CACHE Level 3 Early Years Educator Session Record & Reflective Journal
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In question 10, the focus has been given to care activities for the children. In this unit, as a teacher or care practitioner, stresses have been given to the routines being followed for the children during toileting or washing hands. Additionally, in this unit, it has also been mentioned what are the routine being followed for the skin, teeth and hair maintenance of the children. For example, during the daycare session, I, as a practitioner, asked the parents to send their children by neatly tie-up hair. I also encouraged the parents to take good care of their children's skin and teeth. So I suggested making the children into the regular habit of brushing after every meal and before going to sleep at night.
Additionally, in this routine, the focus has also been given to the routine being followed at daycare during meal time. For example, in daycare, there is 45 minutes recession period that starts from 1 pm to 1.45 pm. During this period, I check whether every child is taking their meal correctly or not and whether every child washes their hands before taking a meal or wasting food or not. Additionally, in this unit, the routine activities that have to be followed by parents at the resting and sleeping time of children have been recommended.
Question 1 Complete a chart or table for Early years practitioners on common childhood illnesses.
Common childhood illness
Signs and symptoms
It generally causes due to virus infection or bacterial infection (streptococcal infection)
If a sore throat is caused due to viral infections , the symptoms are runny nose, cough, possibly sore ears, poor appetite, tiredness and fever.
· giving the child saline nose drops to help with block-nose
· Giving the child ibuprofen or paracitamol
· giving the child frequent sips of fluid to keep her hydrated
If it causes due to streptococcal infection (children older than 3 years), the symptoms are swollen neck glands, rash on the neck and swollen red tonsils
· antibiotic course (unusually penicillin) as prescribed by the doctor
It can be caused due to various reasons such as ear infection, swimmer infection, pressure from sinus or cold
· Pulling or tugging the ear
· difficulty in sleeping
· crying and irritability
· Fluid draining from the ear
· difficulty hearing
· 'wait and see approach along with counter pain reliever
· in case of severe pain and fever, consider it a medical emergency and take it to the GP
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections, often known as bladder infections or UTIs, happen when bacteria accumulate in the urinary tract .
· a fever, vomiting, exhaustion, and an absence of energy (lethargy)
· poor nutrition
· not gaining enough weight
· Yellowing of the skin and eye whites in very young youngsters (jaundice)
· 1-2 days of antibiotic course
· for babies under 3 months with the severe symptom of UTI, primarily admitted to hospitals for intravenous antibiotic
A viral infection of the nose and throat causes the common cold (upper respiratory tract)
· Stuffy or runny nose
· cough and headache
· mild fever
· loss apatite
· offer the child enough fluid, specifically hot milk, health drinks
· use a medicated saline spray to moisten the nasal passage
· if caused due to sinus infection, the doctor might prescribe antibiotic
An inflammation (swelling) of the linings that protect the brain and spinal cord is known as meningitis. The node is typically brought on by a bacterial or viral infection of the fluid around the brain and spinal cord.
· high fever
· purple rash, which does not face pressure
· severe headache
· dislike of bright colours
· should to taken to the doctor immediately
· Antibiotic intervention and sometimes corticosteroids are required for the treatment
It is a severe infection known as diphtheria brought on by Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria strains.
· high fever and headache
· cough and cold with a sore throat
· difficulty in breathing
· difficulty in swallowing
· Immediate medical attention is required
· Antibiotic intervention is required
The salivary glands around the ears are the primary site of the viral infection known as mumps.
· Swelling in the face sides, under the chin and in front of the ear
· pain around the ear
· difficulty in chewing
· need doctor attention
· required plenty of rest and fluid
· Application of prescribed compress to swollen grand
· paracetamol and painkillers for fever and extreme pain
It is a medical condition in which the airways narrow and swell and may produce extra mucus
· Breathing difficulty
· shortness in breathing
· cold and cough
· quick-relief (rescue) medicine is albuterol or Xopenex (must be doctor prescribed)
It is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus
· red itchy rash all over the body
· fever and headache
· Calamine lotion and a cool bath with added baking soda, uncooked oatmeal, or colloidal oatmeal may help relieve some of the itching
Diarrhoea is characterised by loose, watery stools (bowel movements). it is caused due to a virus which infects the bowel
· Abdominal cramps or pain
· Blood in the stool
· Mucus in the stool
· give the child glucose-electrolyte solution
· take the child to the doctor if it is not cured within 2 days
Question 2: What signs and symptoms of ill health will you notice in children? What would be the appropriate medical response? 409 -refer the ppt file
For children, it is not always easy to understand whether your child is sick or not. This post will reflect on the following key points:
- What are children's common signs and symptoms of ill health?
