Opportunities and Changes in the Transportation Sector Assignment Sample

Understanding Changes in Transportation: Literature Review

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Part 1: Literature Review

The transportation industry has faced various changes in the past few years. The reason behind the change is the pandemic. The pandemic has not only changed the workflow of transportation but also affected the revenue of the industries. The effect on transportation has affected the supply chain of various models that as GMM and FGLS models. The generalised method of moments (GMM) is a model that can be effective in the supply chain process. This process includes estimation for robust inferences and considers green supply chain processes in the business. This model shows the negative impact of using fossil fuels in the logistic process and extracts information on sustainability in this process by including green fuels in the logistic process. Green supply chain management (GCSM) can provide effective support in reducing the harmful effects of fossil fuels by considering renewable energy as a replacement for non-renewable energy sources in the transportation process. Feasible generalised least squares (FGLS) are another model that provides effective support in the supply chain process. This model delivers support in developing a relationship between logistic performance and financial and environmental factors of the supply chain process. The effects on the supply chain have not only affected the supply chain but also affected the logistics sector. The supply chain has affected the transportation industries but also affected the world economy. The world economy is related to transportation. Various businesses have developed get flourished with the help of the transportation sector. The transportation sector has flourished in many industries by supplying short technology and goods life-cycle. The globalised market has got heavily affected due to distribution as well as logistics in the global network. After recovering from the covid transporting industry has shifted from manual to technology form which has developed a greater approach to the economic generation. Various new technologies such as traffic control through signals, car navigation and speed cameras.

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Literature Review Discussion

Change in industries

The transportation industry has made an extensive change in recent few years in the data regarding change or the data needed for the analysing or maintaining workflow in transportation industries. According to Erhardt et al. (2019), changes regarding the data were observed in the application programming interface. Transportation industries have faced different hurdles while delivering their products in various sectors which have affected the economy of the world. Policymakers have to suffer a lot for the development of policies and making recommendations in the policies. The policymakers have developed a policy for not violating the laws of government and developing a better workflow of transportation. Transformation occurs in the global transportation industry in terms of the energy selection process as sustainability considers net zero carbon emission in this global business process. Data shows that CO2 emission can increase by 6% as 35 Gt CO2 emissions can occur in 2050. This emission needs to reduce abruptly to consider only 9.7 Gt CO2 emission in 2050. In addition, renewable energy consideration is a great step of the global transportation industry towards meeting sustainability as 94% emission reductions can be possible with the help of using this energy in the transportation process (Gielen et al. 2019). Therefore, renewable energy technology delivers transformation in the transportation industry through continuing reduction of CO2 emissions in completing sustainability goals to develop brand value and revenue of global business process.

The supply chain was highly affected in the recent few years as it is an important part of the transportation industry. The change was also implemented in the boundaries of nations as transportation was stopped. The market collapsed due to covid and the global supply chain. Unemployment reached its peak and reduction of employees as made various changes in implementing innovative ideas. According to Mack, Agrawal and Wang, (2021),the survey report of transportation industries was expected to reach 16 % as it finalised and reached 4.4%. The consumers increased their 40% spending in stockpile goods and were unable to visit retailers. The consumer used very less public transportation for their personal or professional uses. The transportation sector has shifted to the digitisation process and many of the workflows have developed and managed to attain their profit criteria. Digitisation has developed the logistics as well as the supply chain of the organisation and has reshaped the market. Automation and implementation of IoT have provided a solution to transportation sectors. According to Ahmedova (2022), automation technologies have developed various processes by giving better performance in different sectors. The sectors that have developed are delayed in the transportation process and also track poor cargo tracking and monitoring. Monitoring of the cargo tracking is important for getting report and giving assistance to various ordered organisation.

