Modeling Aerodynamic Drag Effects on Electric Vehicle Efficiency Assignment Sample

Methods to reduce drag like adding front splitters are analyzed to improve energy consumption over 100km journeys.

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Modelling Aerodynamic Drag Assignment

Introduction of Challenges in Electric Vehicle Adoption

Electric vehicles could be seen as the future of cars since they are highly efficient and do not produce any pollution. Electric vehicles could be also used for various power regulations usually by the application of grid-based operators. Thus, electric vehicles are still having multiple critical kinds of issues that should be resolved soon. The primary challenge is the limited basis driving ranges; the timing of charging is often high along with the higher cost. To estimate the different energy-based consumption of electric vehicles, a proper model of electric vehicles is essential.

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Methodology - Effects of aerodynamic-based drags on the Electric Vehicle

The electric vehicle-based model is often very complex since it contains multiple components such as the transmission, power electronics, various electrical machines as well as battery. In this study, the method of modeling the various effects of aerodynamic-based drags on the electric vehicles would represent air resistance parameters on vehicles based motion and hence performances would be obtained (Miri et al. 2021). The modeling, as well as design of electric vehicles, must be in such ways that drag forces subjected to it are minimum.

The wake usually begins from the point mainly at which a certain boundary layer-based separation would occur. The separation would present mainly due to the various pressure gradients that are combined with several continuous-based forces acting on surfaces and generating the flow reversal and then causing the stream essentially to detach effectively from vehicle surfaces. The total significantly excited on the body is usually called the profile of the drag and hence comprises two main contributors like pressure and friction-based drags.

Modeling the aerodynamic drag on Electric Vehicles

The implementation of the various Matlab-based Simulink for the car by using the different mathematical related equations for the motion of vehicles is provided. The complete work is generally organized like the first part in the modeling of electric vehicles, then addressed the Matlab-based Simulink for the model, and then investigates the various effects of drag forces on the parameters that represent its air-based resistances on the vehicle and its performances. The various parameters such as the air density, drag coefficient, frontal-based area of the vehicle along with the specific head and wind velocity (Stahl et al. 2018).

The task is to improve the different aerodynamic associated properties mainly at the front of the vehicle, hence some front-based splitters would be used mainly to reduce the drag as well as lift usually by redirecting components of air over a vehicle. The small quantity of air would be flowing mainly under the vehicles and also guided usually towards the position of real parts. This splitter would be used to utilize the various rounded-based edges for reduction of the several flow detachments by the splitter-based reduction of angle along with the corresponding front relevant bumper and under the car by the 35-degree angle of splitter-based designs (Chaudhari, et al. 2018). Then see the considerable amount of drag reduction by 2.64% and the splitter-based extension would be slowly returned in the liner along with the car body for minimizing the various turbulent-based flows within the car.

As the amount of air would start to flow mainly around the vehicles, there is a significant amount of turbulence that could be also seen usually underneath the various front bumpers consisting of the higher flow-based separation of regions that caused some drag and inconsistency of the various distribution of the flow velocity.

Results and Analysis

The investigation of the amount of energy that would be consumed by electrical vehicles in overcoming the various aerodynamic-based resistances for a distance of 100km journey by presenting the essential required codes in Matlab software and their different corresponding Plot obtained have been shown in the below figure. The various effects on the vehicle's speed by the drag offered by the air resistance are also analyzed and presented as significant impacts on the journey cost (Luin et al. 2019).

Modeling Aerodynamic Drag Effects on Electric Vehicle Efficiency

Figure 1: Representation of Velocity and Drag force plot

(Source: Acquired from Matlab)

As by the fluid dynamics-based equation, the lower drag coefficient would lower the provided drag forces and therefore it would have less energy associated consumption and also less creating the various pollution with long running based ranges. The equation is given as:

Fd= 1/2pv2CdA where Fd is the air restaurant of drag forces, p is the air density, v is the vehicle's speeds and A is the frontal vehicle's area. While the Cd represents the drag coefficient and also its dimensionless based numbers.

