Module: Safeguarding Children Assignment Sample

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Module: Safeguarding Children Assignment

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All the children are very innocent and they are both physically and mentally weak. Every adult should take care of the physical and mental health of the child. However, in some cases, a child is physically or mentally affected by an adult. When a child is affected by any adult is known as child abuse. There are different types of child abuse and they are physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional abuse. When a child is physically, emotionally or sexually affected by any adult then the situation will be called child abuse. This study aimed to find out the differences between child abuse and child guidance. Every parent wants to see their child as a successful and well-established one. However, by default, the parent give extreme pressure on the children which is not necessary (Dreyer et al. , 2020). A child who is getting many kinds of pressure from their parents in their own home is coming under child abuse. Child wel fare society has published some guidelines about child abuse. Child abuse can be identified by proper research, different symptoms of a child and also the different signs of child abuse. Sometimes reference books and psychological suggestions are also taken to identify the child abuse case. Child abuse has been observed as a criminal offence and also it has an extremely bad effect on the growth of a child. The child welfare society secures the growth of every child by providing them with proper physical and mental support. All the rule of "Child welfare society has been made to protect the child and also to secure their growth of the child.

The aim of the “child welfare society” is to ensure the physical and mental health of every child. In history, different child abuse case has been observed by the child welfare society, based on which current child care legalisation and policies have been made. As an example, in the year 1945 a 12 years boy, whose name was Dennis O’Neill was killed by his father. After this case, the legalisation and policies regarding childcare safety were started. On the other hand in 1946 the ‘Curtis Committee and Clyde Committee made the 1948 children act. child welfare society makes Many rules and acts to protect the child and also to punish the child abuser The main role of a child welfare society is to give protection to every child and also to ensure the mental and physical stability of a particular child. The role of a child welfare society is to protect children and also to give support to them. This child welfare society also makes some guidelines to protect the children and also give punishment to the abuser by applying different child acts. (Netherland, A.B., 2020). In this study, complete research has been done on domestic child abuse. To complete this research information from different sources was collected. After the collection of data through proper analysis, a guide has been made to avoid child abuse. This study is very important to identify the role of the child welfare society.

Part-1

Generic area related to child abuse and welfare

Child welfare society must protect every child and also secure the growth of every child. The "child welfare society' make different guideline for children to stop child abuse case. Child abuse has been done in many different fields (Dettlaff et al. , 2020). Child abuse can occur in the refugee camp, in the school, in the market and also can be done in their own houses. In the case of domestic child abuse, the parents abuse their child. Child abuse can occur in the term of physically, sexually or emotionally (Bywaters et al. , 2020) parents give too much pressure on their children for their careers. Most of the child can not take it well and they are broken from the inside. Child welfare deal with the safety of every child and also give punishment to the child abuser.

In the case of domestic child abuse, the child welfare Society examines all the symptoms and signs of a child and if they found the child is abused they take action against the parents of that child. The child welfare committee made different child act according to the previous child abuse case. Based on all these act child welfare societies make a guided life for the parents. All the parents need to follow the guideline of the child welfare society (Redden et al. 2020). The aim role of the child welfare society is to give proper physical and mental support to all children. Child welfare society ensures the safety of every child and also provides support to the abused one. This committee work to take care of a child’s restoration and rehabilitation.

This study has been done to observe the role of the child welfare society and also to know the importance of this society (Keddell and Hyslop, 2019). This study also tells about the different historical perspectives of the child welfare society and all tell about the improvement of the society. The child welfare society is an organisation which collect data from a different country and also do research on those data (Törrönen et al. 2022). This committee is present throughout the whole world. The agent of this committee are present to the whole world and they always fight for the safety of children. According to the child welfare society many children are facing improper behaviour from the adult and these children need some mental support. The child who is abused or is mentally and physically affected gets support from the child welfare society. The motto of a child welfare society is to protect the child and also to make a proper safe environment for live every child. Child Welfare Society also works with other organisations and also makes save a child from different diseases. This society also ensures proper nutrition for every child. The child welfare society is improving its working strategy every day to give more support to the child and also to punish the criminal who abuses children. The main aim of a child welfare society is to prove “care”, ‘restoration”, and ‘rehabilitation’ of every child.

Historical Evidences

In history, many children have been abused by different criminals and based on this history the child welfare society has made many children act to protect the child. The timeline has been shown, based on which current guideline and policies has been done.