- When should parents keep their children away from pre-schools, schools, or daycare?
- How will parents understand that their children need medical care?
- When should parents take children to the doctor?
- What should be early medical responses?
What signs and symptoms of ill health will parents notice in children?
The best guide for a child’s state of health is his behaviour. Children who look, behave and act more or less typically are not ill, as they have plenty of energy and curiosity about their surroundings.
A sick child will be:
- Irritable as he is getting disturbed with a health condition
- Cry and feel uncomfortable
- Not want to take the meal
- Feel cold and high body temperature
- Inactive and quite
Common symptoms of when a child needs a medical response
Fever: fever is not always harmful, but generally, infection causes the fever, and at that time, children need rest and proper fluids. Children, if they are under three months and are going through fever with a temperature of 38 degrees C, then they should need a medical response on an immediate basis
Vomiting: vomiting is a common reaction when the body is upset. It can be considered as a prime sign and symptom of illness and medical response
Diarrhoea is the sign of loss of body fluid through repeated watery poos. It can cause dehydration, and weakness in the children
Pain: pain in the throat, ears, abdomen or muscles can be a sign and symptom of illness
Rashes: it is a very common to sign and symptom of illness in children which cause mainly for bacterial or viral infection, allergic reaction to medicine
An early appointment with doctors or general physicians and medical support will be needed to provide care to the children when they are ill. If the fever extends for more than 3 days, emergency medical care will be necessitated for children. To increase immunity, the parents will follow the vaccination routines and proper medication.
Some common medications for fever:
- Glucose-water/ saline water to maintain fluid level in the body
Question 3: List notifiable diseases and describe the process for reporting these diseases.
According to Health Protection (Notification) Regulation, 2010: some common reportable or notifiable diseases for children are as follows:
- Acute poliomyelitis
- Acute meningitis
- Whooping cough
- Yellow fever
- Scarlet fever
The reportable disease can be divided into several categories:
- Report of the total number of cases: examples, Mumps, Influenza, Monkeypox, Anthrax
- Mandatory reporting by telephone or online: examples of Rubella, Yellow fever, scarlet fever, whopping cough
- Mandatory writing report: polio or Acute poliomyelitis
- Diseasesase reportable to the CDC include: Anthrax, Brucellosis
The process of reporting the notifiable disease to the registered medical practitioner by notification form:
Health Protection (Notification) Regulations 2010: notification to the proper officer of the local authority
Registered Medical Practitioner reporting the disease
Date of notification
Disease, infection or contamination
Date of onset of symptoms
Date of diagnosis
Date of death (if the patient died)
Index case details
Overseas travel, if relevant.
(destinations & dates)
Overseas travel: Nigeria (travelling purpose)
Question 4: Explain how you can minimise ill health in children 512 (refer the leaflet in wordfile)-512
- How the infection is spread:
Five common ways to spread disease:
- Mouth, eyes and nose to hands- germs can spread to hands by coughing, sneezing, rubbing eyes
- Hands to food- infection-causing microorganisms usually transmitted from unclean hands to food and pass to the body through food
- Foods to hands to food- bacteria can be transmitted from raw foods to hand while handling the products or food items, and then that bacteria transfer from hand to food while eating.
- Infected person to child and hands of infected children to other children
- Animals to children- petting animals or touching them can be a way to spread infection from animal to children
- Process to prevent secondary infection
What is secondary infection?
A secondary infection is the type of infection that occurs during or after the treatment of any other infection. Secondary infection mainly causes due to sudden changes in the immunity system or due to the treatment of the first infection.
The process to prevent secondary infection for children:
- Parentsent should identify the sign and symptoms of secondary infection and will act fast
- Keep the children at home as long as possible after the first infection, like flu or influenza fever.
- Get influenza and flu vaccination to the children on a routine basis
- Maintain a healthy diet for children to boost their immunity system and limit their exposure to bacteria
- Process to minimise ill health in children
Some common illnesses of children
Care at home
Common cold and flu
· Take the flu vaccine
· Cover nose and mouth while sneezing or coughing
· Avoid touching face with unclean and unwashed hand
· Wash hands often
· Encourage children to stay at home and take a rest
· Give plenty of fluids and easy-to-digest food
· Keep fresh vegetables and fruits in meals to boost immunity
Hand, foot, mouth disease (HFMD)
· Encourage children to frequent hand wash
· Practice covering mouth and nose while coughing and sneezing
· Disinfect objects and surface
· Avoid close contact with infected children or person
· Ensure children are taking enough fluids
· Give warm fluid or popsicles to soothe the throat and mouth
· Apply antibacterial cream or medicated soap on blisters for faster healing
· Do not allow children to touch the eyes or rub eyes with an unclean hand
· Encourage children to wash hands and face with mild warm water and disinfectant
· Ensure that your child is not sharing towels, handkerchiefs and other personal items with others
· Early medical support
· Use of eye drops as per the doctor’s recommendation
· Always clean the crusts and discharges from infected eyes with cotton or clean cloths
There are some simple steps following which you can minimise the illness for children:
- Always keep your room and objectives clear
- Encourage children to wash hands properly before taking a meal or after touching any object
- Keep your children away from consuming raw foods, or foods from unhygienic places
- Keep your children away from infected people or children
- Keep healthy foods for children to boost their immunity
Question 5: Describe the different needs of a child when they are ill.