Reason for the change

The major reason for the change is the Pandemic or covid-19 and to stop the spread of covid lockdowns was implemented by the government of different nations. This lockdown has made the situation tough for transporting industries and logistics. According to Beškovnik, Zanne and Golnar (2022), has an impact on the port logistic and its three major pillars. The extension of the supply chain increase transportation cost and reduces the liquidity of the company. The need for social workers is very important for the better meant and improving the workflo\w of the organisation. According to a survey by the world health organisation, the mortality rate was increasing as a result employment was also reduced. The reduction was also caused by the organisation as it cants afford the salaries of the employees. The working condition, as well as the worker, needs social support to have an effective workflow in logistics service providers and ports. The change in the transportation industry has also changed the trade facility in most nations and this has highly affected the economy of the world. The effect in the supply chain has highly affected the workflow this is also a major reason for the drawback of the transportation industries. The change in the stock change and unexpected stock change was a reason for the change (Du?ru, 2023). The breaking supply chain and the impact of inflating were major aspects of change in transportation. The change in the transformation was also observed in the industries due to the increasing demand for mobility this has increased the traffic volume and the increase in transportation is also increasing. The next important change was also observed in transportation with the help of technology. Technologies like AI and IoT have made various changes in the transportation industries as they played a major change in tracking vehicles. The tracking of vehicles requires IoT technology and mobile devices for tracking or understanding the reason for the time lag. A few major different changes were caused by the fuel supply in roadways transportation facilities this was caused by implementing a change in the fuel process by converting petrol or diesel to CNG and battery-powered supply vehicles. The use of renewable resources was also used for transportation in transportation industries (Bogdanov et al. 2021). It reduces the emission of carbon and attains sustainability in industries.

Opportunities

Covid-19 has built barriers to transportation industries then it has also brought some innovation in the transportation sector by working from home and implementing various other technologies as a swap. The change in the industries also includes implementing different working techniques due to covid such as remote working for official workers and field employees who were reduced in number and were guided to work with the guidance of government laws. According to Papulová, Korge and Pritzl (2023), the implementation of digitisation like using telemetric technologies to bring efficiency and transparency to the business process. It will not only be implemented during covid but can also be implemented post covid or after the pandemic. This will reduce the cost and support the business in competing in the current competitive market. Telematic technology has also been developed to manage the weight of heavy vehicles and optimise the job transportation process. It will also determine the road infrastructure and helps to provide an estimate of time management for transportation industries.

According to Belikova and Safiullin (2022), telematic weight control was implemented for the mathematical calculation of the weight and develop a suitable estimation of the road was determined. The next is establishing technologies regarding tracking and understanding consumer perspective for better or more effective timing for delivery of items and various other parts. According to toVasilenko et al. (2021), the use of rail was increased for transportation as it is the safest and quick way of transport it not only reduces traffic but also developed greater assistance to covid perspective. It also uses a different way of location tracking as it maintains the timing due to no traffic in the rail process. Various transportation companies have opted for the rail transportation process. This was one of the main benefits of the transportation organisation. Rail transportation has increased the flexibility of transportation services. The establishment of key electronic platforms has also developed a better representation of work.

The next technology used in transportation is for improving various sectors such as driver experience, traffic infrastructure internet data plans in vehicles and road traffic analysis. According to Mohammed et al. (2020), Technologies like intelligent transporting system analysis are used for traffic collaborative direction, and prediction of traffic flow on the road it also looks after the public transporting assistance plan. Personal transporting rout for travelling improves the effective ecosystem for drivers, vehicles, and city planners traffic controllers and also help in transportation application. Othertechnologies like IoT cloud computing and mobile assistance provide knowledge invention and sharing of information and also support decision-making. ITS provides plenty of information about traffic detail rail details and also provides safety against various ways of transportation. Different IT technologies like apache Hadoop as well as sparks are used for data collection and are easily accessible in academics and industries. ITS provides safety towards identifying the issues which include black ice, pavement degradation and various road condition.

