1: Introduction Of The International Law And Armed Non-State Actors

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Definition of non-state armed groups

Additional Protocol II of the Geneva Conventions defines nonstate armed groups as in article 1.1 as armed group that involves themselves in wars with States and uses their power against each other as well. In the Geneva Convention, some conditions have been mentioned that are needed to be followed by these groups. These criteria have been set to ensure armed conflicts are minimized in number and their power is not used against the public at large.

These armed groups play a major role in international Humanitarian Law. They have been recognized as groups that have been fighting against the colonial powers and racial discrimination in the beginning, however, the status has changed in the current political scenario of the world.

As per the analysis of the two countries' engagement in the conflict the political view of Afghanistan based on the Soviet Union has controlled the country. USSR's influenced to control America by putting force to control the local community[1]. The forces of Afghanistan control the non-Muslims by forcing them to convert to Muslims. therefore the non-state armed groups focus on humanitarian law as in international treaties the non-state partiers' armed forces designate the state party into a major conflict[2]. Analyzing the humanitarian law for armed forces the contemporary international law to deal with the facts of control as the internationalization non-international armed conflict has focused on the "Protocol II to the 1949 Geneva Conventions". After that, the territory of the armed forces the conflict in several states entitled to sustain the military operation.

As per the analysis of armed forces territory the conflict in several states entitled to sustain the military operation. The organized armed forces have considered the territory of several states to conflict chance the military operation has undertaken to implement the protocol of armed conflict situation based on the confrontation of identifiable commands[3]. Based on the evaluation of the military operation for the obligation of rules of conduct in respect of the “Humanitarian law (IHL)”the law has enforced the operation.

The first phase of Taliban-controlled Afghanistan

Taliban has returned to power in Afghanistan after 20 years and declared to have new ideas and approaches that can develop Afghanistan as a developed country in the near future. After the USA has withdrawn its forces from Afghanistan in 2021 it became a velar ground for the Taliban forces. The first phase of Taliban rule started in the 1990s and ended in 2021. This period is regarded as one of the darkest chapters in the history of Mankind.[4] Women under Talibani rule have been treated like animals. They have been suppressed from basic rights such as the right to movement, right to expression, right to life, right to own property, and others. Women have been treated as the second gender and completely dependent on men during the 1st phase of Taliban rule. After the Dark Age ended the military rule by the Soviet Union and the USA. Taliban leaders in 2nd phase claimed to be different however after 1 year of rule it can be said that women do not have basic rights under the Taliban rule till now.

In the 1st phase, I.S.I. helped the Taliban to come into power in Afghanistan and act in favor of Pakistan. Taliban is a product of Pakistan that has hurt the entire mankind by executing different attacks in the entire world.

Returning to power Taliban has focused on Afghanistan as the US troops have considered the harsh rule based on cracking the women's rights the neglecting basic services to consider the group returned to Islamic fundamentalism[5]. The first phase considers "The Saur Revolution and Soviet Occupation" as the civil war erupted in 1978 to consider Afghanistan monarchy with the power of "Muhammad ZahirShah".

As per the analysis of dominated government, the armed conflict poses human rights and the risk of ethnic violence in order to deal with the PDPA government. The "Khalq leadership" reforms the religious and political reformation to bring the deterioration of soviet intelligence forces[6]. Along with that, the soviet occupation forced 115,000 troops as mass arrest and torture created resistance from the communist government to consider the flow of refugees as the 16 million populations consider jihad fighters or mujahidin. Therefore the cold war arms tremendous ability to deal with the resistance of Muslim radicals.

Along with that, Afghanistan wears to trigger the phases of 11 attacks to trigger the analysis of international conflict. The religious faction rebuilding the core military forces rebuilds the afghan state counterinsurgency doctrine to focus on the measures of temporary decisions it implements the strategy of protecting from the Taliban attacks[7].

The objective of international human rights law

The major objectives of human right law have considered the analysis of international human rights treaties to deal with addressing injustices and the fundamental freedom of human rights and equal dignity. As per the analysis "Universal declaration of human rights" enforces human rights to deal with the political and civil international convent[8]. The primary objective of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) is to minimize armed conflicts that damage property and the lives of people. Ensuring freedom of movement across the world of different humanitarian workers is another important objective of IHL. Ensuring the protection of refugees of war, prisoners of war, wounded and sick, and helpless people in a war is another important goal of IHL today in the contemporary world. The foundation of IHL is the fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 and the violation of IHL has been seen repeatedly in the recent past.[9]

Based on that, the cooperation among countries has provided major strengths and created opportunities to develop the economy and enhance the community through people empowerment. Along with that, to expand the financial and trade market through increasing the bargaining power the human rights fulfil the Asian countries lieu of competition to enhance the positions in the global market[10].

The war between US and Russia enforce political rights thus the constitution created the control of the Taliban as the UN mission derives the human rights violation. Hence, in that case, the major objectives of monitoring the process of restricting freedom as the major objective of international human rights law have considered the Taliban roles enforce the practices of prohibiting girls from secondary schools for preventing working of women[11]. Thus, the law protects the education of women as the law of equality and other sections create a drastic change in this measure to protect from discriminatory policies to violate the previous thinking.

Along with that, child marriage and other corrupted rules have also breakdown with this legal implication. The major purpose or objective of this humanitarian law is to protect international rivalries based on different political and economical conflicts thus the legislation helps the country to focus on collaboration rather than war and other conflict-related activities[12]. The major rights of humans involve the “Right to freedom, right to constitutional remedies, right to quality, right against exploitation, right to food and environment, right to property, right to freedom of religion, right to culture and education”. Hence the invasion of Afghanistan focused on the presence of the Soviets to deal with the rebel fighters. As per the analysis, non-state armed groups' extensive covert coordination of society focused volunteers on the interpretation of punishments for petty crimes.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Introduction Of the public international law that includes legal rules, norms and standards for the country

International law considers public international law that includes legal rules, norms and standards for the country. This engages in applying legal rules and standards between sovereign states and various entities that consider the legal recognition of international actors. This is a set of laws that governing with relations between nations and engages in dealing with each other. Article 38 of the international court of Justice includes three traditional sources of theory such as treaties, general principles of law and customary international law. This considers treaties of states, international customary law, general principles of civilised nations' law and judicial decisions to maintain relationships with each other. Non-state armed actors consider rebel groups. Warlords’ organizations, militias and criminal networks and this group engage in creating potential disturbing and violence in the country. This literature review part focuses on delivering information regarding international law and armed non-state actors to develop the impact of various international laws in maintaining peace and relationship between countries.

Applicable "International humanitarian law"

It has been observed that "Non- state actors" fall concerning the opportunity of interest in contrast to the "Public international law". The core reason behind this scenario has reflected the involvement of a few international elements. The major reason for conflict across the region of Afghanistan has been associated with the treaty and customary rules that emerged with armed conflicts with respect to non-international individuals. It has been observed that violence across the region of Afghanistan has prospered since 2001 with three notable phases.[13] It has been explored that the primary phase has been initiated due to the situational transition of invasion made by the US during the period of October 2001.

The violence factor among "Northern Alliance forces" and the government of the Taliban has been infused through armed conflict in the context of a non-international character. Besides that, on 6 October 2001, the second phase of violence have been initiated with a US-led attack performed on the Taliban. That has generated a scenario of armed conflict with international nature that is merely governed through applicable treaties and customary rules. Along with that last or third phase has been associated with the occupation of Afghanistan performed by other foreign forces and the US.

In contrast to the scenario, it has been coined that according to Article 2 of "Geneva Conventions", this type of occupation comes under the "International armed conflict". Therefore, in Afghanistan, armed violence has retained sufficient, intensity in terms of constituting an "Armed conflict" concerning the non-international participant. It has been observed that generally distinct 2 sets of "Treaty rules" have been applicable in contrast to the conflicts "Common Article 3" and "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions" 1949.[14] That has reflected the scenario of protecting or safeguarding the victims of "Non-International Armed Conflicts".

However, it has been observed that 4 Geneva Conventions have been ratified by Afghanistan during the period 1956 and the region have also adhered to two distinct "Additional Protocols" in 2009. The rules featured under the "Common Article 3" are a critically significant part of international law with customary nature. Thus, those rules have proliferated the regulation of hostilities conduct in the context of a debated topic. It has been observed that commentators have stated that provisions offer protection of individuals who come or suit under "Direct control" with respect to part of the conflict. Thus, the concerned articles have lack relevance with respect to the hostilities conduction.[15] On the other hand, other commentators have referred to "Violence to life and person" that must consider acts committed through the action of military operations.

It has been observed that apparent certitude has projected that non-state actors also have been bound by "International humanitarian law". Due to the armed conflict performed by the non-state actors, a clear prospect of a controversial stage has been represented. In contrast to the scenario, a few arguments have been coming into practice with respect to ANSAs associated with a few international norms. A group of commentators believes that ANSAs have been only bounded with "Customary international humanitarian law". In contrast to the scenario, it has been assumed that in "Common Article 3" is the declaratory provision of the concerned law.[16]Therefore, the concerned law can be applied to both parties associated with the conflict with respect to the lack of formal ratification.