  • 1945- A foster father had killed his boy whose name was Dennis O’Neill. The boy was only 12 years old. This was the first child abuse case inquiry in history (Islam et al. 2022).
  • This case starts the legalisation and making of policies for the safety of children. These policies were made for the children of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland (Hwang, 2019).
  • 1946- In this year ‘The Curtis committee which is based in England and Wales made the children act. This children's activity is known as the “children act 1948” (Oberoi et al. 2020).
  • 1948- According to the children act, the local authority has been ordered to take care of the children. In this act following recommendation had been made- applying the act a local authority is made to take care of children. And a children's department was created in the Home office.
  • 1973- A 7 bears girl named Maria Colwell was death. The reason for her death was his stepfather. This year a proper committee is made to protect the children. This year many guidelines were made for the child welfare society to protect children. Child labour and abused children were identified (Crawley et al. 2020)
  • 1975- In this year children act 1975 has been made. In this act restoration of the previous act was done and also a guideline was provided for the social worker. This act supports the children's safety and also is very important for the child welfare society (Törrönen et al. 2022).
  • 1990- A special meeting was done at the “United nation Conservention “ for the rights and support of the children.

In the above discussion, many historical child abuse case has been placed. The childcare society is working for the children for their safety. They have made many rules to protect every. The role of the childcare society is to make every child mentally and physically healthy. The main aim of the childcare society is to take care of children and also protect 5them. The organisation make different rules to protect the child and also to give punishment to the accused one. This organisation also ensure the proper food for the children and also takes care of them. Society helps children to avoid different disease and also help them to improve mentally and physically. In history, many other child abuse cases also have been observed and based on this child abuse case the child welfare society has made different guidelines and policies for children. Based on these policies and guidelines the child welfare society saves the abused children and also takes care of their rehabilitation, restoration and proper safe lives of the children’s.

Policies for safeguarding refugee children and their welfare

There are certain policy statements for the safeguarding of refugee children in the UK. They are as follows :

  • The policy states that the children of the Uk are safe and no harm is caused to them. This policy assures every protection for the refugees and the children who may come in contact with "Save the Children UK", whether it be the refugee children or any of their staff.
  • "SCUK" had established the framework for the Safeguard policy, encouraged by the leadership team to provide a transparent and protected culture of the organization. It ensures all the protection which is provided 5o any kind of exploitation, or harassment. It ensures harmony with "International Human Rights" (Allport et al. 2019)instruments and "UK legislation"
  • The safeguarding duty under "Save the Children UK" includes any incident related to abuse that the children had faced in past, they don't take time to account the problem and maintain their safety.
  • They work in such a way that the safeguard of every individual is maintained including any Sexual Exploitation or Harassment. This includes the safeguarding of the children as well as the adults.
  • "Save the Children UK" also recognized some adults, (Samaraet al. 2020)who were also vulnerable to exploitation and harassment, they also protect those who are over 18 years and are the victim.
  • Certain safeguarding procedures are mandatory - which include the Mandatory training of the staff and the present representatives. A safer recruitment policy and the responsibilities for line management are very much included. The agreements for the partnership policies are also included in their duty.

Current Legislation and Protocols

  • The current law for UK refugees is that they should apply for Asylum if they want to stay in the UK as a refugee. For the eligibility criteria to become a refugee, the person should leave his own country and would not be able to go back as he or she fears persecution (Vahdaniniaet al. 2020). The new legislation introduced recently in the parliament on 7 March 2023, announced that anyone who would enter the UK using illegal means, and who "has passed through" a "safe country" would be needed to remove legally and with full power and enforcement the Home Secretary would do that.
  • The current protocols for any refugee children in the UK have declared that The appeal of any refugee would not be considered if they are from any EU country, or have traveled to the UK from a "safe third country", (Goodmanet al. 2019)and would have any connection to any "safe third country" where they could claim asylum. All the rights and protection are provided to the refugee children under the Rights of Child Convention, as well as any humanitarian law. Every right and protection has been provided to the refugees to make their survival safe and comfortable.

Part 2

SafeguardingUnaccompanied Refugee Children

Safeguarding unaccompanied refugee children has become a critical issue that requires immediate attention and action. Refugee children are vulnerable, having been separated from their families as well as the support systems and often possess experiences abuse and trauma. The process of safeguarding protects and promotes the welfare of those children who have been forced to flee from their homes. "Safeguarding" measures aim to ensure that unaccompanied refugee children are protected from harm, provided with appropriate care and support, and enabled to access their rights, including their right to education, health care, and legal protection (Bhatti-Sinclair, 2021). Itinvolves providing "psycho-social support", "legal assistance", and "community-based support", as well as advocating for the rights of unaccompanied refugee children and raising awareness of their situation.