The next important technology is the vehicular communication network which includes "V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) V2X (vehicle-to-everything) and V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure) communication" It also supports various assistance to supply chain and logistics management in transportation industries. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) technology engages in transferring data from one vehicle to another and this technology includes the utilisation of dedicated short-range communications (DSRC). This system delivers a wide advantage in safety applications for vehicles as this can provides updates in crash avoidance facilities in vehicles. V2V in motor vehicles includes the facility of accessing vehicle and speed and position information of other V2V-applied vehicles within a short range. This short range considers approximately 300 meters to facilitate riders' safe drive in their journey. This innovativeness in technology can deliver a positive impact on the global automobile industry as this facility can develop customer purchase attention and sales and revenue of the global business.

Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) delivers support in updating external information to riders. This technology provides data on traffic congestion. Traffic signal status, bridge clearance position and weather advisories to aware drivers to get safety in their journey. V2I also includes a relationship development facility in the car business as this can develops communication processes between customers and drivers. Therefore, customers can get enough information about car availability, fare details, pick up and drop in time, destination reaching process and mapping systems of the entire journey. This can deliver a positive impact on the transportation business and relationships, loyalty and revenue can develop with the help of this technology in the business process. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) include V2I to develop technology involvement in the department of transportation (DOT) in the US. This technology includes effective drive assistance by providing smart parking and autonomous driving processes and can provide effective support in developing traffic lanes and parking updates. Vehicle to Everything (V2X) includes both V2V and V2I technology to deliver smart approaches in road assistance, communication processes, traffic systems and weather condition information processes to notify drivers to deliver safety.

Challenges

Challenges faced by transportation industries are cost-effectiveness and expansion of the transportation industries. The next important aspect faced by transporting industries is the general use of roadways. According to Costin et al. (2018), this provides very less possibility for transportation and faced heavy traffic in highly populated areas. The technologies can provide better assistance to track the traffic but can learn the traffic. The better infrastructure of the transportation industries is also a challenge. Transportation industries are supported by infrastructure issues. The major challenges were faced during the pandemic condition as the lockdown was followed in major countries and this gave a bad impact on the transportation industries. Loss of lives to covid has resulted in the loss of employment and has been highly affected by the decrease in employees. The covid-19 pandemic delivered critical issues in the employment process of the organisation as people got depression and fear about job loss and financial crisis. The impact of containment and pandemic measurement punched OECD economies and job loss for millions of people during this time. This provided a huge drop in business activity and financial part of every people in the entire world. Data shows that approx 10% of OECD countries projected unemployment in 2020 and this value got increased by 5.3% than the previous year (Oecd.org, 2022). It this also expected that the second wave of this pandemic can increase the unemployment rate by 12% in OECD countries.

Though transportation helped a lot in transporting the patients but faced a lot of problems due to covid lockdown. Different rules were also been followed by the transportation industries implemented by the government of different countries. The other challenges were also faced by the employees such as working from home and facing the attack of the virus where the employees need to be given special attention (Pamidimukkala, Kermanshachi and Jahan Nipa, 2021). The transportation industry faces major challenges in terms of economy, energy security, climate change, pollution and sustainability as the organisation does not contribute 100% of products and services sustainably as non-renewable energy sources still use in the transportation industry (García-Olivares et al. 2018). The transportation industry also faces issues in the global supply change process. The global supply chain process faces various issues such as traceability, disputes, cargo and security issues, digitalisation issues and compliance issues and these issues can mitigate with the help of block chain technology (Chang et al. 2019). Therefore, block chain technology indirectly provides effective support in the transportation industry and develop global business process.