It has been observed that acceptance of "Additional Protocol II" have proliferated questions in the context of the applicability of current armed conflict. Paragraph 1 of Article 1 clearly authorised that the concerned protocol can be applicable with respect to every type of armed conflict. Thus, it can be stated that the concerned protocols have infused a high level of threshold in terms of the application of "Common Article 3". It has been observed that core three conditions with cumulative material have been featured in Article 1. That reflects, within the guidance and supervision of responsible command, armed groups need to be concisely organized.[17] Along with that, their exercise must control the region of the national territory in terms of the concerted and sustained operation of the military.

Besides that, territorial control needs to be highly effective in terms of enabling the successful implementation of the concerned protocol. It has been observed that multiple accounts have been noticed in contrast to the determination of territorial control of the Taliban across the region of Afghanistan. Therefore, in 2008 Taliban stated that they have expanded their sphere by nearly 72% of the region that emerged within Afghanistan.[18] In view of the scenario, "International humanitarian law" has partially recognised harmful activities perpetrated with the action of ANSAs oppose to civilian individuals of the region.

Therefore, it can be stated that across the region of Afghanistan "Freedom of expression", "Freedom of assembly", education, food, health and work was broadly influenced by ANSAs. Thus, it can be that the obligation of human rights with respect to ANSAs during the phase of "Non-international armed conflict" can be considered controversial.

Role of Concerted and Sustained military operations opposed to armed forces of government

A prospect of continuous operations can be noticed in the case of military operations as opposed to the armed forces of the government. Along with that ‘concerted’ operation broadly indicates that action has been performed based on a ‘concerted’ and planned manner. It has been observed that the intensity level of combat across the region of Afghanistan has resulted in a high level of casualties. Those casualties were derived with respect to forces ranged opposed to the Taliban and major devastation has been noticed.[19] The commentators have stated that the realistic application of provisions featured in the Protocol can be amended in contrast to the agreeability of the Taliban.

On the other hand, the requisite level can act as a major issue or a major conflict with respect to the application of protocol can be noticed. Due to this type of inquiry, the prospect of "Additional Protocol II" became critically essential in terms of addressing the conflict that emerged across the region of Afghanistan. Therefore, hostilities between "The Governments of Afghanistan" led the armed forces and the Taliban can be infused with requisite criteria. In contrast to the scenario, a few rules also have been associated with "Non-international armed conflict".[20] Thus, it can be stated that the concerned Protocol is applicable to all armed and security forces of Afghanistan.

In contrast to the "Common Article 3", it can be observed that provisions of the protocol are not applicable for both the parties associated with conflict. It has been observed that foreign military forces with respect to the conflict of the concerned region have been directly bound by those provisions. As a result of this scenario, the application of protocol became limited in the case of armed conflict in the context of both parties. Therefore, state forces of the concerned region were also a significant part of "Additional Protocol II" and bound with the provisions.

It has been observed that in terms of concerted and sustained military operations oppose to the armed forces of government "Geneva Conventions" need to be followed. In view of the scenario, the principles of humanitarians have been enshrined under "Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions". That has critically constituted a major prospect of the foundation of respect with respect to the human being. This amendment needs to be critically followed in the situation of armed conflict and that might lack international character.[21] Along with that emphasizing the requirement in terms of ensuring a high level of protection or safeguarding with respect to the victim occurred through armed conflicts.

Article 1 has been comprised of the application of material with respect to any armed conflict with respect to any "High Contracting Party". On the other hand, Article 2 has been featured with the application of personal field with respect to any armed conflict. Therefore, it can be stated that those protocols can be immediately brought into practice in terms of unbiased view upon religion, sex, race and political factors. Besides that, the end of the concerned type of conflict needs to be deprived of liberty depends upon the restricted reasons of liberty.[22]

It has been observed that the sovereignty of any particular state needs to be upheld by the government and no Protocol can be invoked. Thus, the government have to re-establish or proclaim "Law and order" across their functional region or territory in terms of territorial integrity. The civilian public must be safeguarded and protected from unhealthy and critical outcomes of action led by military operations. Therefore, it has been clearly stated that individual civilians can not be considered "Objects of attack".[23] In contrast to the scenario, it can be stated that the practice of violence among individual civilians can be defined with the tag of terror activity.

The conflict might be sometimes non-international with respect to its nature and a scenario of opposing different actors across hostilities also infuses the concerned scenarios. In the case of any conflict between opposing states by non-actors, the regulation of Protocol II needs to be magnified. Thus, both sides' forces need to act in accordance that must consider minimum requirements with respect to the "Armed conflict" law. Despite that, a slight difference has been recognised in the case of a few significant areas. However, it has been over that the status of combatant and captured persons also need to be adequately and concisely treated with "Customary international law".

It has been observed that the practice of adverse discrimination has been strictly prohibited and the nature of discrimination has been accurately defined through the "Provision of Protocol II". Along with that principles related to non-intervention have been concrete focuses on internal matters relied upon by any particular state. Therefore, it can be stated that the sole objective of those protocols has been dependent upon humanitarian prospects. Intervention due to the armed conflict between non-state and state actors, suppose to not impact or influence the rights of any particular state.[24] Hence, it can be stated that concerted and sustained military operations opposing the armed forces of the government have been broadly influenced by those factors.

Armed non-state actors in Afghanistan

The conflict in Afghanistan is considered one of the largest contemporary conflicts that involve with international military forces coalition. The USA considered the initiation of air strikes in October 2001 Afghanistan. This also included operation enduring freedom, a ground offensive to overturn the Taliban government and focused on wiping out Al Qaeda forces in Afghanistan as the terrorist attacks occurred on 11 September 2001 in the US. Therefore, an armed conflict was present in most parts of the country. The conflict intensity had developed significantly with a Taliban resurgent and various non-state armed groups and delivered scared against government forces of Afghan and international team of approx 150000 military personnel that engaged in serving in the "International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and operation enduring freedom"[25]. The Taliban appeared in northern Pakistan in 1990 and conducted violence that resulted in the exclusion of Soviet troops from Afghanistan and engaged in expanding their control all over the country. The Taliban captured Kabul; the capital of Afghanistan in 1998 adn expanded their control by approx 90% in Afghanistan. Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and the UAE recognised the Taliban as the fair government in Afghanistan and this recognition lasted till the Taliban got defeated in the Coalition with the US in 2001. This raised emerged insurgency against the governmental election in 2002 and this covered development each year. The insurgency was considered "the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)" and included anti-government elements that engaged with individuals and diverse backgrounds armed groups. Anti-government elements characterised the Taliban, Hezb-e-Islami, the Haqqani network and other armed groups[26]. The approx size of Taliban forces was around 25000 as per the estimation of the US. The Taliban considered moving to the east and south parts of Afghanistan and also capturing west and north parts of the country within 2010 and considered various brazen attacks in 2009 in urban areas of the country. The conflict in Afghanistan is considered a large price for the civilian population of the country and non-state armed groups were the main reason behind this issue in the country.

Application of the Protocol to armed actors in Afghanistan

Additional protocol 2 considers an application for all armed and security forces in Afghanistan to continue their functions against the Taliban. However, the direct boundary of this protocol to ANSAs raised questions about these functions. Article 3 of this protocol does not engage in applying its provision to any group to the conflict and the applicability of this protocol to ANSAs needs to be inferred so that this can meet the standards of organised armed groups as per Article 1 (1)[27]. Another question that can rise is whether the conflict between the multinational forces and the Taliban is raised due to additional protocol 2. The scope of this protocol finds as limited due to the presence of a large contracting party of armed and dissident armed forces and other organised armed forces. A few states do not consider protocol as the US is not a party to the protocol. ISAF and the authorities of Afghan stipulated with respect to and cultures of Afghanistan. International human rights law includes bringing down obligations that bound states through maintaining respect. A list of treaties is present in the international human rights such as the human rights committee (HRC), CERD, CEDAW, CAT and CRC. A little difference is present between IHL and human rights law as IHL focus on armed conflict to maintain any type of violence between termed forces in the country or in between armed forces of various countries. Whereas human rights law considers application in maintaining peace in the armed conflict. “International humanitarian law (IHL)” includes a legal framework that engages in mitigating situations of armed conflict and other occupational conflicts. IHL follows two principles as protection of participants that are not engaged in hostilities and parties' right that engages in armed conflict and limited warfare. IHL includes armed conflicts and considers "international armed conflict (IAC) and non-international armed conflict (NIAC)"[28]. IHL also contributes to identifying IAC and NIAC types of armed conflict. This includes various key treaties such as the Hague regulations 1907, the convection of the condition of the armed forces, the convection of civilian protection and the additional Geneva Convention protocol.

The results of recognition of the change in asymmetric conflicts

Democratic and autocratic states face difficulty in measuring counterinsurgency, warfare and counterterrorism. Arguments occur due to the presence of engagement unreliability outcomes and failed attempts that provoke violence escalation and raise fair political credibility issues. Acknowledgement includes conflict as non-enough and considers state actors should recognise opposing non-state actors of the conflict. Recognition can be presented through a single act that engages in understanding a process and considers capturing time and commitment to analyse the root of the conflict. There are various ways to grant recognition includes the thick and thin acts of recognition[29]. Thin acts consider an important concept of directing conflict as this considers transferring conflict into a peaceful position through introducing low space for dialogue.

