Xgbshn5142 Research Methods Assignment
Introduction- Xgbshn5142 Research Methods Assignment
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The cases of mental health issues are growing rapidly around the world. There are many mental health diseases such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, ADHD, and bipolar disorders among others which require extensive healthcare treatment. Though most of these can be clearly defined to be mental health diseases, ADHD is one such condition that has been a subject of debate and can be called a behavioral disorder rather than mental health disease. The treatment procedure for the disorder also varies a lot and can be done through medication and behavioral therapy among others. It is mostly the younger children that get affected by this disease which makes it even more critical.
This makes it extremely hard for the researchers to understand the effectiveness of global healthcare practices with respect to ADHD among children in the age group of 12–17 years, which has been found to be the most affected, which this research would try to establish. In this respect, at first, the aim and objectives of the research will be identified which will be followed by a description of justification and importance of research. An overview will also be provided about the purpose of the research and the research methodology that will be undertaken.
Aim and Objective
The aim of this research is to understand the effectiveness of global healthcare practices regarding ADHD among children aged 12–17 years.
The major objectives of this research are mentioned below.
- In knowledge to related ADHD disorder from different causes, symptoms, and diagnosis processes
- The evaluate the effecting of global healthcare practices regarding ADHD among children belonging to the age group of 12-17 years
- To provide appropriate recommendations that can be adopted by the healthcare industry to improve the treatment procedure of ADHD
Many young children around the world are getting affected due to ADHD which has become a major cause of concern for parents. There are different healthcare practices that are being undertaken throughout the globe for its treatment each of which has been found to give desirable results which differs further depending upon the age of children being affected (Sciberras et al. 2020). As many as 3.3 million children aged 12-17 get diagnosed with ADHD in the US which is the most for any age group. Therefore, it becomes extremely crucial to understand the effectiveness of global health practices with respect to ADHD among children affected in the age group of 12-17 years which this research would try to establish and find out through extensive analysis
The methods that will be adopted for this research would be of the exploratory type where different types of global healthcare practices that are currently being used around the world for the treatment of ADHD among children aged 12-17 years will be analyzed to understand its effectiveness. This form of research helps in the critical analysis of data to establish meaningful research insights. The data for this research will be collected through secondary means consisting of qualitative as well as quantitative data and will be analyzed using the thematic analysis tool of the Braun and Clarke model.
Question - What are the implementations that help to improve the quality of treatment, practices, and medication of the Global Health network for the service users of ADHD patients between the 12-17 age groups?
ADHD is one of the most common disorders of neurodevelopment in childhood. In recent years the UK has 2,000 and 3,000 died at a young age. It is important for the global Health network to focus on their advanced treatments, quality of their, medicines, latest research, and experiments so that they can provide the best services to ADHD patients, especially for the age group of 12-17 years. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder creates troubles for children in their childhood. This mortality shows that children aged 12-17 are also included in this mortality rate and its insights that ADHD disease takes more kids' lives in the UK.. This paper will evaluate these diseases' causes, symptoms, and effects on children. This disease is common and it likely affects males as compared to females in the UK. It is estimated that 3.6% of males and 0.9% of females under the age of 5 to 15 are affected mostly by ADHD. This disease affects people’s behavior (Youngpeopleshealth.org.uk, 2022). This disease mainly affects the kids in the UK that leads them to lose their focus from any aspect. The symptoms of ADHD are noticed at an early age because children are always noticed by their parents. The school time reveals the children's focal aspect; therefore, sometimes it's circular to find that a child is affected with ADHD. It is mostly happening in the UK that children do not recognize at an early age that they are suffering from ADHD instead of it being recognized in an adult age after the diagnosis. It is generally seen that 10 to 24-year-olds are dying in the UK because this age group has a higher mortality rate as compared to old ones (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2022).