Literature Gap

This literature did not get enough real information about the automobile industry and specific automobile business processes. The description type of this research could able to deliver theoretical information and the lack of practical information was not present here. In addition, this research did not engage any type of real surveys that can deliver the present market condition of the transportation industry. In addition, the real data collection process can gather information about issues and mitigating processes of issues in the covid-19 pandemic and can collect information regarding needed requirements of additional activities and technologies to continue with a 100% green approach to maintain sustainability in the global transportation business process. According to Mack, Agrawal and Wang, (2021), provide data but for better assistance a statistical data must be provided to get better observation and analysing process. The traffic can be viewed by different methods but can't be resolved. The other gap in the literature review was to resolve the issue regarding the spread of covid. it does not provide any support for reducing the pandemic and reducing unemployment for the betterment of the industry and improving the workflow of transportation. The different loss caused by covid was not fulfilled by the literature such as a way to conduct transportation in lockdown and fulfil the needs of the consumers and other industries. According to Ahmedova (2022), data is been provided in secondary form and it must be provided with primary data for better assistance in automation process. It does not provide to improve the economy of the world. Different technologies were used to cover the transportation delay but how to improve the delay was not been observed in this literature. Technologies were used for data collection but it was not mentioned how to analyse those data for the betterment of the transportation industries.

Conclusion

The literature review assists with challenges, opportunities and reasons for the change in the transportation sector. The change in the recent few years has been observed in the transportation industry. The literature provides the change is caused by different factors such as technologies in recent years have developed a lot and it is also implemented in transportation. The changes also occurred due to the pandemic as it was one of the major causes of change in every sector. Transportation is also affected by the pandemic situation due to lockdowns in different parts of the world. The pandemic has lowered the employment rate in transportation industries. The changes were also implemented in technological terms such as implementing technologies for weight endearment as well as assessing the road for identifying the routes. This reduces the traffic but does not provide a better or no-traffic facility. The next is the IoT technology that gives assistance in tracking the vehicles and provides assistance with good trailers. Technologies have improved the working infrastructure and effectively increased the economy of various sectors. Transportation is directly linked with the supply chain and can be enhanced by enhancing the economy.

Part 2: Reflection

My role as a level 7 learner

My role is to acquire the challenges faced by the transportation industries and the need to develop a better management plan in the supply chain and logistic department so that in every critical condition the company runs in a well sustainable direction. I will implement various measures to handle the issues regarding the health of employees and provide better assistance and fulfil the economic criteria to achieve the goal of the organisation.

My feelings and responsibilities in terms of completing this particular assessment

I will apply technologies like IoT (Internet of Things) and AI (artificial intelligence) for the fulfilment of orders provided by different organisations as it is the transportation industry the supply chain plays an important role in developing good strategies. I will take responsibility to maintain my reputation in front of different organisations. Using technologies like IoT will help to assist me in various traffic jams.

I did attend additional support classes

For achieving better assistance and better practice in transportation industries I took assistance from an external library and also attended CELT training. This has enhanced my purpose of management and also developed better knowledge.

These practice help with my learning

This practice gave me a detailed knowledge of the technologies and how to check the performance of technologies and it also taught me how to manage difficult situations. It also developed a better experience in developing supply chains by forming different models.

Practices used by me to develop my research

I used various secondary data for gathering data and analysing it for the management and better development of logistics as well as supply chain. I also used various techniques for every single technology used for the tracking of vehicles and development of self in operating the machine. Secondary data gave a proper idea for the development process.

Ways used to manage my workload

I used different management systems to manage the time and also used different techniques for gathering information regarding the management of the supply chain and logistics.

Techniques used to manage my time

I made a schedule for the whole day and performer according to the scripted schedule and in every performance; I have given tolerance to every task.

My experience in revelling learning and new insights

I felt crazy after developing new insights and after learning the management criteria as it was new and exciting to feel these new insights.

Something needs to be changed and I will implement it for a reason

The change needs to be made on the health issues due to covid and needs to manage the employee's health management. Different forms of technologies must be made to feel the traffic controlling process.

Changes in my learning approach that I make for my next assessment

I need to develop better communication for gathering data and acquire effective and efficient knowledge for self-development. I also need to have a competitive idea for gaining more ideas in a short period.