The ANSA recognition considers legitimate conflict party that provides a thin recognition case and this process stands as an easier process to capture outcomes as compared to thick acts in asymmetric conflicts through characterising the unequal distribution of military resources, political power and legal status. Vital to this end is the view groups' acknowledgement of their joint reliance, which may be possible in occurrences where neither one of the struggles groups has the capacity to push the opposite side to appreciate their recommendations nor where their effective power is accordingly 'basically same'. Thick demonstrations of acknowledgement are extremely overpowering and typically embedded in long-haul settlement processes in post-struggle social demands[30]. Stresses that nature is at the epicentre of rallies of acknowledgement intending to switch damaging links into ones that consider differences and advance shared disadvantages regarding disloyalties previously. To be sure, driving towards learning, tolerating and following the other's subjectivity and recognition adjusts the collaboration between struggling parties, yet additionally leisurely shifts each party's nature and, at last, each party's appearance of the relationship.

The following relations of the disclosure of shared liability concerning the past are focused on the intersection of various large-scale and small narratives. It can comprise producing truth demands, the growth of broad narratives, multi-voiced genuine reappraisal, etc, all cycles of Northern Ireland that have been recorded. An especially effective method for accomplishing so is to link thick acknowledgement into stories about earlier meetings of a contention; accounts of battle would in this method be 'switched' by 'accounts of acknowledgement'[31]. The third cycle considers the acknowledgement of the last rival group as a genetic component of the bigger social tissue and expects to drive past simple concurrence. Progressively transmitted by individuals from a general public such a trust over the long haul forms types of settlement and enables regaining confidence in local area connections.

Lafarge case: Business and armed groups

The corporations' engagement in armed conflicts and contribution of this engagement is toward international crimes. This had been recognised since Nuremberg tribunals and had been configured through a wide range of bodies in the United Nations (UN). A list of judicial engagement in attempting is to identify corporate responsibility for international crimes. These attempts raise corporate complicity issues while considering the potential corporate contribution that is committed to crimes by ANSG. However, economic and ANSAs considers involvement in operation through various transactional activities. International public law (IPL) considers the exclusion of those groups from any international accountability and regulation process[32]. IHL which considers a branch of IPL includes exceptions as this regulates non-state actors' behaviours. Recent developments consider about business entities in terms of potential liability due to involvement in international crimes and relate to the ANSGs activities.

The Lafarge case shows a context of business and armed groups as this includes transactions and crimes both in the business process. The cement company named Lafarge faced charging of crimes as a French court appealed the charges against humanity in Paris on 7 November 2019. The company practised purchasing raw materials from various ANSGs in Syria and these ANSGs were considered terrorist groups of the "Islamic State of Iraqi and the Levant (ISIL)". This type of practice occurred during the time period between 2011 and 2014. The case was considered before the crimes and the specialised war crimes that oppose humanity. In addition, the case faced various parameters that incorporate the criminal liability of international ongoing crimes. French strategy engages in incorporating the international criminal court (ICC) and considers criminal justice mechanisms in it[33]. The main objective of this strategy is not to consider corporations' prosecution due to alleged assistance in international crimes. This does not consider focusing on persons accused in prosecution in participating in the Rwanda genocide in 1994 and other places where the chance of prosecution is low.

The Lafarge case includes business relationship realities with ANSG and provides information regarding issues in investigating and charging the ANSG groups. The case considered the investigation of Lafarge due to financing terrorism charges in 2017. In addition, the French court considered launching a case due to a crime against humanity Lafarge in 2018. French law includes important differences through including links between the two crimes such as terrorism financing and humanity crime and Lafarge. Financing terrorism considers extensive properties and engages in the prosecution of people through natural and legal ways. This criminalisation considers a person that engages in financing terrorism through utilising the funds for criminal purposes. The offence of terrorist financing includes conditions that can align with an offence as this includes that offence does not require the necessary utilisation of these funds and consider a crime if the fund considers the purpose of achieving a terrorist act. The crime against humanity considers funds that provided support to various groups in Syria.

The change of contemporary armed conflicts and new business relationship

The report of ICRC includes modern warfare transformation and ANSGs' multiplication in terms of contemporary armed conflicts. This report provides central features of geopolitical landscape transformation that engage in the proliferation of non-state armed groups. The ICRC engages in monitoring the conflicts of armed groups in the world and this organisation captures an authority in the sector of international humanitarian law (IHL)[34]. The findings of the organisations focus on merit consideration of human rights and business processes. The transformation in conflicts and development of asymmetric warfare increase concerns to deliver information regarding the process of holding accountability of non-state actors and does not focus on the boundary of international law. IHL considers predominant legal authority that includes exceptional circumstances of armed conflict in terms of non-international and international aspects. IHL applies the law to the non-state and state actors without concerning extraneous considerations such as former ideology objectives. ANSGs include reliability in military and financial concepts to sustain operations and this considers involvement with business entities. Corporations and organisations deliver support to ANSGs at a time when group fragmentation occurs and do not consider engaging in any state-like activities. Business relationships among organisations and corporations implement non-transparent and opaque arrangements due to the presence to lack of legal personality of ANSGs. In addition, IHL violation includes queries regarding the applicability of ICL. The armed group consider the obligation of respect and capture ensuring respect for IHL through its armed forces and this does not consider control over authority[35]. According to the interpretation of rule 139 of IHL includes armed groups also consider the obligation to continue with respect for IHL and this concept can technically apply to business relationships that can continue the business processes with various organisations.

Recognition concepts in Political Theory and International Relations

The level of assertiveness of violence that triggers international armed's law conflict is broadly understood to be very low as well as conflict requirements are not to be of long duration. Recognition is a fuzzy term in disciplines like sociology, social philosophy, psychology and most important international law that focuses on constructing recognition of states. In the late 1980s and 1990s, identical forms of political struggle for recognition by social movements and certain facts that are granted as well as accepted with some specific legal status such as newly determined territory or grant of nationality.[36]

Regarding to society, recognition always operates as a mechanism that mainly constitutes, and allows rights as well as duties including violent resistance on the part of affected social groups or individuals. Acts of misrecognition have attracted less conceptual and provoked fully active members of the social group into wider collective identities and that always started with mutual recognition. In contrast, as a single act of conceiving recognition, social interaction is considered, well effective process among actors of equal legal or social status. This notion of gradual distinction also deliberate withholding about ANSAs between different types of asymmetric power relations and putting an actor ranging from highly material acts of recognition[37]. The gradual granting of recognition of armed non-state actors delivers insights into related compiled research fields that examine agency, lobbying efforts and strategic calculations of different domestic and external factors.

Although it has been seen that umbrella organizations are frequently examined regarding the tribulations they deliver while attempting to be entertained, could actually open all the doors in terms of equivalent pressure and peer attention that should be further researched. Certainly, "the lack of shared values and common understanding of IHL makes it harder for humanitarian actors to pursue a sustained dialogue", but once this is completed, all other members of the same coalition occur as well during armed conflicts later on in the movement of the sustained dialogue.

The complex interplay between recognition-seekers and recognition-granters

Militials and organized resistance movements are aligned with the armed forces of the state in the additional protocol of the silence of the treaty and customary guidance on the notion of direct participation for specific privileges. Unlike, many of these actors established an hierarchal and organizational structure by attaining a high level of power and wealth. Acknowledgement rehearses are in many cases considered as some sort of 'semi-official' connections between coordinated entertainers, like gatherings, states and associations.[38] In our view, this is a ridiculous reduction of acknowledgement rehearses in legislative issues. Furnished bunches specifically have additionally to depend on the help of parts of the populace.

Looking for recognition by nearby networks, by territorial or cross-country crowds is a significant component of the acknowledgement looking for the conduct of ANSAs. On the other hand, be that as it may, the endeavour to at the same time allow acknowledgement to a few clash parties in struggle change endeavours, for instance by remembering them for intercession processes, might be similarly dangerous. Consideration of a harmony cycle might be seen as a type of misrecognition if, for example, one more entertainer is incorporated by similar principles and consequently gathered with an entertainer who sees oneself as profoundly unique[39]. Consideration is in this way basically not quite the same as recognition since it might exactly misconstruct an entertainer's personality.

At last, some ANSAs don't look for distinction from states or worldwide associations by any means - in actuality, it very well might be important for their plan to stay in the job of a miscreant and a pariah to the state framework, as is, for instance, the situation for ISIS. In this unique situation, the political utilization of specific ideas for ANSAs is considerably more significant than the scholastic endeavours to sort them and foster typologies as outlined above[40]. For a volume on acknowledgement, it might be counterproductive to begin from a decent typology for case determination: the political act of marking ANSAs is profoundly interlaced with cycles of non-recognition. Practices of naming and marking are ANSAs as an 'other' in any case.

Hence, it is unequivocally the outlining of an ANSA which is challenged, arranged or forced in effective recognition processes. For instance, if an administration or the European Association 'records' an equipped gathering as a 'fear-based oppressor association', this will affect the chance of the personality of the ANSA with the gathering marked in the general practices. "The Rule of Law framework" is an important principle for maintaining complex interplay for the maintenance of the stability of human rights in the EU despite natural divergence. "Non-state actors and international obligations" also examines the relevance and contribution of all non-actors in the effective creation of international obligations[41]. Human resources are now seen as the primary source for concerning competitive advantage and state armed force needs to set an adequate balance meeting the requirement of the first reasons.