Food and Drink : Generally, sick children do not want to eat, but their requirement for nutrition is even greater. So, it is essential to give special attention to the food and drink requirement of the sick children and put nutritious food and fluid in their diet, which allows them to recover faster. Still, at the same time, it is essential to offer them tasty food and the type of food they can easily sallow. The best foods for sick children are those that don't require chewing, such as oatmeal, mashed bananas, or rice. Regular, patient spoon feeding will help the ailing child stay strong during illness.
Further, sick children are not able to eat the required quantity at once, so feeding them at frequent intervals (every 2 hours) is important. Moreover, sick children are usually required to drink approximately 2 points of liquid a day, to stay hydrated. So it is important to encourage them to drink frequently. Offering them tasty and healthy drinks, including juice, health drinks, milk, and soup, can increase their interest in drinking and fulfil their nutrition and fluid requirements.
Personal care: sick children need greater attention in their care. Sick children need assistance with toileting, tooth brushing, bathing, hand washing, dressing, etc. The bathing requirement of sick children depends on the type of illness; in the case of fever, bathing could be replaced with wiping. Further, the instances of vomiting, running nose, wetting and soiling nappy are common among sick children, so it is important to give attention to them so that they get immediate assistance in such a situation. For giving personal care, it is important for the care person to make the child comfortable and protected.
Rest and sleep : the rest and sleep requirement of the sick children is greater, as sleep helps to get them recover. Further, they also mostly feed tired and dizzy to the ample amount of sleep, and rest is comforting for them. Reading stories, playing soft child music or playing a carton film are good ways to rest the children as these keep them engaged and entertain and refresh their mood; feeling good for the children is important for enhancing the pace of their recovery. But at the same time is also important to monitor the child who is not watching TV or mobile devices for a long time, as that can cause headaches. The children need to go to bed early and get enough sleep; the caregiver/parents need to ensure that the child gets uninterrupted sleep and also monitor if they are feeling any issues, such as breathing difficulty while sleeping. The sick child also needed to take a nap in the daytime as the sick children need a greater among of sleep.
Emotional Wellbeing : At the time of the sickness, the children become more vulnerable, so greater support is required for them in the form of companionship, assistance, love and care. Sick children need someone with them, if possible, all the time. The sickness not only causes them to suffer physically but also they feel disrupted emotionally, which increases the need for love and care. The adults with sick children need to be extra polite and careful. The children might not want to take medicine or eat food, and such a situation needs to be handled carefully; being tough with the children might enhance her emotional vulnerability.
Dignity and respect : every child needs to treat with dignity and respect, just like adults. It's critical that we uphold a child's right to dignity and respect in all aspects of physical care, especially when they are sick. It is important to make the child feel that he/she is listened to and also spoken to. While performing the care tasks, clothing, washing, and changing them after having an accident, it is important that the child is treated with respect and dignity, giving importance to their need for privacy as much as possible and also making them feel comfortable and protected.
Observation and monitoring : Observing and monitoring sick children is highly important. The health of a child can swiftly change; in the space of one minute, a child may start the day off fine and then get worse as the day goes on. This may be due to the way the illness is impacting their bodies or other potential medical issues that may be developing inside of them. If you are caring for a child with a parent or another professional, children should be watched over and monitored even when they are asleep. Accurate documentation of factors like temperature or how much fluid they have been drinking is crucial for the child's recovery.
Question 6: Outline your setting procedure for the following
At the setting, we make sure that our staff members will only give children medication if their parents have given permission (or by someone authorised by parents on the enrolment record to make decisions about the administration of medication). In the event of a medical emergency, we will also administer medication when given permission verbally by a parent or guardian, followed by a written text message to confirm, by a doctor, or by an emergency service; however, we may do so in the event of an asthma attack or an allergic reaction without prior permission.
