Nurse's Vital Role in Health Promotion & Illness Prevention Case Study

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Introduction Of The Role Of The Nurse In Promoting Health And Preventing Health

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The study is going to discuss the role of the nursing profession in the promotion of health as well as the prevention of ill health. The study will focus on the development of the idea of the possible nursing intervention for the betterment of serious health conditions. This study is based on those patients who are addicted to smoking habits and ever have experienced any type of disease in their life. The aim of the study is to observe smoking habits and the causes of smoking habits to develop the proper strategy to stop smoking habits. The survey by the government of the UK suggests that the percentage of adult smokers is 13.5% of the whole population in the initial quarter of 2020 (Nhs. UK, 2020). The report of the NHS suggests that smoking is the major cause of annual morbidity in the country. Therefore, approx. 78,000 people are dying due to smoking and health-related issues (Nhs. UK, 2020). Most of the patients who have smoking habits faced different issues at the time of the covid-19. It has been observed that different respiratory difficulties have been observed in patients who have smoking habits (Li et al. 2022). Among all the respiratory difficulties, "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" (COPD) was extremely frequent. Smoke-free legislation had been created by the "Health Act 2006” by the Government of England to prohibit smoking.

Psychological/psycho-social conditions influence the development of health issues

Several psychological factors may have an impact on the behaviour of smoking. Anxiety and depression are the most important of any other factors.

Impact of anxiety on smoking:

during smoking, chemical called nicotine reaches the brain of the person. It takes less than 10 seconds to research the brain. When nicotine reaches the brain, it helps to improve concentration and mood. It also helps to reduce stress and anger. This is very helpful to reduce anxiety as well. Hence, according to Grogan, et al. (2022) people who are suffering from anxiety may smoke in a frequent manner. It provides quick relief from mental stress.

However, if nicotine reaches the brain it starts doing some changes to it. If someone stops smoking suddenly, a reduction of nicotine can be seen in the brain. Because of this, withdrawal symptoms of nicotine can be seen (Chen, 2020). In this condition, the brain needs nicotine. Smoking can decrease the withdrawal symptoms of nicotine temporarily. If the person does not take nicotine, they face anxiety. Hence, the person becomes dependent on nicotine and smoking becomes his or her habit. Therefore, it can be said that although anxiety and depression both are conditions of the mental health state, they affect the development of the health in the case of both the child and the adult health development (Grogan, et al. 2022). In this case, anxiety takes control over the other cognitive characteristics. This condition makes a situation difficult for the one to learn or follow a particular lesson, during the socializing with others and while articulating the response and answer to questions.

Impact of depression on smoking:

according to some studies, adults who are suffering from depression have a tendency to smoke twice as much as those who do not have depression. Smoking helps to release a chemical in the brain called dopamine. This chemical is very important to trigger positive feelings. However, according to Pitharouli, et al. (2021) when a person is depressed, smoking may be helpful to provide quick relief from the depression by releasing the happy chemical in the brain called dopamine.

However, most people start to smoke without the sign of depression, hence, it is not clear if depression has a major impact on the smoking behaviour of the people (Wootton, et al. 2020). It can be said that the relationship between smoking and depression is quite complex.

Socioeconomic factors influence health issues

In this study, different social and economic influence factor has been analysed that causes an increase in smoking habits and all the risk factors have been discussed which comes from the risk habits. The socioeconomic factors are health literacy and income that mainly affect the health issue that is smoking. Therefore, Income is considered the major socioeconomic factor in the essential prevalence of developing active smokers in the country. The patient in the case study is working as an underground cleaner in London. Therefore, the patient belongs to the low-income group (Gravely, et al. 2019). The study based on the evidence suggests that low income is associated with depression due to work culture, anxiety due to poor economic conditions, and less education. Therefore, the patient in the case study belongs from the city in the north secretion of London. In the Thai section of the country, most of the people are from low-income groups. Therefore, they have a tendency to become addicted to smoking. The other socio-economic factor of smoking is health literacy. According to the article, less health literacy results in more active smokers state (Spring et al. 2020). The patient in the case study belongs to a city where the literacy rate is too poor and the health education, the environment is poor, and these result in the lack of awareness regarding the adverse effect of smoking. Therefore, the patient lives in a place where the environment has a negative impact on his smoking habit. These actually have made significant changes in the idea of how well we live and how long we can live (Gravely, et al. 2019). All the factors, which have been mentioned above, change the psychological behavior of a person and lead the person to smoke (Doan et al. 2020). Proper health promotion is extremely important to provide proper awareness to the smoker to avoid smoking.

