IoT Systems Design and Security Evaluation Assignment Sample

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Introduction of IoT Systems Design and Security Evaluation Assignment

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IoT has been widely considered to be a single target issue, where the proposed solutions have been expected to be applicable across a wide range of applications. Perilous infrastructure design and important business services need various levels of security and privacy than do domestically based demands. Furthermore, the amount of human and financial capital that may be allocated to establishing privacy and security measures varies widely depending on the application. Individual difficulties, as well as technological ones, might be important at the next level up, which is the house.

The research identifies the primary future needs for trusted IoT systems after an evaluation of current IoT security measures (Chaki & Roy, 2021). Restricted resource devices and the presence of a higher system necessitate that the architectural gateway be selected. It has been determined which technologies would be used to facilitate the implementation of system auto management. Auto-configurations of the system are one of them, as are firmware and system upgrades that help keep the system running smoothly and securely.

Growth of IoT

In recent decades, the Internet of Things (IoT) has taken hold as a term to describe non-traditional connections between objects such as manufacturing machinery, residential appliances, and medical equipment. When it comes to linking microcontrollers to the internet, Internet of Things (IoT) is widely seen as the future of technology (El-Latif et al., 2021). RFID technology is also seen as Internet of Things (IoT) technology, allowing remote monitoring of the status and location of tagged objects. The importance and difficulty of IoT technology's adoption are seen differently by different analysts.

In Dave Evans' evaluation, Cisco's creative thinker, he labels it "How the Next Evolution of the Internet is Changing Everything," while others warn about unreasonable expectations like Hurlburt et al. IoT penetration is quick and bothersome in several sectors, according to current conversations about the effect of infiltration and the pace of IoT technology adoption and use. The focus of my research is on the use of IoT technologies in the design of IoT networks. In the same way that safety and confidentiality are crucial to other IoT application areas, so are they in IoT.

In general, many of the strategies used to safeguard dangerous systems and secure institutions are applicable to the Internet of Things. When it comes to IoT networks, however, institutions tend to see them as ad hoc systems that lack dedicated system resources and deep technical expertise for the homeowner sector, giving the impression of an encounter between privacy and security (Akhgar et al., 2021). The major goal of this technical paper is to summarise the current network technologies that may be used to secure IoT networks while also considering system auto setup and upgrades.

This is a big undertaking. Introduction to confidentiality, various IoT tech functionalities where it has a profound influence and emphasising its application to IoT networks, descriptions of protection vulnerabilities and attacks at IoT networks and requirement of predominant decisions, rationalisation of favoured building design model and presenting probable future research work instructions with a detailed research conclusion will all be included in this report.

Privacy and Cyber-security

Since the internet is so interconnected, resources on it may be attacked from anywhere in the cosmos, rendering cyber security a big issue. In terms of cyber security, the following are the key issues:

  1. Confidentiality. Using cryptography as the primary method of maintaining data privacy, it entails making sure that only those with a legitimate need to see it have access to it.
  2. Authentication. In this process, the integrity of the system and network is checked, as is the authenticity of the received data, to ensure that it has come from where it says it has.
  3. Access. In this case, only authorised personnel will be able to access the infrastructure of communication, data, and computing resources, guaranteeing that only those who should have access to the data will be able to do so.

Because the Internet has evolved into a vital component of modern business, it is imperative that information systems maintain an elevated level of cyber security. Cyber assaults are becoming more common, more destructive, and more sophisticated as security measures are tightened (Chantzis et al., 2021). IoT devices demand a trustworthy and built-in automated system to aid in the administration of the network since homeowners can control their own systems. Without IoT network technologies, privacy and security concerns may outweigh the advantages.

IoT Domains

Numerous IoT-enabled areas exist that may benefit from increased efficiency using IoT technology. Industrial IoT encompasses many of the same use cases as plant and factory automation. Security, redundancy, and appropriateness are all important aspects of reliability in severe environments (Wang et al., 2021). Medical databases and equipment in hospitals have been linked together, allowing for more rapid access to and selection of treatment as well as diagnostic options than ever before. Poor and inaccessible clinics benefit from this since experts' views are readily available. It has also improved life quality and reduced hospital re-admissions by bringing medical equipment into the IoT devices setting.