Storage medication : in the setting, the medication is stored in a locked cupboard in a room, where a below 25-degree temperature is maintained. Some of the medication is stored in the fridge. Each of the individual child's medications is kept separated and effectively stored in an individual container properly labelled with the child's name, date of birth and other important details.
Administration of medication : in the setting, the entire process of medication is being administrated by the responsible staff member, and the following administration protocol is strictly followed:
- The medication must be authorised in writing by the parents or other authorised person
- The staff member ensures before giving the medication that then it is in the original container with the original label and prescribed by a doctor. And also the medicines are not expired.
- the identity of the child and the dosage of medication checked by the responsible staff before giving the medication
- In case of an emergency, a trained nurse looks after the child, and the parents are informed
- the responsible caregiver puts the entire incident in the record
Record keeping with regard to medication : in the setting, the medical record is kept with the name of each child, maintaining a proper file.
- Contains permission for the child to self-administer medication or to have it administered to them.
- If a child is the intended recipient of the drug, specify the name of the medication, the dosage and method of administration, the time and date on which it was last administered, and the time and date or other circumstances under which it is to be delivered next (including during an emergency), gives specifics on the dosage that is given, how it is given, the time and day it is given, and the name and signature of the caregiver who gave it.
- In our setting, we use a proper medical record template so that all the records are kept in a systematic manner.
Question 7: Provide an explanation of the procedures you need to follow if a child is taken ill at the setting.
Sore throat and viral fever : If the child is sent to the setting with a sore throat, the child needs to be kept separated from other children and also could be sent back home, as it is a viral infection and contagious. In this case, the parents are instructed not to send the child to the setting for the coming 2-5days as the exclusion period applies.
Ear pain : If the child comes to the setting with ear pain, he/she will be kept in the sick room or any other calm area. One caregiver always accompanied him/her, as the ear pain can lead to fever and severe pain. The prescribed medication handover by the parents is given time to the child. The nurses of the setting do not have the authority to give any medicine based on their own judgement. If the child feels too sick, then we call her parent and ask them to pick the child up as early as possible. In case of medical emergencies like severe pain, medical assistance is provided after taking permission from the parent. Ear pain is not contagious, so there is no restriction to returning to the setting. But the parents are advised to send the child after complete recovery.
Urinary tract infection : If the child comes after diagnosis with UTI, all the prescribed medicines are stored and recorded as per the guidelines of the setting. All the medicines of the child given times and all other prescribed instructions are effectively followed. In case the child suffers from the symptoms like fever or vomiting, the parents are called to pick up the child and advised to send the child to the setting after recovery. UTI is not contagious, so there are no restrictions on returning to the setting.
Common cold : It is the most common illness among children. If the child comes to the setting with the common cold, the medication and food requirements of the child are confirmed by the parents. Special attention is given with regard to whether the child is covering his/her mouth and nose while sneezing or coughing. Assistance was given to the child in terms of running nose and associated aspects. For common, the child does not need to send home.
Meningitis: if the child comes with the disease of meningitis, he/she is sent home immediately, and the parents are instructed not to send the child to the setting for about 10 days. Meningitis is a serious illness, and the child requires proper medical attention.
Diphtheria: If the child comes to the setting after diagnosing with diphtheria, the child is immediately sent to the home, and the parents are instructed not to send the child to the setting for at least 4-5 days. Diphtheria is a highly contagious and life-threatening disease. So the child required proper medical attention.
Mumps : If the child comes to the setting being diagnosed with mumps, the child is immediately sent to the home. Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection. The parents are instructed not to send the child to the setting for at least 5 days and advised the parents to give the child proper medical attention.
Asthma : all the records of the child with asthma are properly kept in our setting. For asthma children, an individual inhaler is kept in storage. Asthma children are given special attention. If a child suddenly feels difficulty in breathing, the inhalers are given and shift the child to the sick room. The child sends to home only in case of severe condition.
Chickenpox: if the child comes to the setting with the symptoms of chickenpox, the child is immediate home. Chickenpox is extremely contagious. The parents are instructed not to send the child to the setting for 7 days.
Diarrhoea : If the child comes to the setting with mild symptoms of diarrheal, the child will be treated with glucose-electrolyte solutions (after taking permission from the parents), and a nurse will accompany her all the time and also handle the case of vomiting, soiling and so on. in case the diarrheal symptom is prominent and the child looks severally ill, the parents will be asked to take her home along with a 2days of exclusion.
Question 8: Describe how you would support a child to prepare for a stay in the hospital.
