Healthcare Research Methods Assignment Sample

Collecting and analyzing healthcare data through surveys, interviews, statistical analysis, and thematic analysis.

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HealthCare Data Collection & Research Methods Assignment 

Introduction of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods for Healthcare

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Collection and analysing the data are being done through two methods, “Quantitative research” and “Qualitative research”. Quantitative research deals with "Numbers and statistics", whereas Qualitative research deals with “Word and meanings”. It is to be said that, the effectiveness of both the methods varies from a place of research and condition. This essay will compare and contrast quantitative and qualitative research methods, In addition to their application to healthcare. In this essay, various methods, Data Collection techniques, ethics and other necessary critical evaluation will be present regarding both research methods about health care. Moreover, three limitations in collecting the data and analysis will be present with its effects on the research regarding Health Care. Apart from this, a literature review will be a part of this essay. In order to structure this essay, "academic and critiquing skills development" will be present in the module. According to health care research, how these methods will be helpful will also be discussed.

Discussion “Quantitative research” vs “Qualitative research”

In the case of research purposes, when one decides to choose one model, it is better to stipulate the idea of the main goal and then collecting of information will be correct. "Qualitative approach" is a method of carrying out research, where a researcher has "an active role in interacting with the participants or object" someone wishes according to the subject of the research. In other words, the "Qualitative research" method creates "verbal summaries of research without any statistical summary or analysis". Therefore in order to carry out any research regarding Health Care, this qualitative research method can help on the grounds of primary data collection by asking questions to the authorities involved in the industry or an employee directly associated with Healthcare services. Sometimes qualitative research techniques can help to evaluate data from family members of the patient too, but in most cases, it will be ethically wrong to ask questions to the family members of an ill person.

Further, the "Quantitative approach" is collecting data based on "tests, data, questionnaires, and other measures". There is "Qualitative research" that tells "why questions cannot be carried out" with the help of quantitative answers. Generally what is beneficial for the "qualitative research" approach is the opposite of the "quantitative research" approach. Quantitative, as well as qualitative research data, can be collected from various sources, but It is important to evaluate which source will help to reach the goals of the research study and will answer the research questions. Data collection methods can be "in surveys, observations or case studies".

Several research designs are there that can be followed namely: exploratory design, explanatory design and descriptive design. In the case of research work of the health sector, exploratory and explanatory designs can be followed. Quantitative and Qualitative methods can be of two types: primary and secondary methods. Primary qualitative data is defined through interviews and primary quantitative data is defined as a survey. On the other hand, secondary qualitative data is defined through thematic analysis and secondary quantitative is defined through statistical analysis. The Data Collection process is an important step in healthcare. Several factors are there that influence the health care sector. Interviews, surveys, thematic analysis and statistical analysis will provide effective data from health care officials and also from the patients (Mason, 2020). Collection of exquisite data and sources are being signified through the methods of data collection. The Researchers will have a vivid knowledge in the context of the research. Every data of the research taken is based on the objectives of the research.

Primary quantitative data

While considering the primary research approach, qualitative data is accumulated through the process of interview. In the situation of a pandemic, interview sessions are challenging to hold, therefore online interviews are generally preferred. In order to research and clinical perspectives, it will be best to interview an experienced person serving the field for many years. Doctors or any health professional holding a higher post in this area are preferred for interviews. In order to arrange an interview, the proper notice should be given to the respective personnel and time is set according to convenience. Questionnaires are previously set that should be asked in the interview (Rodriguez, 2018). The Questionnaires should satisfy the aims and objectives of the research. Several online platforms are there that can be used to arrange the interview such as google meet or MS Teams. The whole interview process is recorded for future reference. Primary quantitative data surveys are preferred for getting vivid knowledge.

Secondary qualitative data

Several perspectives can be considered in order to select the population for the survey. Through this approach, several perspectives can be explained such as the issues that the healthcare organisation is facing. The same reason of ongoing pandemic will affect the offline survey process therefore again online methods are preferred. In order to conduct survey questionnaires are set that are incorporated in the google form and are circulated among selected individuals. All the members selected for the survey have been informed previously and the interested persons are chosen to take part in the survey. Google forms are being shared through emails or other contact methods. The recordings are collected for further analysis. While considering secondary qualitative data, thematic analysis is being performed (Peat, 2019). The thematic analyses are performed based on the research journals or articles. The journal and articles are selected such that they fulfil the aims and objectives of the research.

All the journals and online articles are selected based on a recent time scale of three to four years. Access to old articles and journals are not selected as it may alter the analysis based on the current situation. In the case of secondary quantitative data statistical analysis is preferred. It shows numerical values based on certain perspectives. It will mitigate the aims and objectives of the research. In statistical analysis, graphs are also favoured in order to support the statistical data that is being obtained. Statistical data are collected from various previous researches. The illumination of the research will be accurately made while following these procedures. Several problems can be faced during the collection of the data. Secondary resources cannot be easily found based on recent data (Dos Santos, 2021). Whereas in case of findings of primary data approvals to take an interview or agreeing to take part in a survey may not be easily achieved.