Traditionally, the process of managing performance ensures outcomes and specific goals derived from the practical use of certain aspects for negotiations or engagement with the group (Roberts, 2005). Effective recognition always enhances self-determination and the right to rebel human-right violations in general publication law based on Article 2. "Article 20(4)" of the "constitution of the German Federal Republic" authorises fundamental rights and remedies for breaking the resistance against changing the regime and must exist to concern respect forcible denial. From a legal perspective, the existence of violation with the support and possibility of obtaining individualised criminal trial. The prospect of establishing accountability mechanisms in addition to the armed force performing a continuous combat function and indeed having distinguished features of armed violence. On the individual side, the support for increased work productivity shows that effectiveness at employees measuring to the output produced by the work unit and achieves the desired result by improving the quality of life[42]. "Thick recognition" accepting the other and compositing its identities among all conflict parties in gradual steps to deny the existence indicating the relevance.

Adapting to trends in increasingly protracted conflicts

It is important to take the help of an inclusive approach at the time of conveying dialogue concerning armed groups in foreign countries. Efforts need to be made to establish dynamic mappings with the gait of splitting, fragmentation and collaboration that forms the cadence of the life of armed actors. However, developing a protection dialogue is not an easy task with ANSAs as there is a chance of splitting groups at any time as they always want to join larger movements having a larger goal[43]. Gaining an effective effect on safeguarding civilians needs effective humanitarian actors who deliver surety for working in a team for a longer time to achieve the goal rather than looking for "quick fix" actions.

Further, it is compulsory to construct trust as well as dialogue with key leaders within a community that mainly has an influence on armed groups. In addition, in most of the groups, political leaders have a lack of power relating to authority over the commands of military commanders. Based on exile in foreign countries, humanitarian actors need to utilise a "grass-roots approach" to local conflict actors that allows them to keep the track of all the political challenges consisted in the group structures. Possesses a certain degree of autonomy with regard to half of the armed conflicts to be part of customary international law[44]. There is a general agreement among the armed group and therefore it is harder to overcome the challenge from the battlefield or based on the analysis of the group structures to start observing communities as passive victims. In contrast, conflicts could be adopted as a specified part of international armed conflict. For example, the third stage is the occupation of Afghanistan by other countries' forces especially America relating to "Article 2" common for all four Geneva connections. Regardless, two sets of treaty rules sanctioned the four "Geneva Conventions" and adhered to some other additional protocols to the armed conflict in Afghanistan.

Sitting under the shade of a rustic shelter, a deed of commitment to the prohibition binds all the movements and has strong internal divisions collapsing to the structure that routinely fight with each other for maintaining well-structured humanitarian dialogue for the engagement of the group. Different challenges need to be evaluated that routinely fight with each other in the command structure for all types of humanitarian workers and that shifted to a new person in charge. As can be observed, splitting ANSAs is an extremely challenging situation not only with the highest ranks and could potentially lead to other factors regarding the armed groups in the near future activity. "Violence to life and person" would need to be delivered by covering acts regarding it in the course of military operations to the life of persons taking part in such conflicts[45]. However, to overcome these situations direct engagement in the international legal system is necessary to recognise and comply with these rules through the unilateral direction.

Theories are equally applicable to all other bodies of law and underpin the application of new treaties accepted by the human rights of individuals by ANSAs over a certain territory. Indeed, the interpretation and application of law are also visible in the field of IHRL and act in accordance with accepted legal principles leading to its application to non-state entities within the overall practice. However, within the UN system, other documents are produced as well by international humanitarian law and human rights complying with customary international law.

Theoretical perspective

This segment of the literature review has been performed with consideration of "International legal theory" in terms of accurate presentation of the research topic. It has been observed that concerned theories have been featured with a wide range of methodological and theoretical aspects. This has a major role in terms of exploration and analysis of effectiveness, formation and content with respect to different "Public international law". Therefore, it can be stated that peace, prosperity and justice with respect to the featured law have been critically narrated through the discussion of literature.

On the other hand, Realist Theory has been also considered in contrast to the "International humanitarian law". Thus, the principle of actors has been critically discussed based on the context of the international system. Along with that prospects of sovereignty have been accurately addressed based on the concerned theory. Besides that, abiding patterns associated with the interaction in contrast to the international system and centralized political aspects have been concisely portrayed in this segment of literature. Hence, this theory has robustly helped in the reorganization of anarchy relying on sovereign power in the context of armed conflict.

Dualism is a theoretical perspective in international law that contains that international law and domestic law are different and distinct legal procedures. This perspective argues that international law and domestic law are separate and distinct systems and that international law only applies to states when they act on the international plane.

According to this perspective, international law only involves states when they function on the international plane, and not within their own environment. Under dualism, international law has no direct impact on the domestic legal procedure of a state. Instead, it must first be integrated into domestic law through national legislation or judicial judgment before it can be implemented. This means that the domestic courts of a state have no jurisdiction over violations of international law and that it is the obligation of the state to ensure adherence to international responsibilities. Advocates of dualism argue that this procedure allows for a clear difference between the two legal systems and supports preserving the sovereignty of states[46]. They also argue that it allows states to have more authority over the application of international law within their own territory. Critics of dualism argue that it can lead to a lack of responsibility for breaches of international law, as international responsibilities may not be fully enforceable within domestic courts. They also argue that it can limit the effectiveness of international law in advancing human rights and protecting vulnerable populations.

Liberalism is a theoretical perspective in global relations and international law that highlights the significance of individual freedom, democracy, and the rule of law. In the context of international law, liberalism argues that states should respect and protect the liberties of individuals, including their civil and political rights, and that international law should play a role in promoting and protecting these rights[47]. Advocates of the liberal theory argue that the expansion of international human rights norms and institutions, such as the United Nations, can help to promote and defend human rights and promote peace and stability.

International law has several theoretical perspectives that pertain to the relationship between states and non-state actors, including armed non-state actors. In following the approach of warlords and armed groups operating within a country human rights law appears to be cruel treatment and torture. As the world became more incorporated with the legal ideas of absolute state sovereignty, theories plays a key role for undergone significant changes. The idea of liberty was envisaged as a limitation on the power of the ruler by devising a way of safeguarding the society through such liberal ideas of individualism[48]. State Centrism theory: This perspective holds that international law only applies to states and not non-state actors. This perspective suggests that international law is evolving and changing to accommodate the increasing role of non-state actors in international relations.

"The VDHDR paved the way for further discussion on the idea of amalgamating duties into rights discussions". In the discussion of sovereignty, global political order and justice, the theory delivers the consent of states and changes within that order to explain the strategic behaviors of states assuming to world politics. It is generally introduced that certain situations of a court of justice are a more complimentary way. The critique of state-centric theory also promised modernity and contained all types of societies in an effective way. In contrast to the capitalist-free market the policy aligned with this theory aimed to distribute all types of resources and opportunities on the basis that beach people have a combination of natural rights.

Consequently, the discussion of rights is often limited in this research to political and civil rights as protection against State interference. Economies model also regulates wages and prices and the validity of this argument in today's globalised world by all types of fundamental-right violations. The UDHR is guided by all types of ideals of personal autonomy and individuals to exercise human that paved way of duties that seriously insist on the modern state involved to perform corresponding duties. The state-centric framework offended sock and disturb that affects individual autonomy at the same time on a single the creation of a just and fair society. A similar development also has been taken with the help of environmental law and grants all type of legal personality for the creation of a fair society. These developments argued that non-state enterprises for the violations of this special law developed strong human duties to all non-state actors.

Literature Gap

This study has critically discussed the different aspects of international law in contrast to the "Armed non-state actors". The core reason for armed conflict has been not accurately discussed in this segment of the literature review. The major reason behind this was an exploration of those points might make the literature review much more broad and extensive. As a result of this scenario, the spirit of the research topic might be compromised and lead to confusion. Besides that, violation examples with respect to international laws have been not deeply contrasted through this segment of the study.

There is a vague causal relationship between recognition and "legitimacy" in the context of understanding ANSAs. It is also attainable that an actor is normatively legitimate and considers a higher degree of empirical legitimacy in communities that perceive this type of government to be particularly corrupt. Given that the application of the "social recognition concept" that is necessary for capturing shades and gradual process of recognition is still a research gap.

The FARC had enjoyed some degree of acceptance but the combination state remains as a research gap and having assigned this with conflict parties, the fear of new violence in the mediation process was resolved. Research has delivered the different types of militants which might have uncertainties linked with peer communities and over large areas of region hierarchal structure not involved in order to trigger the applicability of International humanitarian law (IHL). The direct approach of all sets of legal operations involved in the parties' conflict regulates the conduct of hostilities in the course of all types of operations related to the military. It is further asserted that the idea of the State has always been important to guarantee and protect human rights.

The conflict is mostly qualified International Humanitarian Law with the non-international character to state against the ANSA that results in making the assumption on the conflict. It is being set to make the credential in the overall standard with the formal changes that making the credential in the humanitarian law[49]. However, () stated that the practices are being set to make the international and regional organisational shows to solve and increase the effort that is desirable to meet the objection with the identified structure. The paper will bridge the gap based that is based on the lack of compliance with the international norms of this actor. The research of Brunner and Mihailov (2023), showed that different rebel groups have significantly contributed to the civil war situation of the country and impacted people, life.