Safeguarding from Policy and Practice Context

Safeguarding children who are at risk of abuse has become a great concern in society. The concept of safeguarding provides protection to children from abuse, neglect and exploitation. The context of policies and practices which are designed to safeguard children are multifaceted and involve governmental and non-governmental organisations, NGOs, healthcare providers, community workers and schools. The key elements of policies and practices that are used for safeguarding children include legislative framework, multi-agency approaches, risk assessment, information sharing, training and development and community engagement (Hodes and Vostanis, 2019).

The "Children Act 1989 and 2004" has provided the legal framework for safeguarding children in the UK.The act has placed a duty on local authorities to promote the welfare of children and protect them from harm.Working Together to Safeguard Children is the government's statutory guidance for safeguarding children in England. It sets out the roles and responsibilities of different agencies, including local authorities, health services, and the police, in safeguarding children (Abdullahet al. , 2023).The DBS is responsible for conducting criminal record checks on individuals who work with children and vulnerable adults. The DBS checks help to ensure that individuals who have a history of criminal activity that could pose a risk to children are not employed in positions that involve working with children.MASHs are multi-agency teams that bring together different agencies, including the police, health services, and social services, to share information and respond to concerns around child protection.

Safeguarding Policies forUnaccompanied Refugee Children

In the United Kingdom, the Safeguarding of refugee children has been addressed through a range of policies and practices. The immigration and asylum policies of the UK government have emphasized the welfare of children and prioritised their family unification to safeguard unaccompanied refugee children. The policies have also ensured access to education for the refugee children and alsoensured that unaccompanied refugee children are not held in immigration detention centres except as a last resort (Lemset al. , 2020). This policy recognizes the harmful impact of detention on the mental health and well-being of children and seeks to safeguard their welfare.In the UK, the "Children Act 1989" and the "Children Act 2004" provide the legal framework for the protection of children, including unaccompanied refugee children.The "Care of Unaccompanied" and "Trafficked Children" (2014) guidance and "National Referral Mechanism" (NRM) guidance sets out the responsibilities of local authorities in providing support and protection to unaccompanied refugee children and trafficked children (von Werthernet al. , 2019. It outlines the processes for identifying and assessing the needs of these children, and for providing appropriate services and support.

"Trauma-informed care" is an approach to working with individuals who have experienced trauma, such as unaccompanied refugee children. "Cultural competence" involves understanding and valuing their cultural backgrounds and experiences of them.A "strengths-based approach" involves focusing on the strengths and resilience of unaccompanied refugee children rather than their vulnerabilities.A "child-centred approach" involves prioritizing the needs, wishes, and feelings of the child. This approach involves actively involving the child in decisions that affect their lives and ensuring that their views are taken into account in any planning or decision-making.

Interventions andRole of different providers

There are several interventions that can be used to safeguard unaccompanied refugee children in the UK.These interventions involve a range of providers, including social workers, health professionals, educators, and community organizations. "Social workers" are often responsible for assessing the needs of unaccompanied refugee children and providing ongoing support. This involves identifying the child's needs, strengths, and risks, and developing a plan of support that addresses these needs (Mehtaet al. , 2021). Health professionals, such as psychologists or psychiatrists, may provide assessment and treatment for mental health issues and trauma faced by refugee children.Unaccompanied refugee children may face significant barriers to education and language learning. Educators can play a key role in supporting these children by providing language support, academic support, and ensuring that the child's cultural needs are taken into account (Creaet al. , 2022).Community organizations may provide support for family tracing and reunification, which involves locating the child's family members and supporting the child's reunification with their family.

Role of Ecological / Psychological /sociological theoretical influence

There is a huge role in the ecological, psychological, and theoretical influence that affects the lives of refugee children in the UK. The ecological theory explores the bonding and the relationships of the young refugee children and the people, their families, and the social influence of the risk factors and the safety factors. The theory of Bronfenbrenner's system of ecology - Was put forward by "Urie Bronfenbrenner" in the year (1917-2005), (Goodmanet al. 2019) statingthat the interaction, bonding, and relationships of the children with their parents should be understood as being a part of the systems as they could influence both the social and the cultural progress (Parhamet al. 2019). This theory is one of the most accepted versions among all other explanations related to the social influence and the developments of humankind. Although this theory argues that the environment where the growth happens affects the eery perspective of living.

