Health and Safety Management Assignment Sample

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Health and Safety Management Assignment

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Introduction

The United Kingdom has several legislation policies to maintain the health and safety standards in any kind of organization. Section 2(3) of the "Health and Safety at Work Act 1974" requires employers to have a Health and Safety Policy in place. Any organization's success depends on its ability to promote and maintain a good culture of safety and health, and to achieve good standards of health and safety awareness throughout all stages. Organization and processes for executing and communicating this policy, as well as any later changes of it, must be included in the legislation. Organizations are under increasing pressure to comply with laws and regulations relating to workplace sickness and disasters. Bureau Veritas' accreditation of an "ISO 45001 Health and Safety Management System" assists companies in effectively reducing work-related damage and illness. As a result, consumers have higher expectations for corporate responsibility than they ever had. The cost of injuries and fatalities resulting from Occupational Safety and Health hazards to society is enormous. A solid company plan must include a health and safety management system in order to maintain public trust. Workers' roles in detecting possible health and safety concerns at work are a major new idea. The elementary purpose of the safety representative is to keep a salubrious state within the workspace, and the perspective they represent is of the workers. This is not just about securing the work space; the arrangement also controls the Ergonomics and physicalarrangements of workspace and maintenance of relevant equipment or machinery. The rudimentary piece of law and legislation, that helps in maintaining sustainability within safety representation are, “Health and safety at work act, 1974” and “Health and Safety at work regulation”, 1999. On the other hand, employee representation is as vital as their safety. Often un-unionizedestablishmentbehaves rather unfairly with their employees, and sometimes they are denied their benefit plans, so it is important that legislations to make sure the basic requirements are fulfilled by the organisations. SR and ER both have similarities and differences, this report is going to critically analyse those with comparative and contrasting analysis. Also, the report will discuss the roles of representatives and recommend some necessary adjustments in the context.

Literature review

According to Nieet al. 2018 A pioneer in OSH management inside the EU as well as globally, Britain was the world's initial industrial country. Britain, according to EU figures Bureau's reliable statistics, does have one of the lowest occupational injury fatality rates across EU member states. Legislation and regulations govern the UK's work safety mechanism. Surveillance by the government has a major impact on the industry. The coordinating impact across industrial groups has been given preference. Workers who are people-oriented preserve job safety by conscientiously exercising organizational autonomy and independence. As of 2013, 133 individuals died in industrial mishaps in the UK, including three minors, and the mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants was 0.44. There was a fluctuation in the rate of occupational illnesses between 2005 and 2014 (Hale and Booth, 2019). According to Figures, in 2012, its prevalence and incidence topped those of musculoskeletal injuries and diseases. There are two main parts to the "UK's OSH policy": a body of laws addressing the most major workplace hazards and establishing uniform definitions, procedures, and norms; and a sequence of strategic papers released in 2013 as the most recent example.

Figure 1: Number and rate of fatal injuries reports to workers in the UK, (2004–2014)

(Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/fatals.htm)

Figure 2: Comparison of estimated work-related illness in England and Wales (2004-2014)

(Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/causdis/index.htm)

According to Figure 2, both new and existing instances of occupational illness are considered in the prevalence calculation. As a result of using a sample of participants, rather than the full population, reliability intervals reflect the degree of uncertainty that can be associated with the results (Dempsey et al. 2018). There is, however, basic legislation that must be adhered to across the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, the "UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES)" is charged with setting standards for all aspects of training and education in the country.

According to Hesketh, I., and Tehrani, N., 2019, Additionally, police officers operate in a social environment that is becoming increasingly complicated (Nieet al. 2018). As a result of their unexpected workload, these front-line police and personnel may find themselves overburdened and therefore unable to manage (Liu and Farrell, 2017). Workers at connection centres confront persistent psychological pressures as well as sudden trauma, including suicides, homicides, and stabbing assaults.