However, the author does not properly highlight the situation of women under the Taliban regime and their conditions during this rule. This research did not analyze the bloody conflicts between non-armed state groups and state-owned armed forces. These are considered as the gap of this research. The research of Ullah et al. (2020), depicts that peace negotiations have been started to bring peace to the country and stabilise the situation. However, it does not highlight the failures of peace talks and post situations that worsen the situation in the country. This can be considered as the gap in this research that needed to be addressed. Non-state armed groups have been involved in a fierce battle that further makes the situation worse. This study evaluates the condition of Afghanistan after being captured by the Taliban.

Women minister in harsh ways and all privileges and freedom are grabbed the rights to liberty of gathering and exhibitions were drastically shortened. All the laws are constructed against the right of women and women are treated ill. Girls are not allowed to achieve education and women are restricted to achieve their career goals. However, this paper holds the gap in the future aspects of the law of women in the Taliban. The gap in education between boys and girls is still unclear.

Bellal (2020), have discussed the "International Humanitarian Law" based on the semantic approach with respect to armed conflict. However, the authors have not adequately explored and contrasted the armed conflict issue of Afghanistan. As a result, a major gap in the understanding of the concenred law with respect to the armed conflict has been not effectively gained. The study of Clément, Geis and Pfeifer (2021) has accurately discussed the conflict transformation opportunities and risks. In the study, the mitigation of conflict and the role of Geneva conversion have not been profoundly discussed. Therefore, a major gap in humanitarian aspects has been broadly recognised through the study.

Summary

International human rights law engages in armed non-state actors and includes requirements of states to enable respect and protection of individual rights. This includes civil and political rights in human rights law and the legal status of ANSA includes contentious issues and provides an extension to the organisations through following international law. This law focuses on delivering solutions to conflict issues and focuses on mitigating criminal activities in the country. The IHL and international law consider the development of respect and peace in between countries and focus on developing relationships between the organisations and countries. International law focuses on mitigating issues of criminal activities in the country through engaging in measuring criminal activities inside and outside the country. This also considers in considering criminal offences in terms of finances. In addition, International law delivers effective support in reducing criminal activities and development relationships between various countries.

Chapter 4: Findings and discussion

Findings

Theme 1: The state of the Armed Forces

Military operations and state armed forces intervention have further raised the fierce battle as well as making people's life worst. These battles consumed more civilian lives and create obstacles to their daily life. Local state armed forces have made foreign interventions in their own favour and further increased the conflicts[50]. Non-state armoured groups have frequently used foreign government resources and become more powerful to continue their fight against the state armed forces. Airstrikes and military operations have adversely impacted the situation in Afghanistan. It has increased the conflicts between non-state armed groups and the state's own armed forces in the country. The US and NATO allied forces have continued to put obstacles in front of the non-state actors. Violent battles often raised human rights concerns among the population and they have impacted the country's growth in the world.

The government of the US has tried to resolve these conflicts through negotiations and settlements between two parties involved in conflicts[51]. This process has miserably failed to resolve these conflicts as well as create a peaceful situation. It also reduced the economic growth of the country and its agricultural output. Different world powers have tested their arms capabilities in the land of Afghanistan creating a complex political situation and increasing the armed conflicts. Afghanistan security forces have indulged in these conflicts for several years. Resources from foreign powers have significantly provided the required support to them. However, these resources often go into the hand of terror groups and pave way for new violence in the country. Unlawful activities have raised concern numbers in the country and made people helpless.

The absence of a proper legislative framework has enhanced the level of terrorist-sponsored violence in Afghanistan. Failure of the Afghan peace process is one of the biggest contributors to the conflict and gives birth to many non-state armed groups in the country.

Taliban takeover of Afghanistan has further increased obstacles for people. There is a strong presence of different extremists group that has led to infighting among those and the country's environment remained violent. Taliban control of different regions has raised humanitarian crises and prevented the effective usage of human capital in Afghanistan[52]. Taliban rule from 1996-2001 has cut down women's freedom in the different establishments of the country. It has introduced protective measures for women that prevent them from taking education and access to all the resources of the country. This has made an adverse impact on the schooling and education system of the country and reduced its ambitions to serve the people of the country.

Religious policies of the Taliban regime have raised significant hardships for women. It has introduced protective measures that prevent women to get outside and go their desired places.

The cold war period has been a significant contributor to the conflict in Afghanistan between different separatist groups and state armed forces in the country. In the wake of the terror attack in the USA, foreign armed forces intervened in the country and increased the level of conflicts in different regions[53]. However, these interventions have failed to transform the country's violent civil war and introduce peace. Resources from neighbouring countries and overseas financial help have evolved non-state armed forces to fight against the allied NATO forces. Afghanistan does not have the proper legislative framework to bring effective governance that has further decreased the situation and kept the fierce battle continued. Taliban takeover of the country has further made the situation worse and led to a state of no regulations. Crossfires have killed millions of people without proving them with proper justice or at least giving them a chance to express their perspectives. However, the post-Taliban takeover has not ended the civil war situation in the country. It made the situation worse than past and increases the battle between groups. Taliban have tried to make forceful interventions in the regions that are governed by their rival groups. It has further increased the battle and continued to attack civilians and making the country's future dark.

The rebel groups have formed a legislative structure to rule the country and reduce conflicts. However, differences between rebel groups have reduced the ambitions of this and further increased conflicts[54]. There is no change in the civil war situation in Afghanistan and people's life in the country. Civil war situations have to make it worst to formulate effective legal frameworks and take countermeasures towards different non-state rebel groups. These groups often attempted to capture power and rule the country. However, a lack of clarity and unity among them has led them to a total failure to rule the country. Foreign powers have aimed to bring peace and stabilize the situation in the country. However, rapid changes in the situation have raised serious obstacles to preventing rebel groups to capture the epicentre of power and stabilize the situation in the country. However, rapid changes in the situation have raised serious obstacles to prevent rebel groups to capture the epicentre of power and stabilize the situation in the country. Trade deals have become more difficult under Taliban rule that impacted the country's foreign relations and trade agreements[55]. Different foreign countries have frizzed their funds further creating distress in the country's economic situation. Inefficiency to make trade agreements further declined the country's prospect to achieve robust growth in the global markets. Afghanistan is facing one of the worst economic crises after the Taliban takeover and that forced people to live in starvation. Agricultural output has declined and that further reduced its growth opportunities among global economies. Fierce conflicts are still going on among different rebel groups in the country that further increased the war situation. After the foreign forces were withdrawn from the country it further increased the attack on humanitarian activities as well as the people of their own country. These battles have made situations worst and adversely impacted people's lives. Economic isolation from the world would further make Afghanistan's situation worst and would increase starvation as well as conflicts.

Theme 2: indiscriminate aggression and unlawful killings

The war in Afghanistan impacted tremendously, parties involved in the conflict, and it ruined the entire law of the country. The dissent in Afghanistan persisted to engage in serious infringements of global humanitarian law, and that act impacted the entire world and the cause of the act is still ongoing[56]. The war has destroyed the entire structure, law regulations, and living standards through war crimes, and other profound human liberties violations and misuses. Innocent people lost their lives and it continued till the entropy country was captured by the armed non stated actors, the violence was harsh management of the laws of safety and security[57]. The aim of armed actors is constantly approaching to create and destroy the entire country to capture the place.

Indiscriminate and targeted killings achieved record levels and the scenario was pathetic. Human privileges defenders are considered as women activists, reporters, healthiness and humanitarian employees, and spiritual and ethnic juvenility were the major focus by the Taliban to target and to effectively destroy the entire structure[58]. Reprisal killings were constantly going and the wave of blood was going in the entire country, released during the Taliban appropriation of the land. Thousands of individuals, primarily shiahazaras are forcibly expelled[59]. The finite progress constructed towards enhancing women's privileges was sharply changed under the rules of the Taliban[60]. Under the rule of the Taliban, women are treated in harsh ways and all their rights and freedom are snatched the rights to liberty of community and presentation was drastically shortened. People are unable to gain medical facilities and many innocent lives die due to lack of adequate treatment facilities and the entire education system was disrupted by the Taliban.

The pandemic has caused massive losses in the entire world and the violence developed by the Taliban put a massive impact on the edge of finance and health and education aspects, the lack of fairness and lack of army in Afghanistan was leading the country toward a pathetic condition[61]. Pandemic and a financial situation worsened by the recess of alien aid, the approach of lack of government support, and international boycotts are seen against the Taliban. Government parties under the supervision of "president ghani'' and the "non-state actors'' brought out indiscriminate raids with devised explosive gadgets and air strikes by the Taliban creating a horrifying atmosphere by killing and disabling thousands in Afghanistan.

Many people lost their lives in the war and the situation of the country was constantly damaging the country. Many people lost their lives and children, many became orphans and many women lost their husbands. Families are ruined in the war and the most pathetic scenario is seen as the woman delivering their children in the broader order to protect the lives of innocent children. This situation reflects the pathetic condition of women and the importance of life. The non-state actors are continuously presenting a strong image of violation and damage to mental peace. The cruelty was constantly increasing and it affected the entire country.

Condition of women

Prior women are restricted to do some aspects as they are under the Islamic culture however the terms of rights are valid for women both holding the ability to read in schools and to achieve a successful career in the future[62]. The act of the non-state actor was a terrible approach by the Taliban. Taliban takeover impacted all aspects however the major concern was referring to the aspects of the standard of women's rights and women's living standards. All the rights and freedom of afghan women are taken from them[63]. The Taliban are creating a horrifying atmosphere for women as well as girls and continuing to increase harassment and threats to life. The violence was majorly experienced by the women as women suffered from the cruelty of the women. The impact of the war was majorly seen in the worm of the abnegation as they suffered from the cult of the Taliban and was ill-treated by the Taliban men.