Data Analysis

After the completion of the data collection, process data analysis should be focussed upon. While Processing with the analysis, aims and objectives of the research are kept in focus that'll lead to proper analysis of the collected data and findings. Research effectiveness is generally analysed through the accuracy of fulfilment of the objectives. In the case of primary qualitative data, interviews are critically analysed. The recordings of the interviews are played repeatedly in order to document every minute details that are being obtained. The findings from the interview are described and justified with other necessary information from secondary sources. In the case of a survey, google forms are critically studied based on several tips that are mentioned in those forms. Each factor is being analysed differently (Allen, 2018). Critical analysis Of both the qualitative and quantitative has been done so that no gaps remain in analysing them. Secondary qualitative analysis has been analysed through themes. Themes are firstly made based on the research objectives. It will help in getting relevant data and justify the objectives. Research questions are also kept in the notice for developing these. In order to analyse the themes, a basic outline has been created based on which analysis has been done. Next research articles and journals are thoroughly studied. Any insignificant reference that does not have relevant information are rejected and new journals or online articles are taken. Analysis should be made such that it is easily understood by readers. In the case of statistical analysis, proper data are collected and the reasons behind such data are explained with significant information from secondary sources.

Ethical considerations

Certain rules and regulations are followed while conducting the research are termed Ethical considerations. These Ethics will define the reliability and validity of the research. Sincere considerations of rules are made during thematic and statistical analysis. Copyrights Act is followed while doing the research work. Under the act, several regulations are being stated. Exclusive Rights are provided to the author or creator of any project. It states that every possible right regarding the projects is owned by the author himself. If the work is done while working in any organisation, then the organisation holds the rights of the work (sagepub.com, 2022). In the case of commissioned work, the rights belong to the authors until the deal gets signed officially. These prevent any fraudulent activities. Data Protection Act 2018 is also being followed. It also provides vital and vivid information regarding the authenticity of the research. Research work of other workers should be used in unlawful ways. The act states several conditions that can be implemented in case of any fraudulent activities.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that research methods following all the types of data will be able to get a wider view of the healthcare industry. Several factors are there that influence the health care sector. Interviews, surveys, thematic analysis and statistical analysis will provide effective data from health care officials and also from the patients. Surveys can be done among health care workers or patients or the families of the patients. Collection of exquisite data and sources are being signified through the methods of data collection. rules and regulations have to be followed in the case of every type of data.

Reference

Books

Mason, D.J., Perez, A., McLemore, M.R. and Dickson, E., 2020. Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Journals

Rodriguez, A. and Smith, J., 2018. Phenomenology as a healthcare research method. Evidence-Based Nursing21(4), pp.96-98.

Abrams, H.R., Loomer, L., Gandhi, A. and Grabowski, D.C., 2020. Characteristics of US nursing homes with COVID?19 cases. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society68(8), pp.1653-1656.

Peat, G., Rodriguez, A. and Smith, J., 2019. Interpretive phenomenological analysis applied to healthcare research. Evidence-Based Nursing22(1), pp.7-9.

Dos Santos, L.M., 2021. Developing Bilingualism in Nursing Students: Learning Foreign Languages beyond the Nursing Curriculum. Healthcare 2021, 9, 326.

Online articles

Allen, D., 2018. Translational mobilisation theory: a new paradigm for understanding the organisational elements of nursing work. International journal of nursing studies79, pp.36-42. Available at:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020748917302420 [accessed on 28th February]

Day-Duro, E., Lubitsh, G. and Smith, G., 2020. Understanding and investing in healthcare innovation and collaboration. Journal of Health Organization and Management. Available at:https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JHOM-07-2019-0206/full/html?casa_token=1mFJMBovjOYAAAAA:DZSVTBESLfkRDSHi8YRY0ujlWCBhCK-aHCvIPCOGl5eZmwCANEKq7Wlv7SIyyUsZlzuP7qtk70dUaHG3u4hDvkslMyE735myO22UEPcvUX6Efi01U-Pd [accessed on 28th February]

Chen, X., Lun, Y., Yan, J., Hao, T. and Weng, H., 2019. Discovering thematic change and evolution of utilizing social media for healthcare research. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making19(2), pp.39-53. Available at:https://bmcmedinformdecismak.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12911-019-0757-4 [accessed on 28th February]

Website

sagepub.com, 2022 Understanding Nursing and Healthcare Research Available at:https://uk.sagepub.com [accessed on 28th February]

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