From both the literature statement and the overall context, it can be concluded and evaluated that in the United Kingdom the health and safety management is very prominent and the legislation around it has been followed by different sectors. In occupational sectors or businesses these safety measurements and regulations are being obeyed (Hare et al. 2020). Also, in healthcare facilities and traumatized sections of victims care in police services, psychological management is there which is highly associated with the health and safety management laws. Overall, it can be analysed from the literature review that These health and safety management policies and legislations have been obeyed thoroughly.

Critical discussion

Safety representation

The whole world is going through a very vulnerable phase health-wise, and the UK is not an exception to that, but regardless of that UK health sector is an established health sector and over the decade it developed itself with the help of technology and skilful healthcare professional, although safety remains a concern point for the UK health sector. The safety representation within the health sector has relied mostly on the "The Health and Safety Executive (HSE)" and NHS. The main pieces of acts or legislation within the context lies as the "Health and Safety at Work, etc Act 1974" along with "The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999". In 1974 NHS England realizes the need to incorporate the health and safety activities for the first time, so the health organizations are bound to follow the safety guidelines instead of making it a choice (Khuntiet al. 2020). It also helps in mitigating careless incidents in workplaces specifically within the health care sector. These safety representing acts bind every individual employee to carry out every work regardless of its kind or impact with the highest regard towards the safety and health of the relevant stakeholders. Also, the rules are not just limited to the employees, instead, they held every stakeholder's accountability towards the safety of these health sectors, it means that it became a responsibility for the visitors, or contractors, or any public at large within a certain health care organization (George, 2017). Also, NHS did not only imply the guidelines it helped the health care centres in following them in a firm yet cooperative manner. It helped them financially and also provided the physical resources to maintain the safety guidelines for the sake of the salubrious status of the healthcare sector within the UK.

Employee representation

Professional Human Resources (HR) managers from 10 businesses were interviewed semi-structured for this research. Having been contacted through a variety of connections and past research connections, these individuals can be regarded as typical of medium- to large-sized businesses in many areas of the “British economy” (Measham, F.C., 2019). ERs and social inclusion are unlikely to be entirely reflective of the UK as a whole, given most of these businesses have ingrained involvement traditions of some sort. In any case, they do appear to provide us with a chance to analyse different elements of the "British labor and employment" relations systems. Health and safety regulations for employee representation in the UK have been shaped by trade unions. "SRSC Regulations of 1977" vested specific responsibilities in union representatives, such as the authority to demand the creation of a joint safety and health committee. Other solutions for workers who did not work in unionized firms had to be created. In the lack of union recognition, employees' rights to be informed on health and safety might have been expanded to non-unionized establishments through the efforts of other trade unions. However, in the United Kingdom, such choices are not even on the political agenda (Forth et al. 2017). In the meanwhile, as union membership has declined, the UK government has been under obligation to keep up with Eu Regulations as well. A complicated system of discussion and representation has developed in the UK as a consequence. 

Figure 3: representation of health and safety management

(Source: self-created)

Compare safety representation (SR) and employee representation (RES)

Safety representation and employee representation are dependent on each other. The dependency is mainly on the legislation and procedures. The safety representation is based on several laws and regulations of the UK which are highly associated with the health and safety management of the country (Lye et al. 2019). On the other hand, the employee representatives of the UK are mainly focused on the health and safety issues of the workers or employees of any working group. Safety representation is mainly based on the UK laws and legislative rules and these rules need to be obeyed by the organizations to ensure the health and safety issues of the workers. The safety representation represents the legislative rules and laws and the employee representation represents the problems and issues of the workers in any kind of workplace.

Safety representation mainly consisting of several laws and regulations which are present in the laws and regulatory process of the UK health and safety management system. These laws are tending to help and protect the employee demands and benefits in terms of their health, safety and security (Walsh, 2018). Also, several laws are there which are exclusively made focusing on the trade union representation and “Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977” is a such kind of law which is made for the representative who are appointed by any trade union of an organization. Similarly, if a non-trade union or an autonomous governing body of the workers form an unofficial union where they can focus and communicate for the employee safety issue then other laws are impactful in that case. “Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996” is a non-trade union law which is implemented for the employee safety issue and the employee representative can take n account on this law. Overall, the comparison between the safety representation and employee representation implies that safety representation is consisting of laws and their implementation whereas employee representation is mainly focused on persons who are appointed or selected as representative to communicate about the employee problems and issue.