Figure 2.1: Age-Specific Mortality Rate in the UK
(Source: Youngpeopleshealth.org.uk, 2022)
The above-displayed figure also demonstrates that the male population of the UK has a higher mortality rate as compared to females. In regard to this ADHD is also found more in males as compared to the female population of the UK. It can be clearly stated here that this disease takes more life of the male population that is under the age of 12 to 17 (Kidshealth.org, 2022). It is a harsh situation that at this age kids often have issues with their memory therefore, it is difficult to recognize whether they are suffering from ADHD or not.
Overview of Mental health issues
As per the national alliance on mental illness, the term mental illness can be used interchangeably with mental health conditions and mental disorders. It is a general term that can be used for a range of illnesses that has an effect on the perceptions, behavior, mood, and thinking of an individual. Mental health issues can often make it a challenge for people suffering from it to manage relationships, take care of other necessary demands, and cope with the work pressure. There is a direct relationship between stress and mental health which is often difficult to understand due to its involved complexity but what is clearly evident is the fact that mental illnesses can worsen due to stress in stressful situations (Agnew-Blais et al 2018). Mental illnesses can require counseling, medication, or sometimes even both. Some of the common mental health issues and illnesses in this respect have been briefly explained below
Anxiety disorders can be termed as a group of mental health illnesses that includes panic disorder, specific phobias such as claustrophobia social phobias, OCD, post-traumatic disorder and general disorders of anxiety among others.
Depression is a disorder that affects the mood of an individual which is characterized by reduced energy, loss of enjoyment and interest, and lowering of mood. It is completely different from the feeling of sadness. This can even make the behaviors and thoughts of an individual suicidal depending upon its severity level
Bipolar disorder is also a kind of mood disorder where the particular feels episodes of depression as well as mania or elation (Langberg et al. 2018). This is generally caused due to genetic predisposition but environmental stressors can also act as a major trigger.
Factors Associated with Mental health conditions
There are some people who are at more risk of getting mental health disorders than others which is generally characterized by multiple risk factors, which are mentioned below.
- Demise of loved ones, divorce, financial problems, and other life situations that are stressful
- Experience of trauma due to assault or military combat
- Quantity of friends limitation
- Conditions of mental sickness in previous
- Brain damage due to serious injuries
- Use of recreational drugs or alcohol
- Suffering from the Chronic Diseases.
- Genetic Mental disorder
Mental health conditions can be caused due to different factors ranging from environmental as well as genetic factors which can be explained as
Pre Birth exposure to the environment
Mental illnesses can also be sometimes linked to exposure to environmental conditions in womb even before birth due to toxins, drugs, alcohol, inflammatory conditions and environmental stressors (Leitch et al. 2019).
Traits that are inherited
Mental illnesses can also be caused due to inheritance when family members and blood relatives have the disease
Impairment in brain chemistry
When neural networks involved with neurotransmitters get impaired, then the functions of nerve systems and nerve receptors change which can lead to emotional disorders and depression (Merzon et al. 2021).
Financial instability, stressful life situations, the death of close ones, or divorce among others can also cause mental illnesses.
Global mental health insights
Poor measurement of mental health statistics
One of the major global trends that have to be given due consideration is the fact that when it comes to global statistics of mental health, it has been found to be poorly understood, measured, or defined. This is because most people don't even realize that they are suffering from a mental health issue. Most of the symptoms that generally occur in mental health issues are initially considered to be normal and are not given due treatment that it requires. Most of the patients are due to social stigma over mental health disorders which have led to less reporting of mental health illnesses.
Prevalence of mental health issues globally
If a close look is taken at the number of people suffering from mental health issues around the globe, it can be seen that people around the world are suffering from mental health and are not constrained to specific geographical or regional. Among all the population that currently lives on Earth, it can be estimated that every sixth person is suffering from mental health disorders without any understandings (Ourworldindata.org, 2018). This is usually due to situations of trauma that they have experienced in their life, death of close ones, professional or academic failure, and divorce or issues in the relationship among others.