Children are sensitive and curious, so in terms of the situation like staying in hospital, they need proper support. As an early-year practitioner, I first talk with the child about the coming days in the hospital so that the child gets an idea regarding what is going to happen in the coming days. While talking with the child about her hospital stay, I will present the matter in such a way that she gets the idea but does not get scared about that. For instance, I can say, " hey baby, we have found a cure of your stomach pain. We have to stay in the hospital and do as the doctor said. Don’t worry I will be there with you and within 3-4days we are back and this time we are going to leave your stomach pain in the hospital ”. I will further use activities like storytelling and cartoon videos about the hospital stay, which will help her to build a positive approach in terms of the hospital stay. Certain videos and books which I will use are: Curious George Goes to the Hospital, Clifford Visits the Hospital, Big Bird Goes to the hospital and so on. Moreover, I will help the child to pack her bag with her favourite toys and other important objects so that she develops a sense of security while getting mentally prepared for the hospital stay and also while staying in the hospital. I will ask the child what she thinks or feels. Children are smart. They can sense the tension in the scenario. If she imagines the scenario in a negative manner, I support her and turn her thinking in. I will make sure that I am answering all the questions she asks with a positive approach so that she does not get scared and stressed. On the day before the hospital admission, I make the child busy by playing interesting games like puzzles which keep her engaged and allow being distracted from the fear of hospital stay. In the process, she needs extra care and attention, and I also try to; she gets proper support from her parents and loved ones and also guides them on how to present the matter and stay calm and positive in front of her.
Question 9: Describe the therapeutic role of play in the hospital in supporting children's recovery.
Play is safe and comforting to the children. It helps children to make sense of their surroundings. Children learn and grow more while in the hospital, and they also experience less anxiety. It aids them in communicating their emotions and worries, understanding what is happening, and coping with the course of treatment. It gives your child the chance to choose so that they can feel like they have some control. The ability to play while in the hospital allows the youngster to maintain a part of their daily routine. In order to support the emotional and physical well-being of hospitalised children, therapeutic play is defined as a framework of activities that take into account children's psychosocial and cognitive development. In other words, therapeutic play is designed as a structured form of play activities designed considering the age and development of cognitive functions of the child.
A play specialist performs a significant role in easing the hospital experience of the children and their families during their hospital days. Play is utilised to help prepare, and divert the kids for procedures, give them age-appropriate information about diagnoses and treatments, and employ various therapeutic play approaches to help the kids explore their emotions and have good times.
Play, whether it takes the form of therapeutic play or play therapy, has been shown to have a high therapeutic value for sick children while they are in the hospital, helping to promote their physical and mental well-being as well as their recovery. It aids in examining topics pertaining to the child's hospital experiences and lessens the severity of the unpleasant emotions that follow a child's admittance to the hospital and hospitalisation. The use of play among children receiving cancer treatment in hospitals is beneficial, and it is frequently employed in pre-operative preparation and invasive operations.
Question 10: Explain what your responsibilities would be if you were supporting a child who has a chronic health condition.
Chronic illnesses are long-term, may necessitate protracted medical care, and restrict what a child can do. For instance, diseases like asthma, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lupus, and epilepsy cause chronic health conditions. Being an early year practitioner, I would be responsible for supporting the child with a chronic health conditions, in relation to the following aspects:
Training and development :
to support the responsibility of the child with a chronic health condition, I have to be additionally trained in specific chronic health conditions based on the children in my setting. This enables me to thoroughly comprehend the disease, be knowledgeable about the symptoms, indicators, and treatments, and provide the child with the necessary care, as the requirements of supporting children vary with the chronic health problem they ate suffering from. For instance, if I am responsible for supporting a child with asthma, I have to train for it, such as how the inhaler is applied, how much the child can participate in physical activities and so on.
Partnership working :
partnership working is crucial in terms of supporting a child with a chronic health condition. It enables me to proper information sharing and gaining. I required work with parents, health professionals and carers to provide the best possible care for the child.
Inclusive practice :
As an early-year practitioner, it is my responsibility to ensure that Children with chronic diseases should not be excluded from activities; I may need to modify an activity to make it appropriate for them. Additionally, labels or stereotypes about children should not be based on their condition. So in supporting children with Chronic health conditions, I have to ensure that the health condition of the child does not become a part of his/her identity, which can down the child's morale and self-esteem.
Support to self :
supporting a child with a chronic health condition can be stressful, and a supporting self needs to be integrated into the process. Otherwise, it will be difficult for an early-year practitioner to fulfil all the responsibilities. So in the process, I need to ensure that support is available to me, either from a manager or a colleague. I should have a support network available for myself to lean on in times of need. For instance, the time of an asthma attack the child, I need support from her family or my colleagues to take her to the hospital.