Contrast Between safety representation (SR) and employee representation (RES)

The main contrast between the safety representation and the employee representation is that the safety representation consisting of several rules and regulations of health and management is mainly operated and controlled by the human resource and development authority of any organization; were as the employee representation is a union based thing which has the man focus to serve the employee with good health and safety management services and protect them in any kind of working condition (Dobbins, and Dundon, 2020). Many times, it can be observed that though there are legislations and rules about the safety representation of employees, the employee representation could not get the proper benefit of it and thus a code of miscommunication or communicational gap coil have been cremated between these two interphases of the health and safety management issues of the UK.

Contrast between safety representative and employee representative is that the laws and regulations which are present in employee benefits purposes often is not properly interpreted or conveyed to the employees or the representatives and the governing organization can take advantage of this problem. Health and safety management problems and their solutions should be more towards employee friendly. The representative of employee can be engaged in various kind of works inside any organization like inspection, investigation or supervision etc. these can only be performed accurately when the representative is aware about the necessity and the rules of the system. This is the main contrast between safety representation and employee representation that can affect the health and safety management systems.

Roles And Functions of Safety Representative

In addition to highlighting the employees of the workgroup, the "health and safety representative" is responsible for bringing concerns to the notice of the person in charge of an organization or initiative (Burdín, and Pérotin, 2019). Health and Safety Representatives are granted particular rights and tasks under the Act to protect the interests of employees they represent.

Several roles and functions are there for the safety representatives, which includes:

  • Inspections of workplace and employee conditions
  • Investigation of the safety and health management
  • Supervision of the health and safety management related concerns

Inspection

Inspection of the workplace and the condition of the employees is one of the major roles to be performed by the safety representatives. In the United Kingdom, health and safety management plays a major role in the safety management system. Several types of inspections are associated with the inspection role of the safety representatives. These are:

  • Safety tour: As the name suggests, a safety tour involves walking about a workplace or facility to get a general sense of the workplace environment and safety policies there. In order to ensure that the safety measures in place are working properly, the administrators or senior members of the company conduct a visual inspection to identify any defects or malpractices. When it comes to problems of health and safety issues in any workplace, the representatives of the working team represent the employees in the workgroup. Assuring that a corporation or enterprise's leader is following the law when it comes to its employees. Investigate into any concerns raised by the group's employees about their health and safety at work Find out if a particular firm or effort offers a health or safety hazard to the operating group's members.
  • Spot check: The recently issued COVID-19 Secure advice is a crucial component of the Government's effort to get the UK's workers safely back into the workforce. They examine how "spot inspections" could involve and also how firms might prepare. It is known to all how important it is for the nation's restoration to work that these papers are available. When asked about it in PMQs, Prime Minister Harper said that workplaces would be spot checked to guarantee they were safe for workers. Research, absorb and implement recently released guidelines on working securely during the pandemic are the first tasks for UK Industrial sector. Employees and non-employees alike are entitled to the protection of their health and safety under “health and safety regulations”. Because pandemic poses a particular danger, these well-established responsibilities to evaluate and manage workplace risks have been extended to include COVID-19. It’s possible for employees, union workers, or members of the general public to report dangerous behaviours. It's more important than ever to include company employees in health and safety management systems. Before the COVID-19 control mechanisms are put in place, the workforce should be consulted. Then, the workers should be consulted and issues should be addressed as they occur.
  • Safety survey: The workplace can be inspected by union-appointed health and safety officials. There is a three-month waiting period before a formal examination of the workplace may be carried out. They can inspect prior to actually three months have passed if there are significant changes to the working conditions, or if HSE releases new information on risks. According on the nature of the job, inspections will be conducted more often. A workplace with a low-risk work environment, such as an administrative office, may require fewer inspections. Some inspections may be warranted, such as those that occur on construction sites, when particular parts of a workplace or specific actions are high-risk or rapidly changing.
  • Safety sampling: Safety sampling is a method used to estimate the risk of accidents in a workplace or risky environment. If there are any undesirable departures from these laws, they will be flagged by a government body such as the “Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)”. Routine checks or examinations may include safety sampling. To guarantee long-term adherence with federal regulations and maintain high safety standards, it is a repetitive procedure. An experienced safety supervisor who has expertise establishing, evaluating, and managing operating procedures and associated paperwork as well as safety examinations and helping employees conform with federal requirements via staff training processes should be hired by employers.