Modeling Aerodynamic Drag Effects on Electric Vehicle Efficiency

Figure 2: Codes Representation of Velocity and Drag force plot

(Source: Acquired from Matlab)

The essential optimization of the various aerodynamic-based forces is representing a significant option to reduce fuel-associated consumption, particularly for the different heavy vehicles. The regulation is associated with the various vehicle-based dimensions along with the logistic-based need for the spaces in the cargo set but for the aerodynamic-based design of various heavy electric vehicles. The vehicle's length is very important usually for the electrical vertices because the vehicle combination present in the side winds effects along with the different drag coefficients that are measured generally at zero angles of the airflow and it would not usually be enough to explain the characteristic of aerodynamics.

The figure above gives the codes put on the Matlab software for representing the plot of the drag coefficient. It is a measure of various effectiveness of certain stream one based aerodynamic based bodies mainly to reduce the different resistance of air acting to their forward-based motion of vehicles. The lower drag-related coefficient would imply that the vehicle body shape must be streamlined to enable the vehicle to move forward easily by the air vision along with minimum based air resistance.

The wheel generally plays a significant role in the Coefficient of drag and shape of the tail also subjecting major effects, particularly on the flow separation at its rear-based ends, therefore a concave-based tail is usually adopted by values of cd is 0.35 but the redesigned-based tail often reduced to 0.25. The rounder vehicle nose would be providing some better results of transit mainly from the front side of the body which usually makes various airflow to become smoother and often lead to drag coefficient lower by 0.21.

The spoilers are also attached mainly at the rear roof of vehicles particularly to elongate or decrease the various rear vehicle-associated slopes. Thus to design system a delay in the flow separation and also to increase the pressure mainly in front of their spoiler. All the required codes have been provided and the corresponding different plot is being prepared on Matlab software. In addition to that, increased rate of aerodynamic-based drag along with the enhancement of vehicle speed particularly on their frontal areas and the drag of the vehicle. Hence, any type of reduction in such values would automatically be reduced the various drag forces that have been experienced by electric vehicles (Carello et al. 2021).

The delay in the corresponding flow separation could be seen by the high velocity-based airflow that is flowing across the circulation zone and low air velocity would be touched mainly at the rear end of vehicles. As a consequence, the recirculation of air sizing would be reduced, and hence reduction in drag could be seen.

But as the amount of air soon reaches the spoiler, the various higher pressure-based areas would be reducing the corresponding airspeed which is reduced at the vehicle air circulation-based zones to reduce the drag as well as lift. The energy that would be required to overcome the forces of aerodynamics could be calculated as E=Rd, while the R is drag forces and d is the distances that are provided as a 100km journey hence the simulation has been done by considering the distances of 100 km and analyze of how much amount of the energy would be consumed by electric to reduce the drag forces in this distances (Vafamand et al. 2018).


The results of aerodynamic reduction are analyzed and observed that after the addition of the various front splitters, there is a reduction of around 9% drag, and with a lift-based reduction of about 73%. This could be done by assuming the bottom wake vehicle model which is very small with lesser turbulence could reduce the recirculation-based zone mainly at the rear and hence improve the drag. The development of these electric vehicles also plays an essential role in various carbon-based mitigation, particularly in the transport-based sector across world. Therefore, due to various limitations in technologies, it would be essential to prospect the performances of such vehicles, thus to present such a study, some advanced Matlab-based simulation and code would be required to model and design the electric to improve the electric-vehicles based ranges.


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Carello, M., de Carvalho Pinheiro, H., Longega, L. and Di Napoli, L., 2021. Design and modeling of the powertrain of a hybrid fuel cell electric vehicle. SAE Int. J. Adv. Curr. Pract. Mobil, 3(6), pp.2878-2892.

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Madhusudhanan, A.K. and Na, X., 2020. Effect of a traffic speed based cruise control on an electric vehicle? s performance and an energy consumption model of an electric vehicle. IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica, 7(2), pp.386-394.

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Stahl, P., Rößler, C. and Hornung, M., 2018. Benefit analysis and system design considerations for drag reduction of inactive hover rotors on electric fixed-wing VTOL vehicles. In 2018 Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (p. 4150).

Vafamand, N., Arefi, M.M., Khooban, M.H., Dragi?evi?, T. and Blaabjerg, F., 2018. Nonlinear model predictive speed control of electric vehicles represented by linear parameter varying models with bias terms. IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, 7(3), pp.2081-2089.


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