Reference list

Journals

  • Ahmedova, S., 2022. covid-19 impact upon the digitalization of the transport sector in Bulgaria. Transportation Research Procedia, 63, pp.809-816. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2022.06.077
  • Belikova, D.D. and Safiullin, R.N., 2022. The Design and Evaluation of a Telematic Automated System of Weight Control for Heavy Vehicles. Infrastructures, 7(7), p.86. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7070086
  • Beškovnik, B., Zanne, M. and Golnar, M., 2022. Dynamic Changes in Port Logistics Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10(10), p.1473. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101473
  • Bogdanov, D., Gulagi, A., Fasihi, M. and Breyer, C., 2021. Full energy sector transition towards 100% renewable energy supply: Integrating power, heat, transport and industry sectors including desalination. Applied Energy, 283, p.116273. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.116273
  • Chang, Y., Iakovou, E. and Shi, W., 2020. Blockchain in global supply chains and cross border trade: a critical synthesis of the state-of-the-art, challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Production Research, 58(7), pp.2082-2099. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.02715
  • Costin, A., Adibfar, A., Hu, H. and Chen, S.S., 2018. Building Information Modeling (BIM) for transportation infrastructure–Literature review, applications, challenges, and recommendations. Automation in construction, 94, pp.257-281. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2018.07.001
  • Du?ru, M., 2023. Breaking Supply Chains and Inflationist Impact in the COVID-19 Process: The Example of Turkey. In Managing Inflation and Supply Chain Disruptions in the Global Economy (pp. 239-256). IGI Global. Doi: 10.4018/978-1-6684-5876-1.ch015
  • Erhardt, G.D., Roy, S., Cooper, D., Sana, B., Chen, M. and Castiglione, J., 2019. Do transportation network companies decrease or increase congestion? Science advances, 5(5), p.eaau2670. Doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau2670
  • García-Olivares, A., Solé, J. and Osychenko, O., 2018. Transportation in a 100% renewable energy system. Energy Conversion and Management, 158, pp.266-285. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890417312050
  • Gielen, D., Boshell, F., Saygin, D., Bazilian, M.D., Wagner, N. and Gorini, R., 2019. The role of renewable energy in the global energy transformation. Energy Strategy Reviews, 24, pp.38-50. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211467X19300082
  • Mack, E.A., Agrawal, S. and Wang, S., 2021. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on transportation employment: A comparative analysis. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 12, p.100470. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2021.100470
  • Mohammed, S., Arabnia, H.R., Qu, X., Zhang, D., Kim, T.H. and Zhao, J., 2020. IEEE access special section editorial: Big data technology and applications in intelligent transportation. IEEE Access, 8, pp.201331-201344. Doi: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9263259
  • Pamidimukkala, A., Kermanshachi, S. and Jahan Nipa, T., 2021, June. Impacts of COVID-19 on health and safety of workforce in construction industry. In International Conference on Transportation and Development 2021 (pp. 418-430). Doi: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sharareh-Kermanshachi/publication/352134290_Impacts_of_COVID-19_on_Health_and_Safety_of_Workforce_in_Construction_Industry/links/613bc40511e9c168f2c29edb/Impacts-of-COVID-19-on-Health-and-Safety-of-Workforce-in-Construction-Industry.pdf
  • Papulová, Z., Korge, C. and Pritzl, S., 2023. Digitalization in Transport Logistics due to COVID-19: A Case Study from Germany. In Industry 4.0 Challenges in Smart Cities (pp. 145-154). Springer, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-92968-8_10
  • Vasilenko, M., Kuzina, E., Bespalov, V., Drozdov, N., Tagiltseva, J., Korenyakina, N., Prokopchuk, V. and Nadolinsky, P., 2021. Digital technologies in quality and efficiency management of transport service. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 244, p. 11046). EDP Sciences. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202124411046

Websites

  • Oecd.org, 2022. COVID-19 is causing activity to collapse and unemployment to soar Available at: https://www.oecd.org/employment-outlook/2020/ [Accessed on: 21/12/2022]
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