Investigation

Companies are obliged to conduct out health and safety investigations as part of the risk management process. Minor accidents, for example, might reveal a lot about how issues are in reality. By conducting an investigation into accidents and incidents of occupational illness, it will be easier to detect any violations of health-and-safety laws that company may have been ignorant of. In court, the information that company conducted a comprehensive investigation of an accident and took corrective action to prevent future incidents might be used to show the court that the firm has a favourable attitude toward health and safety. In the case of a claim, the results of the inquiry will also give vital information to the insurers. One can use an investigation to find out why the present risk management procedures failed and what modifications or new actions are required. In addition, it may enhance risk prevention in the future, assist other sections of the business learn, exhibit dedication to good health and safety, and increase staff morale and attitude about health-related issues and hazards, among other things.

Supervision

Supervision of the working area, the workplace condition and employee needs is another major role to be performed by safety representatives. The representatives of the work group represent the employees in the workgroup on matters of workplace health and safety. Assuring that a firm or enterprise's leader is following the law when it comes to its workers. Examine employee concerns about workplace health and safety. Make sure the firm or attempt does not present any danger to the group's members' health or safety. Another worker's health or safety would be seriously jeopardized if they had direct or imminent access to a hazardous situation The representative is asked to assist members of another organization. Lack of "health and safety representative" or associate health and safety representative from some other workplace. Supervision also should be in some management-oriented field; When there is a serious risk to an individual's health or safety, such as an accident or imminent interaction with a hazard, representatives of the workgroup have the right to inspect the worksite before the notice is given. There will be a health and safety commission. Employees in the workgroup are educated on workplace health and safety. Whenever you need aid, ask anyone for assistance. It may be necessary to issue interventions notice or instruct a worker of a workgroup to halt risky work in some conditions According to the Act, in some cases, the duty-holder must ask for an independent evaluation of the risk evaluation.

Recommendation

Workplace injuries, sicknesses, and fatalities, and also the suffering and monetary burden these occurrences can generate for workers, the families, and employers, are the major goals of safety and health initiatives. Workplace safety and health is managed proactively using the approved procedures. Unfortunately, traditional methods of issue-solving tend to be reactive, i.e., they handle problems only after an employee is hurt or falls ill after a new standard or rule is released, or after an external inspection identifies a fault that must be corrected. Identifying and removing risks before they produce damage or disease is considerably more successful, according to these suggested methods (Hoque et al. 2017). A modest program with attainable targets should be the starting point. The workplace may reach greater levels of safety and health if people concentrate on accomplishing targets, monitoring performance, and assessing results. Additionally, employers will reap additional benefits from following these strategies. Businesses benefit from safety and health initiatives for the following reasons:

  • Prevent work-related illnesses and injuries by following these simple steps.
  • The improvement of Laws and regulations should be adhered to more closely.
  • Significantly lower workers' reimbursement premiums.
  • Employees should be encouraged to participate.
  • Achieve their socially responsible goals to a greater extent
  • Enhance corporate operations by increasing productivity and efficiency.

