Soldiers Physiological Aspects In Low Temperature And Low Water Consumption Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Soldier’s Physiological Aspects In Low Temperature And Low Water Consumption

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  1. With decreasing temperature, the body metabolism increases which accounts for the higher energy consumption to maintain the body temperature (Childs, 2018). Therefore, more energy is required to overcome the energy barrier which is consumed due to low temperature. In a low temperature less than 0 degree celsius, our body starts to consume more energy to retain the normal temperature of the body (Luo et al. 2022). Therefore in low temperatures, energy intake per day would increase than the normal day at normal temperature. This is why the soldiers have to take 21000 KJ energy per day at - 30 degree celsius whereas it requires only 13000 KJ at +35 degree celsius.

  2. The body temperature of the soldiers remains 37 degree celsius at all the locations of different temperatures. To keep the body temperature constant, they need more energy on a daily basis at low temperature locations than the high temperature or high altitudes (Senner et al. 2018). Epidermal thermoreceptors are sensitive peripheral nerves that are characterized by myelin sheath as well as the velocity with which nerve impulses travel along sensory neurons. They're also divided into groups based upon their cognitive function. Heating or chilling of the epidermis activates thermoreceptors. “C-fibers” are primarily engaged in the feeling of heat, even though they are also engaged in response to unpleasant cold. “A-δ fibers”, on the other hand, react to light chilling (Mandic, 2018). The epidermis, representing our greatest sense organ, serves as a link between our inner core temperature and the outside world (ambient temperature). Skin insulating material defensive mechanisms preserve temperature homeostasis at this interface between both the exterior and interior environments (tandfonline.com (2021).

Homeostasis is the process through which our body wants to stabilize the physiological imbalances like maintaining body temperature, hydration, respiratory functions, cardiac functions, etc.

  1. Requirements of carbohydrates daily basis

4 kcal of energy is exposed by decomposing 1 gram of carbohydrate (Hao et al. 2021). Normal recommendation for carbohydrates is 5 to 10 grams per kg of body weight on a daily basis.

Exercise period

Amount (daily basis)

Type of carbohydrates

30 to 45 minutes

15g/ hour

Single and multiple transportable carbohydrates

1 to 2 hours

30g/ hour

Single + multiple

2 to 3 hours

60g/ hour

Single + multiple

More than 2.5 hours

90g/ hour

Only multiple transportable carbohydrates

Table 1: Carbohydrates requirement on daily basis

(Source: MS-Word)

Step by step flow chart of carbohydrate loading

Carbohydrate loading → increases glucagon level → insulin receptor substrate activation → decrease pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression → reduce muscle inflammation → increases insulin → decrease insulin resistance or glucagon

  1. An “osmoreceptor” is a sensing transmitter that recognizes fluctuations in osmolarity and osmotic potential is found largely inside the hypothalamus (Qian, 2018). Osmoreceptors might indeed be identified within a wide variety of tissues, such as the vasculature organs of something like the laminar posterior part as well as the subfornical unit, both of which are circumventricular organs.

The soldier would be lacking in water consumption inside his body and therefore, it would affect the ADH secretion (Stehman and Maris, 2021). Antidiuretic hormone regulates the functions of nephron as well as maintains the water balance inside the organs. Therefore physical activity of the soldier decreases with time due to lack of water.

References

Journals

Childs, C., 2018. Body temperature and clinical thermometry. Handbook of clinical neurology157, pp.467-482.

Mandic, I., 2018. The Effects of Environmental and Physical Stress on Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Appetite (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada)).

Qian, Q., 2018. Salt, water and nephron: mechanisms of action and link to hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Nephrology23, pp.44-49.

Senner, N.R., Stager, M., Verhoeven, M.A., Cheviron, Z.A., Piersma, T. and Bouten, W., 2018. High-altitude shorebird migration in the absence of topographical barriers: avoiding high air temperatures and searching for profitable winds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 285(1881), p.20180569.

Luo, W., Kramer, R., de Kort, Y., Rense, P. and van Marken Lichtenbelt, W., 2022. The effects of a novel personal comfort system on thermal comfort, physiology and perceived indoor environmental quality, and its health implications?Stimulating human thermoregulation without compromising thermal comfort. Indoor air, 32(1), p.e12951.

Hao, H., Qi, X., Tang, W. and Liu, P., 2021. Energy Decomposition Analysis Reveals the Nature of Lone Pair− π Interactions with Cationic π Systems in Catalytic Acyl Transfer Reactions. Organic Letters, 23(11), pp.4411-4414.

Stehman, M. and Maris, S.A., 2021. The onset of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia and Individual Differences in Inappropriate Arginine Vasopressin Excretion: A Review of Proposed Mechanisms. Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology, 2(1), p.10.

Websites

tandfonline.com (2021), Systemic PFOS and PFOA exposure and disturbed lipid homeostasis in humans, Achieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2021.1888073, [Achieved at: 5.03.2022]

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