RFID tags are widely used in logistics and transportation to monitor shipments, pallets, and personal belongings. There are smart tags that record and report the transport conditions such as tilt, shock, stress, humidity levels in this field of research. thereby making it possible to communicate with over a hundred tags in an organised and inexpensive manner. A broad variety of industries, including food, entertainment, sports and fitness, transportation, manufacturing, telecommunications, education, and hotels are all affected by IoT technology's disruptive implications. As the primary facilitator of success and innovation, the Internet of Things is well-suited to these diverse businesses, which are eager to invest in innovative technology.

Workers may have access to IT support professionals, who may help ensure that their deployed system's availability and security meet their stated business needs. In this research, we cover a broad spectrum of IoT network environments. In the case of intelligent microchip technology, competent system design, connection, and installation may be achieved. In contrast, IoT technology on IoT networks may be adapted to an existing house piecemeal as needed. In many cases, there is no ongoing professional support for IoT adoption at IoT network phases of operation or design.

Even while there are specific protocols for IoT networks, such as X.10 transmission power line-carrier, lack security and were designed before the connecting of IoT management devices to the Internet. Networking ethics such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Wave, Ethernet, C-bus, RS485/232, UPB/Endogean, KNX, and Thread may be used in IoT network setups. Non-experts have a significant barrier in managing a heterogeneous network with a variety of protocols that has its own unique set of strengths and weaknesses. A smart house might provide additional safety and comfort while also improving environmental sustainability.

Intelligent air conditioning systems employ a wide variety of web-based data sources and IoT devices sensors to make smart operating choices instead of predetermined schedules or basic manual control patterns, for example (Gururaj et al., 2021). Additionally, the sophisticated cooling system may be able to predict the predicted house occupancy via location data monitoring, guaranteeing the air conditioning system attains the intended degree of comfort while the IoT devices is inhabited as well as conserving electricity when the house is not.

IoT networks may also help the elderly remain independent in their own homes if they are in a high-luxury state. As a bonus, it may be used for everyday tasks like cooking and cleaning as well as for washing and grocery shopping. IoT network solutions may help maintain a low glassy level drop by providing medication reminders at pre-scheduled times. To avoid expensive and uncomfortable hospitalizations, IoT monitoring devices may provide caregivers with early warning signs. An IoT network that lacks the privacy and security necessary to ensure user privacy and confidence is less likely to provide the advantages listed above.


Since the smart IoT devices system is linked to the internet, an attack may be launched from a distance. A malicious device may be downloaded, or a networked interface can be directly accessed. Another point of weakness is the limited capacity of the response systems. 8-bit microcontroller devices, traditionally, have had limited storage and processing capabilities, making it difficult to implement sophisticated security methods on the system. Another risk is the system's heterogeneity. Variations in device standards and software capabilities from different manufacturers.

Hardcoded passwords or passwords that are simple to guess

Another weakness is the firmware that has been patched. Regular system and application upgrades to strengthen security vulnerabilities are less common in smart homes. The biggest weakness is a lack of professional security specialists, who oversee dealing with the intricacies of connected IoT devices network systems. Many homeowners may not be able to pay the ongoing care for their IoT devices automation system. As an alternative, unskilled homeowners must be able to manage their own systems safely, securely, and simply. Some homeowners may believe that their webcam can be controlled just by the specific port and hostname of the computer they are using.

Census and Shodan, for example, are search engines that lawfully search across sensor accessibility, making many devices instantly visible and recognised. A device scanner internet search engine is a network scanner that scans open ports and indexes system is characterized that is returned by the end up putting node. Device model, type, personal devices, vendor, and other configuration-related information are included in the header replies.

IoT Security

6LoWPAN is a light-weight protocol intended to allow packets of IPv6 to be sent across IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks. The Authentication Header Payloads and Identification Headers (ESH) of IPv6 packets have been defined for privacy preservation, integrity, identification of data origin, and anti-replay protection. It is a basic characteristic of traditional networks like cable and satellite. As each node except the root must have a parent node, the nodes closest to the dad nodes need to be picked in the DODAG tree. The rank of a node in the topological tree is determined by its RPL rank. Using the max and median rank values of the neighbouring nodes, the criterion of the node may be computed to eliminate the spoofing of the parent node.