The psychological theory affects a refugee child in three extreme ways giving them an experience of Trauma in three different stages. The refugee may not have any memory of their stability period, or their education in school, if any then the system would be likely to have been disrupted (Parhamet al. 2019). The sociological impacts have a great impact on the present scenario of refugees (Vahdaniniaet al. 2020). The refugees who live in the UK may face barriers to employment, which includes barriers in language, qualifications getting non-recognized, difference, and discrimination on the culture of the refugees. Around 84% of refugees reported that they don't have any fluency in the English language which would make them able to get a job.

Safeguarding Needs and Experiences of the Refugee Children

The Children Act 1989 states the legislative framework for the protection of every child in the country. The main principles that were established by this Act were the "Paramount nature" of the "child's welfare", and "the requirements and expectations" surrounding the duties of care for the children. In the middle of 2021, "UNHCR" (Goodmanet al. 2019)estimated that 84 million people had suffered drastically, either by force or globally getting displaced. Among that population, 26.6 million people were considered to be refugees. According to the "Save the children act" 3.5 million children worldwide were out of school, leaving them open o vulnerable to abuse, violence, trafficking, and other means of exploitation either sexually or by slavery.

Report was drawn that a large number of refugee children "(UASC)" suffered from depression, "(PTSD)" and other mental health traumas, in the resettlement of the first years. "Unaccompanied adolescent refugees" (Satinskyet al. 2019)had more experience of trauma in their final journey to their destinations. It was observed that major of them had reported mental stress ad serious traumatic behavior. In the year 2015, March Europe had been reported to close its border with the refugees who were coming from Greece, as Greece was the most popular country for human traffickers and smugglers (Aktharet al. 2019). Human traffickers were then known to have trafficked people from Turkey to Bulgaria from the route and that route served to them to be the easier one.

Specialist support for children and young people

"The British Red Cross", is the largest independent provider of services in the UK for refugees, seekers of asylum, ad migrants which are vulnerable, and the survivors of trafficking. "UASC" also have access to financial support from the authority of the local members and the others looked after the children and a caretaker took care of them (Parhamet al. 2019). Any people who are under the age of 16 to 171 years who would not look after the position deceive their position would be benefited including the "Universal Credit" (Morriceet al. 2020)and "Housing Benefit." (Lawrenceet al. 2019).Any specialist who would know the techniques of how to handle children should be there for helping the children refugees along with the adult refugees needed to take care for so that the refugees feel safe and would be able to feel comfortable in the country and thus the help of the refugees would be occurring.

Conclusion

The Conclusion that could be drawn concerning the recent activities mentioned in this report is that the Prime Minister of the UK along with the leaders of the Conservative Party has done a declaration that all the refugees who have crossed the "English Channel" utilizing the boat would be sent back to Rwanda (Hallet al. 2019). The reasoning for this situation according to him was that, it would be safer for the refugee children to go through the legal channels in Rwanda instead of using the channel of dangerous crossing in small boats, which were used by the adult refugees also were used by the minors of the unaccompanied groups which were organized by the human traffickers (Lemset al. 2020).The perception of human rights in Rwanda is believed that anyone who raises a voice against the government would be jailed. This becomes a major concern for the street children, the refugees, (Mawsonet al. 2019)LGBT members, and the individuals who would protest. In 2020, the committee of the UN on the Rights of Child said, the actions would be critical and should be replaced to end the abuse against street children and refugees.

According to the law of new refugees of the UK government, by the end of May 2022, they had sent the refugees back to Rwanda who had arrived in the UK using small boats. Once they reach Rwanda, then they could further proceed for legal entry into the UK. According to the "UNCHR", "UASC" should not be rejected by the access to the country. The intention behind doing this was not to keep "Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking" Children in "Refugee Camps" (Abbaset al. 2020)but safe and protected within the borders of a country. Yet in recent history, the two serving UK prime Ministers along with both leaders of the Conservative party were willing to keep the refugee camps. Refugee camps were like a trauma to the refugee children, who were already traumatized by their previous behavior or the past experiences that they had already faced.

Although the effort of the UK with its significant safeguarding policy had moved forward for helping vulnerable children and their family members, the system is highly independent of the present condition as well of the ruling parties funding status and ideas, which in return affects the lives of the children, either by increasing or decreasing the support staff and the training in (Armbrusteret al. 2020) order to understand the legislation in the best manner, its effectiveness and the application of it to safeguard the children and their family. the professionals who work with the children have a better perspective and understanding towards the children, they would suffer fewer difficulties in terms of survival, and care should be taken for every legislation advancement and the matters of the children. Thus, it has been said during the period that the refugee children getting all the support and care from the UK government then it would help them to get a better life and survive comfortably. Moreover, in the present day, the refugees were able to get a residence in comfort.

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