Gender-based violence and discrimination were constantly increasing and more women are attempting suicide to reduce the pathetic condition of life. Taliban takeover, over the entire country and implemented their own rulers and regulation on women, as a result, the women faced inequality in terms of achieving careers and gaining education facilities. In the rules and regulations of the armed forces, women have completely lost their rights in the country and they are treated as an object not as a human, their fundamental human rights are taken from them as a result women are surrounded by unethical people and all the rights are taken away from them, women are living in the most pathetic condition after the Taliban captured the entire aspect of the ethics are limited gain created in the last decades was reversed by the tail arms. Women solicitors, magistrates, and prosecutors and the adequate out of administration were taken away from the women, women are not allowed to work under the Taliban takeover. The Taliban is creating a threatening life for the people[64]. The situation becomes pathetic and it creates a society where only men hold all the rights and women are controlled by the men, this pathetic situation is forcing the women to leave their dreams and focusing in the aspects of serving the men as in many cases of the Taliban seen that women are virtually discharged from their positions and pushed into obscuring[65]. Women confronted reprisals from males and were sentenced and jailed for household as well as other gender-based brutality. If a woman does not serve the rules of the Taliban are henceforth sent to the hails and torched by the Taliban. Women are restricted to enter offices and the education facilities of their young girls are restricted. As a result it presents the violence created by the taliban. There were statements of captives and Taliban combatants ransacking the houses of potential female judges to assure that women do not hold any position in the country. Boys were allowed to resume the academy the position for girls stayed unclear. The pathetic condition of women is constantly increasing as the females are insecure. The Taliban’s termination of institutional and lawful authorization for females left ladies at threat of further brutality, and they stressed the effects of the Taliban.

Theme 3: Role of International Humanitarian Law to handle the situation of armed conflict

Enhancing compliance with international norms is applicable to improve the protection of civilian armed conflict. It is being enlarged to make the dignity in the business form the external of the international legal regime that is applicable to improve the dignity in the business performance. In the article, the authors have also addressed the international human rights laws that are more widely seen and can be imposed to make the legislation create a precluded engagement with positive respect on the humanitarian norms[66]. Moreover, it is accessible to have greater engagement with the armed forces that are being signed to make the negotiation with the international humanitarian to serve the armed forces. It is accessible to make changes with the state against the several-armed laws that are making the humanitarian states make the diligence in the lack of knowledge for the diversification in the changes[67]. It is accessible to look at the dignity in the business performance from the international legal personality that is generally set to make the credential for the business and make the respect rule that has the right to solve and improve the overall performance.

It is applicable to the access and the improvement in the performance by creating a standard diversification for the changes in regulation and making the legal personality with the diversification in dignity. It is accessible to improve the general participation in conducting the research that is making the negotiation in achieving the standard and dignity of the work[68]. It is having the accessibility to focus on the changes that are making the recommendation based on the legal dimension to work and make the focus on the policy and aspect to issue on the particular changes. In order to improve international laws, we are making the negotiation based on the conflict that is being raised for the intra-state and making the conversation for the generic changes. It is applicable to make the negotiations based on the standard work that is set to raise the conflict in international business. It is making the acquisition based upon integrity and achieving long-term dignity in the business[69]. The overall interference is applicable to make the achievement in the standard that is accessible to have the changes with a strong laws and negotiation. International humanitarian laws have been applied to make the specifications on the armed conflict that is being raised to solve and achieve dignity in the business[70]. Moreover, it is important to solve and set the criticized change that is making the negotiation with the notion of international armed conflict.

It is being raised to solve the issue of dignity and make the conversation about having the eligibility to set the armed conflict with the resolution to improve the changes. It is applicable to access and enhances dignity in making the authority of the hostile army. Additional protocol to the Geneva Convention is applicable to make the extent in the overall performance to make the negotiation with the determination in the overall standard[71]. It has the situation to deal with and make the compliance in negotiation to solve and get the result that will help to solve the conflict and rise to the customer in translation laws to make the dignity in the overall standard. The political changes are making the overall standing with the enhancement in the performance that is applicable to sole, makes the conversational changes with the situation in the customary changes, and is applicable in the case of the contemporary changes. It is making the negotiation based on the standard that hence achieves dignity in customary international laws.

In the case of armed conflict, the international character is being set to improve the overall standing with the negotiation that is accessible to make the changes with the rehabilitation in other changes that is accessible to make the density and set the previous judgment for dignity to the personal rules. However, impartiality is accessible to the parties that lead to conflict. It is making the negotiation achieve the standard and improve the overall stability in the business. The conversational changes are being set to predict the credential that is having the accessibility to solve the issue and make the source in order to meet the negotiation switch armed conflict.

The impartial humiliation is being solved to achieve the standard in work that is making the negotiation oath to the high contracting parties to solve the issue and make the dignity in the overall sustainability[72]. Additionally, the portal changes are being set to snake the credential in the business with the negotiation to solve and modify the restriction in changes that is applicable to solve and set the circumstances with the changing dignity. It is having the overall standard with the negotiation to meet the control over the party and territory to solve the issue and make the sustained position that is being concurred on the negotiation and making the overall stability in the military operational protocol.

The international criminal tribunal is setting the additional protocol II that is part of the customary international laws. The laws and regulations are required to maintain so that the revolution after the conflict can be stopped. It is also important to maintain a forum that is important for settling the resolution and solving the problem of the organisation. Overall dignity is being set to meet the credential of the business and achieve dignity with the rules and regulation. The additional protocol II is required to make the regulation with the international human rights that have the threshold for the violence and reached to IHL[73]. It is applicable to solve and makes the overall accessibility for the rulers and regulation that is important for the Humanitarian Law. Common Article 3 has not been dropped to solve the regulatory changes with the conflict that is required to make the negotiation based on the military equipment with the troop movement and logistics. It is required to make the logistic changes with the unfiled ability that is making the military plan to resolve the conflict and set the tactics for the resolution and conflict in the organisation. The overall standard is being set to make the negotiation with the chain that is accessible to have a cease-fire on the peace accords.

It has the accessibility to make the changes with the trail chamber that is having the accessibility to make the credential in the overall performance and achieving the standard in the performance. The settlement is making the stringent condition for the overall conflict that raised the requirement for the control of territory by the ANSA. In addition, it is making the changes in the overall dignity and credential in the Humanitarian Law is accessible to solve and make striving changes with the growth and credential in the business[74]. It is having the accessibility to determine the control on the work that is making the delegation in the overall standard with the dignity to solve and meet the expectation over the standard. It is accessible to solve and improve the overall standard with credibility and control over the test. The protocol is being maintained by the situation on the overall density to solve and put the territory[75]. It is making the overallcredential in the Humanitarian Law to control the territory with the changes in the credential. It is having the accessibility to solve and improve the dignity of the business by making the station diversified in performance and achieving the standard.

A rigid plan is being set to meet the credential for the overall performance and enhance the overall commentary of the protocol that is published by the “International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)”. It has the situation to accept every situation and control the territory with the parties. The overall dignity is being set to make the credential in the Humanitarian Law is required to solve and improve the dignity of the work[76]. The contemporary changes are being set to meet the credential with the armed conflict that is being raised to improve the state with the place to have the parties and making the credential in the international commission. The distinction is being prohibited to restrict the changes and make the torture inhuman to improve the overall credential for the growth and achieving the standard performance. It is required to meet the expectation over the obligation to meet the credential for the enemy and improve the overall standard.

Theme 4: Role of Concerted and Sustained military operations opposed to armed forces of government

Generally, "Non-state actors" falls with the opportunity of interest with respect to the "Public international law". The major concrete reason behind this scenario has deliberated the engagement or association of international elements. The actual cause of conflict between the "Armed state actors" and "Armed Non-State Actors" of Afghanistan is customary rules and accords. Since the period of 2001, the degree of violence across the region of Afghanistan has prospered. It has been observed that major 3 phases can be noticed with respect to the armed conflict between the "State and Non-State Actors".[77] The beginning of the primary or initial stage occurred with the situational metamorphosis of aggression amended by the United States and this has been noticed during the month of October 2001.

The violence through the armed conflict between the "Government of the Taliban" and "Northern Alliance forces" rise with the context of "Non-international character". On the 6th of October (2001) the second round of violence proliferated by the US-led attack against to the Taliban. The concerned scenario has seeded the ground of international natural armed conflict across the region of Afghanistan. Besides that, 3rd stage of the armed conflict has been infused with the domain of Afghanistan perpetrated by further foreign powers and the US.[78] In view of the scenario, the context of the "Geneva Conventions" has been brought into practice due to the rise of "International armed conflict".

The armed violence in the region of Afghanistan has gained sufficient intensity to constitute an Armed conflict in contrast to the non-international player. In the case of such type of armed conflict, the application of mostly 2 particular Treaty rules has been brought into practice. Those treaty rules or accords are "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions" (1949) and "Common Article 3" of the Geneva conversion. The objective of those 2 accords of the Geneva Conventions has been associated with safeguarding or protecting the sufferers of "Non-International Armed Conflicts".[79] In 1956, 4 distinct Geneva Conventions were ratified for Afghanistan and 2 other "Additional Protocols" have been formulated in 2009. The rule comprised under the "Common Article 3" has a major sync with international law in contrast to customary nature.[80] Therefore, regulations of hostility have been broadly proliferated by those rules and areas of the debated topic have been raised.