Conclusion

The overall concept and application of health and safety management in the UK have been a significant process for the working peoples and environments. In the United Kingdom, the legislation policies and laws about the health and management issues in several workplaces are highly associated with the representation of the employees and the safety reporting is accompanying the requirements of the working groups. Though there are several communication gaps and implementation issues and lagging problems between the safety representation and the employee representation; still the role and importance of these laws and regulations are highly necessary and relatable with the working group of the UK and Wales. It is a legal necessity under the "Health and Safety at Work" etc. Act to have a policy in place. It outlines the measures that must be undertaken to maintain health and safety. Comprehensive representations of legislative health and safety standards, as well as one's health and safety regulations, may be included in the policy. As each person's health and safety responsibilities are defined inside an organization's structure, the command structure must not be muddled. The obligations of each employee must be clearly defined, as must the limitations of those tasks. Be as general as possible; you simply want to describe the duties related to maintaining health and safety in the workplace. They should also know exactly what their responsibilities are, which include taking appropriate care of their personal as well as others' health and safety while at work.

Reference list

Journals

Hale, A. and Booth, R., 2019. The safety professional in the UK: Development of a key player in occupational health and safety. Safety science118, pp.76-87.

Dempsey, H., Curran, M. and Spillane, J.P., SCAFFOLDING IN THE UK AND IRELAND: A FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE HEALTH AND SAFETY NEGLECT ON SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. Management406, p.415.

Liu, M. and Farrell, P., 2017, September. A COMPARISON OF UK AND CHINESE HEALTH AND SAFETY CULTURE IN CONSTRUCTION. In 13 TH INTERNATIONAL POSTGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE 2017 (p. 363).

Nie, B., Huang, X., Xue, F., Chen, J., Liu, X., Meng, Y. and Huang, J., 2018. A comparative study of vocational education and occupational safety and health training in China and the UK. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics24(2), pp.268-277.

Walsh, P., 2018. Challenges and opportunities for patient safety and justice in the UK.

Hare, B., Kumar, B. and Campbell, J., 2020. Impact of a multi-media digital tool on identifying construction hazards under the UK construction design and management regulations. J. Inf. Technol. Constr.25, pp.482-499.

Nielsen, K., Axtell, C. and Taylor, S., 2021. National Approaches to Wellbeing Interventions: The UK Management Standards as an Example. The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Wellbeing, p.368.

Khunti, K., de Bono, A., Browne, I., Greenhalgh, T., Hanif, W., Majeed, A., Patel, K., Razaq, M.A. and Smeeth, L., 2020. Risk Reduction Framework for NHS Staff at risk of COVID-19 infection. workforce20(17), p.44.

George, M., 2017. The effect of introducing new public management practices on compassion within the NHS. Nursing Time113, pp.30-4.

Nie, B., Huang, X., Xue, F., Chen, J., Liu, X., Meng, Y. and Huang, J., 2018. A comparative study of vocational education and occupational safety and health training in China and the UK. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics24(2), pp.268-277.

Hesketh, I. and Tehrani, N., 2019. Psychological trauma risk management in the UK police service. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice13(4), pp.531-535.

Measham, F.C., 2019. Drug safety testing, disposals and dealing in an English field: Exploring the operational and behavioural outcomes of the UK’s first onsite ‘drug checking’service. International Journal of Drug Policy67, pp.102-107.

Lye, A.T., Hector, E.L. and Patelli, E., 2019, June. Conversion of Fault Tree into credal network for probabilistic safety assessment of a nuclear power plant. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Nuclear Power Plants, London, UK (pp. 10-11).

Dobbins, T. and Dundon, T., 2020. Non-union employee representation. In Handbook of research on employee voice. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Burdín, G. and Pérotin, V., 2019. Employee representation and flexible working time. Labour Economics61, p.101755.

Hoque, K., Earls, J., Conway, N. and Bacon, N., 2017. Union representation, collective voice and job quality: An analysis of a survey of union members in the UK finance sector. Economic and Industrial Democracy38(1), pp.27-50.

Forth, J., Bryson, A. and George, A., 2017. Explaining cross-national variation in workplace employee representation. European Journal of Industrial Relations23(4), pp.415-433.

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