Demographic factors influence health issues in adulthood

Several socio-economic factors are considered to have an adverse effect on health and are connected to the effect of demographic changes. In this case, the pandemic situation influenced the condition more. In this case, the effect of the pandemic causes harm to both society and the economy both facts which include mostly family income, education, the safety of the community, employment, and health access (Witteveen, 2020). Demographic change is one of the important factors which causes an increase in smoking habits. Due to the demographic change, the population is increased. Increases in the population cause a lack of jobs, education and opportunities. Overall, the increasing amount of population causes an economic crisis. Due to the economic crisis and lack of jobs, most of people face depression. A smoker used to smoke to get free from the depression and it becomes a habit. The habit of smoking is mainly seen in the male population of the community (Rogers et al. 2020). The working professionals and the cultural practices have significantly influenced his have it of smoking. Along with this, the environment of the community is not that well and the lack of literacy, therefore, causes an aloof mentality about the covid-19 condition and its restriction. Lower-income and the cultural and social environment were very unhealthy for maintaining proper hygiene and reducing the habit of smoking. The lower literacy rate and lack of knowledge mainly cause more problems in understanding the connection between the covid diseases and smoking conditions (Atkins et al. 2020). The demographic changes therefore significantly can affect the health issues and other health conditions of a patient or anyone in such a condition. The members of the community were not even a little concerned about the pandemic and theory had minimum access to the health care services. The habit of smoking worsens his situation. The overall scenario has a negative impact on the patient, which causes the condition more difficult.


All smokers mostly face different respiratory issues due to smoking habits. Smoking habits cause dysfunction of the lungs and heart (Yoshida et al. 2021). Several factors such as depression and anxiety may have influenced the smoking behaviour of my patient. The entire patient who used to smoke daily is most likely to affect in covid and other respiratory-related diseases. Due to smoking lungs and the heart are affected badly. Besides, he lives in the poorest area in London, he is an underground cleaner, and he is having financial problems as well. Due to these reasons, he is suffering from anxiety and depression. This was the trigger for his smoking behaviour. On the other hand, due to low health literacy, he does not know about the negative impact of smoking.

It has been observed that the smoking habit is indirectly related to other physical illnesses which causes different medical issues in the future

Guideline for health promotion and for avoiding smoking

In this section, different types of medical cases have been analyzed to identify the causes of smoking and to observe the effect of smoking. In those cases, nurses have played an important role to be recovered from the disease and helping to avoid further smoking also (J.A et al. 2021). In that case, the role of nurses is one of the important factors for improving his health status. In this section, different types of medical cases have been analyzed, to identify the causes of smoking and to observe the effect of smoking. In those cases, nurses have played an important role to be recovered, from the disease and helping to avoid further smoking also (McGee et al. 2020). The key role of the nurses was to provide proper guidelines to the patient about smoking and to restrict the patient to consume tobacco after recovering from a disease. The nurses also give some education to the patient based on the risk factors of smoking and mainly the benefits of quitting smoking during this pandemic situation (Kosendiak et al. 2021). All the guideline has been made by following the ethical rules and the guidelines of MNC. Apart from these, the psychological behaviours of the smoker have been observed and the improvement of the smoker has been identified (Serrano?Alarcón et al. 2019). The organization RCN has played a significant role to motivate all those smokers and to change the psychological behaviour of the smoker. All smoker has been provided with proper training to overcome depression and avoid smoking also. All of those motivations help in adopting a healthier behaviour for this patient after being recovered from the Covid-19 (Chertok, 2020). All of those aspects can give a great impact on the development of healthier activities for health promotion.

All the patients need to change their psychological behavior and need to improve their thinking levels also. a smoker can take help from a psychologist to get recovered from depression and avoid smoking habits also. A smoker tends to smoke whenever the person feels depressed or tries to feel fresh. However, the person is not aware of the risk of the effect of smoking habits (Levy et al. 2021). Smoking is the result of experiencing stress every time smoking and day by day the person has been attached to the tobacco. Proper health promotion and guidelines are extremely important to avoid smoking. A health promotion aware people about the bad effect of smoking and suggest people make proper strategy to avoid smoking. Apart from this, the patient needs to be advised by the nurses to join the “Local stop smoking services” which are free and recommended by the NHS that help in surviving some of the proven methods that help in quitting smoking. By getting these classes, like “Vercenicline” and this patient can help in improving their health behaviour that help in improve their health activities (, 2021).


In this study, it has been seen that most of the people who are addicted to smoking habits experience different types of respiratory difficulties and respiratory diseases. due to smoking the heart and the lungs of a smoker are affected badly. A proper guideline has been made in this study to support the smoker to get recovered from the respiratory disease and to avoid further smoking also. In that case, the main role of nurses is to improve their lifestyle through which the patient can improve their lifestyle that helps in promoting his health improvement.



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