Network services that aren't safe

Protected generation channelling tables for Smart Homes may be ensured by current resolutions, then. It is intended for network devices with limited resources. It provides multicast support that HTTP does not. To accommodate low-power computing devices and low-bandwidth connections, CoAP uses the UDP protocol. In comparison to TCP, UDP is a connectionless, simple, and low-latency protocol. This guarantees that the web-based communication of the limited systems is secured. An extensive effort is needed to defend dangerous IoT applications' protected missions, as discussed in the preceding paragraph.

A lack of trust in the security of data transmission and storage

While IP well-matched secure network communications remain acceptable for restricted resource nodes, and employ the condition of the skill security approaches, a lot of effort has been devoted to this effort. It is also important to note that a number of these techniques necessitate a careful design and implementation of a secure development of smart based IoT system that includes qualified network engineers, as well as a thorough understanding of how to precisely connect, mount and establish the outlined potent mechanisms.

Architecture Security

Architectures and Security in the Middleware. It provides a common interface and data interchange mechanism for abstraction of complicated and lower-level hardware. About the unique device approaches, the middleware is transformed to high-level standardised access requests when it receives appeals from a higher-layer layer. In response to the device's response, the bridge routes the low-level technology and data transformations, and then delivers the veiled data and instructions back to the old system. The system does not need to know the core details of the various hardware executions; it just executes the offered functions and instructions via the middleware.

At all levels of middleware, from the lowest hardware transmission level to the highest community boundary level, privacy and security protection must be handled very seriously. Security and Architectures for the Cloud. IoT relies heavily on the ability of the nodes to communicate with one other. Scientists have proposed a cloud-based solution to IoT node performance difficulties. Data from IoT devices may be seen, collected, stored, and processed on the cloud using various resources.

The cloud will be able to activate actions based on user-specific methods for achieving the complicated management of the Smart IoT devices system after analysing this data. As well as giving access to users, the IoT devices Management System regulates policies and equipment. Strict end-to-end encryption using symmetric key cryptography ensures the privacy of all communications inside a house, and each smart item has its own unique key. This removes the need for a separate house controller and gives IoT devices a better way to connect and work together.


Including the established security approaches in IoT devices based smart apps being different from those given for mission critical applications in various industries, IoT is not always a single domain application. The system's security is at risk because of the installation and configuration, both of which are performed by mostly untrained personnel. As a result, planning, implementing, enforcing, and maintaining true security procedures and rules becomes increasingly difficult. There are several ways to address security concerns in a smart home. Web-based applications on account of network setup and autonomous nodes, as well as autonomous system upgrades are excellent.


Akhgar, B., Kavallieros, D., & Sdongos, E. (2021). Technology Development for Security Practitioners. Springer Nature.

Chaki, R., & Roy, D. B. (2021). Security in IoT. CRC Press.

Chantzis, F., Stais, I., Calderon, P., Deirmentzoglou, E., & Woods, B. (2021). Practical IoT Hacking: The Definitive Guide to Attacking the Internet of Things. No Starch Press.

El-Latif, A. A. A., Abd-El-Atty, B., Venegas-Andraca, S. E., Mazurczyk, W., & Gupta, B. B. (2021). Security and Privacy Preserving for IoT and 5G Networks: Techniques, Challenges, and New Directions. Springer Nature.

Gururaj, H. L., Kumar, V. R., Goundar, S., Elngar, A. A., & Swathi, B. H. (2021). Convergence of Internet of Things and Blockchain Technologies. Springer Nature.

Thampi, S. M., Wang, G., Rawat, D. B., Ko, R., & Fan, Chun-I. (2021). Security in Computing and Communications: 8th International Symposium, SSCC 2020, Chennai, India, October 14–17, 2020, Revised Selected Papers. Springer Nature.

Wang, D., Meng, W., & Han, J. (2021). Security and Privacy in New Computing Environments: Third EAI International Conference, SPNCE 2020, Lyngby, Denmark, August 6-7, 2020, Proceedings. Springer Nature.

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