Variance In gender
It has been found from the global data on mental health diseases that females are more likely to be affected by mental health issues like anxiety and depression in comparison to males. Though this is not always true in all mental health illnesses as there are few exceptions such as ADHD for instance which affects males more than females
Relation of mental health with employment and education level
The mental health issues are also directly linked with the employment and education level of individuals which is evident from the figure below. The people who are unemployed have more stress about not working which leads to greater cases of mental health issues among them than those who are happy and content in their job life as they have less work pressure. Same can be noticed among students and their educational level as well (Haft et al. 2019). The more competitive the education gets the more stressful and difficult it becomes for one to cope with it.
Figure 3.1: Global mental health insights
(Source: Ourworldindata.org, 2018)
ADHD and its involved symptoms
ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a mental health condition that affects the way in which an individual sits whether they are still or not, controls their behavior and pays attention to the activities happening around them. It mostly affects teens but adults can get affected by it as well. It is more present among boys than girls and can be recognised in school times when they have difficulty in paying attention (Zhu et al. 2019). Some of the major symptoms of ADHD in this respect can be divided into two broad categories, which are mentioned below.
Impulsive or hyperactivity
- Fixed place is not possible
- indulges in excessive talking
- cannot play quietly
- Fidgets, bounces or squirms while sitting
- cannot wait for their turn
- interrupts others while speaking
- blurting out answers
- climbing or running on things and always moving
- Disobedient to thing taught and said
- easily gets destruction
- Disable to finish tasks or follow directions
- Missing knowledge of daily condition
- Creating careless mistakes and not paying attention (Sibley et al. 2021).
- lost things on regular basis
- Difficulty in organizing daily tasks
- Day dreaming condition
Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD
It is very difficult to diagnose children with ADHD as it is very difficult to detect and cannot be recognized by carrying out one or two tests. It is usually understood through extensive analysis of behavior of a child to find out whether they are similar to the concerned symptoms or not. Teachers, parents as well as children are involved in lengthy observation and discussion to measure the number of symptoms and the period for which they have been affected (Kooij et al. 2019). Tests that are carried out include these factors.
- Evaluation of social and medical history of family and child
- Carrying out NEBA scan
- Personality tests, aptitude and processing skills measurement
- Neurological assessment and physical exam for screening, hearing, vision and motor skills among others
Treatment of the disease can be done through
- Sessions of Counseling
- Medication to stimulate CNS
- Non Stimulant treatment
The bio-psychosocial model has been found to be most effective in the study of ADHD. As per this model, the health and disease of an individual is directly linked to the biological, social and psychological factors. Effects of drugs and physical health are some of the crucial biological factors in this respect it is mentioned about Generic vulnerabilities (Hgi.org.uk, 2019). Family circumstances, relationships and peers are social factors and coping skills and self-esteem makes up some of the important psychological factors. In this literature review, at first an overview of mental health issues was provided which was followed by an extensive description of different factors that are associated with mental health conditions such as the causes and involved risks. Extensive description was also provided about the global insights available about mental health which established its relationship with gender, education level, employment, trends in the number of mental health cases and how they have been poorly measured.
Figure 3.2: Bio-psychosocial model
(Source: Hgi.org.uk, 2019)
Multiple researchers have been carried out on the different aspects of different types of mental health diseases and ADHD but there are still some clear gaps present in the available literature. None of the research papers that were analyzed evaluated the global health practices with respect to the specific age group chosen for this research. There are limitations in the availability of literature when it comes to comparative approaches taken by different countries for the treatment of ADHD among children in the age group of 12-17 years.
A brief overview about ADHD has been provided as it involves symptoms, diagnostic and treatment procedure. The psychosocial model which is relevant to the research study was also underlined and understood in brief followed by description of prevalent gaps in existing literature.
In this research, the performance shows the condition off mental health and equality. It defines the standard feeling a life considers with.
Figure 4.1: Research Onion
(Source: Researchgate.net, 2020.)
Pragmatism is used so that the research can avoid including pointless debates, which are not related to reality and truth. It also helps the research on providing multiple realities (Simpson, 2018). Pragmatism research philosophy allows accepting only relevant concepts and arguments that can support actions (Lohse, 2017). However, from the studies, it has been observed that pragmatism is like a combination of both positivism and interpretive approaches which is applied to single research based on the nature of research questions. Pragmatism research philosophy helps the researcher to ensure that to provide value to the research in different ways so that it can answer the research questions.