The commentators have argued that provisions have bound with the protection of individuals with respect to "Direct control". Therefore, common article 3 has reflected a major gap in relevance for the context of hostilities conduction. Besides that, commentators have also described that "Violence to life and person" must have to be considered based on acts committed by the motion of military operations. The apparent certitude of armed conflict has featured non-state actors are also bounded by "International humanitarian law". A prospect of the controversial stage has been raised with armed conflict perpetrated by non-state actors.[81] On the other hand, a few commentators believe that "Customary international humanitarian law" has also bounded the ANSAs.

On the other hand, "Additional Protocol II" has generated questions in terms of the applicability of existing armed conflict across the concerned region. In Article 1, it has been clearly mentioned through paragraph 1 that the concerned protocol can be authorised and applied in contrast to all kinds of armed conflict. Therefore, the high intensity of the threshold has been noticed with respect to the "Common Article 3" application. The 3 critically significant conditions have been featured based on the cumulative material.[82] That states, under the supervision or guidance of the liable command, organization and structuring of armed groups need to perform. The exercise of those groups has to control the lands of the national territory in order to conduct a sustained and concerted military operation.

In terms of the decisiveness of territorial control with respect to the region of Afghanistan, multiple accounts were involved. Taliban have expressed that exposure to the regional sphere across Afghanistan increased by 72% in 2008. The harmful activities have been partially perpetrated by the motion of ANSAs against the Afgan civilian individuals. In contrast to the scenario, it can be stated that a major fall in "International humanitarian law" across the concenred region has been broadly recognised.[83] It has been observed that freedom of assembly and expression, occupation, education and ethnic practice were highly exploited by ANSAs.

A rigid practice of continuous operations in contrast to military operations over the non-state armed forces has rapidly increased. The degree of combat intensity with respect to the region of Afghanistan has generated a high count of casualties. The casualties occurred from the military operation upon the Taliban and as a result, high-level devastation took place. The commentators argued the pragmatic application of provisions enlisted in the Protocol and amended with respect to the acquiescence of the Taliban. Besides that, the requisite level has occurred as a critical level of conflict in contrast to the application of the protocol.

The inquiry related to armed conflict has increased the demand for "Additional Protocol II" in order to address and resolve the armed conflict in Afghanistan. As a result of this scenario, hostilities across the "Governments of Afghanistan" have been brought into practice depending upon the requisite criteria. A few rules of "Non-international armed conflict" have also become applicable to the concenred conflict. Therefore, it can be stated that protocol II has been brought into practice with immediate effect on the security forces and armed forces of Afghanistan. However, provisions of "Common Article 3" are merely applicable to those concerning parties associated with conflict.[84] On the other side, foreign military forces were tied with those provisions and a scenario of contradiction arose.

In contrast to the scenario, it has been noticed that both parties associated with conflict have amended the limited application of protocol. In view of the scenario, state forces of the Afgan region became significant allies of "Additional Protocol II". It has been observed that principles of humanitarianism have been emphasized under "Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions". This has played an essential role in terms of constituting and foundation of the degree of respect for human beings. However, this type of amendment has been broadly stressed during the period of armed conflict. Besides that, the need for the protection of sovereignty, civil rights and prevention of conflict has noticed.

On the other hand, it has been explored that Article 1 is comprised of the application of the material in contrast to any armed conflict and in the case of a "High Contracting Party". Another side, Article 2 is comprised of the engagement of personal field in contrast to any armed conflict. In contrast to the reflection of Articles 1 and 2, it can be argued that the protocols needed to be practised depending upon unbiased view with respect to political factors, gender, race and religion.[85] It has been also recognised that the end of such type of conflict must be deprived of liberty depending upon provincial motivations of liberty. Thus, the sovereignty of the respective state must be upheld through the action of the government and protocols can not be invoked.

The government have reserved the sole right to proclaim or re-establishing "Law and order" over the functional region and upliftthe territorial integrity. The civilians of the concerned region must be protected from the consequences of armed conflict and critical outcomes derived from military operations. It has been explored, the article has clearly narrated that civilians of any particular region cannot be treated as "Objects of attack". In view of the scenario, the practice of violence with respect to the civilian population is considered with the label of terror movement.

It has been observed that adverse discrimination needed to be strictly abandoned and prohibited in the "Provision of Protocol II". The non-intervention-related principles have made a concrete focus on internal matters with respect to any particular state.[86] In contrast to the scenario, it has been found that the sole objective of concerned protocols has a broad dependency on humanitarian prospects. Therefore, the rights of civilians cannot be deemed due to the armed conflict between the state and non-state actors. Hence, it has been explored that the presence of unreliability consequences and failed attempts has provoked the escalation of violence in contrast to the case of armed conflict.

Discussion

International law plays a crucial role in regulating the behavior of “armed non-state actors” in any armed dispute. All "Non-state actors" are individuals or groups that operate outside the control of the state and can include rebel groups, terrorist organizations, and private military companies. All parties involved in the armed conflicts, are considered under the “Public international law”, including “non-state actors”, and establish the legal framework for their behavior. The “Taliban” controls a powerful territory in Afghanistan as a “non-state actor”, and it is counted under that particular international law[87]. Taliban is required to adhere to the “Geneva Conventions” and other customary rules of “international law” regarding the conduct of hostilities. The time a state and a non-state actor engage in hostilities, global armed conflict arises.

During armed conflict, “Geneva Conventions” provide protections for civilians and combatants and the “Common Article 3” of this convention applies to non-international armed conflicts, such as those between non-state actors and a government. It provides basic protections for individuals not taking part in hostilities, such as violence to life and person. The “Additional Protocol II” provides more and detailed protection of individuals involved in conflicts. It establishes rules for the humane treatment, detention, and trial of individuals who are not taking an active part in hostilities. Hence, these overall findings help me to understand that “international law” is important and highly implacable to all parties that actively participate in conflicts. I am able to develop details knowledge of different non-state such as “Northern Alliance forces” and “Taliban” and their need to adhere to rules and regulations formed by the “legal framework” of Geneva.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation

Linking with objectives

Linking with the objective one mentioned the current information regarding the armed forces. Armed forces are required for countries from many kinds of perspectives. This needs to be mentioned that armed force plays a role in mitigating crime; however, many times the government is these forces to execute international issues. Most of the time-armed force is used to deal with non-armed actors.

Linking with objective two illustrated a major discussion regarding unlawful killings. This needs to be mentioned the murder of any innocent man can be considered unlawful killing. This needs to be mentioned that in the UK, several kinds of acts are in existence for unlawful killings. "Person Act 1861" and "Homicide Act 1957" are two major acts of the UK that deal with unlawful killings. During the time of arm-force operations, there are several innocent people are killed. This needs to be mentioned that every time non-armed actors take action a huge amount of innocent people are killed and that is unlawful killing. Therefore, international laws are very important to deal with all of these unlawful killings.

Linking with objective three reflects on the importance of International Humanitarian Law to manage situations of armed conflict. The main sources of International Humanitarian Law are the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977, along with Customary International Law. The purpose of International Humanitarian Law is to decrease the suffering of other people that is caused by wars. Apart from that, from the perspective of managing non-armed actors, International Humanitarian Law comes with new various perspectives. To handle non-armed actors, International Humanitarian Law delivered a formative framework. This kind of framework is very helpful in offering instant feedback. This needs to be mentioned that the rules d regulations that international humanitarian law is the perfect balance of military necessity and laws regarding human rights. Apart from these aspects different kinds of other aspects are there that need to be taken care of. This kind of law takes helps these people in wounded situations. Furthermore, this law helps civilians and prisoners too, as this act simply reflects the fact that even these personalities have their rights.

Linking with objective four demonstrates the fact that Concerted and Sustained military operations play a major role to protect various aspects. It can be noted that the role of military operations can be understood depending on the situation. Most military operation takes place due to national interest. Sometimes, it also takes place due to various types of action regarding terrorism.

Recommendations

Implementation of several types of strategies can help in developing better international laws to reduce conflicts that take place between countries. CARE is one of the best-taken strategies that can be taken by international countries to reduce all types of conflicts that take place between countries. Implementation of strategies goes through four major steps and each of the steps plays its role to reduce international conflicts. Besides this strategy, several kinds of other strategies are available and implementation of those strategies can help reduce conflicts among international countries, as Six C's model can be helpful to reduce international conflicts. This needs to be mentioned that to deal with non-state actors there are different kinds of international laws that each country is holding. Each country has their laws and regulations to deal with non-armed actors.

The theory of conflict management can be considered one of the best strategies for order to reduce conflicts. The theory of conflict management can be one of the best strategies to deal with non-armed actors. This model is based on six major aspects and all of those aspects are very helpful to deal with conflicts. Context, Causes, Consequences, Covariance, Contingencies and Condition are the six major aspects that need to be taken care of to have perfect execution of this model. Apart from these strategies, several kinds of other international strategies are available; and their implementation helps in developing better international laws to deal with non-armed actors. It can be noted that multilateral law-making treaties can be identified as one of the best strategies to make well-developed international laws. Understanding the positive changes that this strategy is going to bring to international laws can be understood by understanding the benefits that multilateral law-making treaties are providing.

Using this kind of strategy is going to be helpful, as it helps in developing better relationships among international countries. The simple reason that implementation of multilateral law-making treaties can help to develop better relations is due to the reason that there are some times when countries have used non-armed actors to deal with international conflicts; however, the main point is that most time non-armed actors take steps according to their mindsets. All of the steps that these non-armed actors take are redefining their benefit and the country's benefit. Therefore conducting multinational trade agreements that tasks place in international countries can help in strengthening the global economy. Implementation of this kind of threat can help in developing a situation to make competition between developed international countries. Apart from that implementation of a strategy can help in making more exports and imports. This needs to be mentioned that it can help in providing economic benefits to other nations.

Conducting all aspects can help in developing better relationships among international countries. It is to be noted that having better relationship among nations are going to be helpful to develop better international laws. Apart from making international relationships better several kinds of other strategies are there that can be taken into custody. The government of any country needs to deal with its non-armed actors to reduce conflicts. Having a good convention can be helpful to reduce the intensity between government and non-armed actors. This needs to be mentioned that controlling the non-armed actors can help a lot as most times, non-armed actors take actions on their basis. Most of the time, they do not take any kind of order from the government.

Different aspects are there that need to be taken care of to deal with mom-armed actors. Before dealing with non-armed actors several kinds of other steps are there that need to be taken care of. According to that research, the first task that needs to be taken care of; understands the type of non-armed actors that they are going to deal with. They can be rebel groups or criminal community's warlords and apart from that, non-armed actors can be from religious perspectives too. Before dealing with them, having a better understanding of their motives can be helpful a lot in order t deal with non-armed actors. Some non-armed actors are developed for environmental issues. On the first point, they are the ones that are responsible for creating violations against common civilians. Besides form that non-armed actors cite that they conduct their entire basis with the purpose of something positive.

Sometimes all of these non-armed acts make questions regarding socioeconomic and political issues. During this time, non-armed actors promote selves as advocates. Therefore, this can be mentioned that before dealing with non-armed actors several kinds of aspects and information are there that need to be taken care of. This needs to illustrate that international laws are very difficult and hard to enforce. Since it is very hard and difficult, it can be considered one of the major challenges of international laws; therefore. Making a developed strategy to help governments to implement and enforce international law is going to be helpful. Human rights are one of the major issues regarding international laws. Besides that, political issues are to be considered as one of the major issues that stand regarding the implementation of international. These are some major issues; that stand during the implementation of international laws. Providing strategies that can help to mitigate these challenges can help to handle issues regarding international laws.

Apart from the above-demonstrated issues several types of other issues are there that need to be taken care of. The lack of professionals and experts is to be considered as one challenge that stands out regarding the implementation of international. Therefore, nations need to think of developing more diplomats. Mutual consent of both nations is one major positive practice that can be performed by international countries to deal with issues that stands with the implementation of international laws. These are some of the major strategies that are supposed to be followed for better development and implementation of international laws. Furthermore, it can be helpful to deal with non-armed actors.

One another strategy that can be followed to mitigate international laws-related challenges understands the purpose of international laws. This needs to be mentioned for any law to become effective, some criteria need to be expected fully and fulfilling them is what makes it a law. The most fundamental factor that needs to be understood is that understanding supremacy and purpose of that law. This needed to be mentioned that having an idea regarding the importance of law is going to be helpful to make the implementation of any law more successful. Having a better understanding of the importance is going to help conduct decisions. Defining the legal responsibilities of nations can be considered one of the major responsibilities of international laws. Their purpose is to provide treatment to those people that are presently located within national boundaries. During the time of making international laws parties have to think of whether their actions are meeting this goal or not.

International laws hold responsibility for promoting justice and peace all around the world. Any chance, if nations are going through bad relations then they have to conduct many kinds of steps to reduce the amount of conflict that both of the nations are holding among themselves. CARE "Communicate, Actively Listen, Review Options and End with a Win-Win Solution" are four major strategies that can be followed by nations to resolve conflicts. It can be noted that open communication is a major key that holds power to end any kind of dispute. With open communication, it can be easy to understand the opinion that another party is holding. Open conversation is going to be very helpful to understand the problematic situations of others.

Besides communication, active communication can be one other strategy that can be followed by nations to mitigate. Reviewing options can be in determining all of the solutions that are available to solve the issues. The last stage of the CARE model reflects on the fact any deal or agreement between nations is going to take place; when both of the parties are going to receive profit from the agreement. From this above discussion, it can be found that following the CARE model can be one of the best strategies that can be followed to make reduce conflict that takes place between international nations. Sometimes the lower amount of professionals can be one of the major reasons nations face many kinds of challenges regarding the implementation of international laws. Therefore, nations have to focus on the fact that having a good number of diplomats is going to be beneficial for the implementation of international laws.

Recommended remedies

Recommendation 1: to balance the social culture

It is recommended to manage the social culture in the country and strict laws must be implemented to influence the development of the country. The country has suffered a lot since the terror attack destroyed the entire structure of the country. It is essential to apply strict laws to avoid violence in the country. The implementation of stick laws and support from diverse countries is essential for the survival of the entire citizens[88]. Implementation of the stick laws in favor of women and children is essential to assure the development of the country. As the women and the children are suffering from a pathetic situation and are harassed by the Taliban. The country requires following up the ethics and management of stick laws. The country should follow the terms and conditions developed to maintain peace and humanity over the globe. a country should focus on balancing the ethical laws in place to encourage the benefits and assures the resort of each community[89]. Constructing healthy cultural bonds helps in balancing a healthy and peaceful environment.

Recommendation 2: to influence the education of youth

It is recommended that the country provide education to every student. Youth is considered an asset to the country therefore delivering adequate knowledge will help them to pressure from the trap of terrorism adequate education is essential to influence the aspect of kindness, generosity, and the development of the country. Education is the key aspect of the development of business. The country requires understanding the values of the culture and helps in achieving the healthy development of the country. However, it is tough in the present situation as the country is focused on delivering terror the country. The country should follow ethical considerations by delivering a strong infrastructure of education to young minds[90]. Education is the key element to eliminating violence and influencing the development of the country. Transform the structure of country education is the best way to assure a healthy community in the country. Implementation of laws for the child welfare and development of children, and effective education will help in managing gender equality in the country as it is considered one of the leading aspects for balancing the situation and assuring a healthy community.

Research Limitations

This research paper has covered many kinds of aspects regarding non-armed actors and international laws; however, this research paper has not covered some major aspects too. One of the major aspects that this research paper has not touched on is the challenges that these nations are going to see during the time of developing or making new international laws regarding non-armed actors. This research paper has mentioned that multilateral law-making treaties can be helpful to mitigate conflicts that take place between nations due to all of the actions that non-armed actors conduct. Apart from that, this research paper has not mentioned the negative aspects of multilateral law-making treaties. This research paper has mentioned that before dealing with non-armed actors; knowing their intention can help not mitigate challenges. The issue is the type of challenges that government can face during the time of identifying the intention of non-armed actors and this is one major aspect; this research paper has mentioned demonstrated.

Future perspective

Several aspects are there that needs to be taken care of in future. This research paper has mentioned any kind of strategies that are going to be helpful to mitigate all kinds of issues that occur during the implementation of international laws. Many kinds of issues are there that can be faced during the implementation of international laws such as a lack of experts and professionals. The issues regarding the lack of professionals and experts are one of the major aspects that need to be taken care of by future research. Apart from that, the negative aspects that occur during multilateral law-making treaties are other aspects that future generations can take care of. Besides from that future generations can look at the dealing process of government with the non-armed actors. These are some of the major aspects; this research paper has not covered and future generations can conduct a depth analysis of all of these matters.

Conclusion

This research paper has provided brief knowledge regarding the concept of non-armed actors. Apart from that, this research paper has not the different types of non-armed actors that exist. For conducting this research paper, the type of research methodology that was used is mentioned in this research paper. In the discussion, this research has taken the help of thematic analysis to have a better understanding of e findings that was extracted from the data analysis chapter. This research paper has mentioned the best strategies that are going to be helpful to reduce national conflict. Some blooming strategies that can be helpful to develop international laws are also mentioned later in this research paper. Besides that, this research paper has demonstrated major strategies that the government of any country or nation can take to have better dealing with non-armed actors. This research paper has also mentioned major challenges that any country faces during the implementation of international laws. Later some strategies that can help to reduce these challenges are also demonstrated in this research paper. The CARE model was very helpful to understand the process of reducing conflicts among nations. Research limitation is a major aspect that this paper has mentioned. Following all of the research strategies can be helpful to develop a better international law to deal with non-armed actors.

The topic of this specific research has been a subject of increasing interest in recent years. The emergence of “armed non-state actors “ (ANSAs) has challenged the traditional state-centric approach to “international law”, which assumes that only states have the capacity to engage in armed conflicts. In order to regulate the behavior of “armed non-state” actors, global law is considered an essential tool. For a better understanding of the relations between “international law” and these actors “constructivism” theory plays an important role. This theory emphasizes the role of social norms and ideas, and the concept of global governance, that highlights the importance of cooperation and coordination among “states and non-state actors” in regulating behavior. Hence, the application of this theory helps to understand the complex nature of “ANSAs” and the diverse conflicts in which they operate require a nuanced and multifaceted approach to international law.

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