In this research, Descriptive is used as a Research design. From the various studies, it has been observed that descriptive research design allows the researcher to present an accurate description of situation, phenomenon, events or the experiences. It can be further said that it is an extension of exploratory research design which provides suitable answers to the what, how, when and where questions that are related to the research questions. The main purpose of using a descriptive method is that the researcher can analyse the data ensuring that the data is not manipulated as the variables have been identified, observed and measured.
The research approach which is used for this research is mixed-methods. It has used both qualitative methods and quantitative methods for the research.
Qualitative data analysis includes textual, briefings, literatures and transcripts of interviews. The research has used the qualitative data collection method as it emphasizes the processes and meanings which are not measured in terms of intensity or frequency. It allows the researcher to provide an in-depth understanding of the experiences, perspectives, studies, arguments and case studies.
This research focuses on unchanging or unbiased variables or data.
Quantitative methods of data collection can be considered as the gathering of objective measurements, questionnaires and surveys, numerical analysis, charts, graphs, data collection through polls, computation data or statistical data (Creswell and Creswell, 2017). The quantitative data analysis method allows the researcher to provide a relationship in the research between an independent variable and outcome variables or dependent variables with a specific population. It ensures to increase the reliability and validity of the research it provides numbers, an objective stance and logic.
Data Sources and Data Type
The research has used data which is collected using secondary sources such as journals, books, news reports, business reports, governmental reports and documents and articles. It can be further argued that the secondary data collection method improves the overall research paper as it includes studies and analysis of previous research works even it is mentioned with Quantitative and Qualitative (Mertens, 2019.). It helps to provide different types of interpretations, opinions, investigated concepts, meanings and arguments to the research. The main purpose of using a secondary data collection method is that the literature of the research can be reviewed with relevant findings, evaluation and analysis of other scholars and researchers which can help to enhance the reliability and validity of the research.
The research has been done using a secondary data collection method so it has considered all the ethical guidelines and principles at each stage of the research process. It has evaluated the ethical issues by providing a range of data collection methods to ensure that the research work presents only the relevant information and data which has been peer-reviewed. However, the ethical consideration of primary data collection generally focuses on confidentiality, voluntary and anonymity. For instance, in the data collection from primary sources it is very important to ensure that the data will be kept confidential and would be used only for the research. The secondary data is collected from the journals, documents, articles and reports which have been published in the last five years. The research does not include any irrelevant data or manipulated information. The data are generally collected from the volunteer participants and they are not being forced or manipulated for participation. The consent of the participants is also considered. The ethics of data collection also considers that the identity of the participants are not shared, kept confidential and are used as anonymous.
Data Collection and Analysis
Figure 5.1: Children with ADHD
(Source: Cdc.gov, 2022)
It has been observed from the reports of Global Mental Health that ADHD is associated with the consequences of long life between the children and adolescents having this condition. The children and adolescents also have to experience diverse diagnosis and treatment practices because of the fragility of health systems, stigma in LMIC and lack of trained professionals across the world.
It can be further argued that the variations in the medicine are still related to the different ways of diagnosis criteria depending on the functionality, structure and finance of the health systems. For instance, the financial capabilities of health systems across the world determines the possibility of getting direct access to experts and specialists, sufficient resources and availability of non-pharmacological treatments, off label use of drugs, variations in culture while receiving treatment of ADHD, availability and cost of treatment for ADHD (Frontiersin.org, 2020).
According to a study of a global scale which is done among the children, adolescents and adults of Western Europe including UK, Spain and France, Australia, Asia, Canada, USA, Denmark, Norway and Sweden to examine the tendencies and prevalence in the treatment of ADHD, it has been observed that ADHD has various similarities which are found worldwide (Frontiersin.org, 2020).
The data analysis has demonstrated the similarities of symptoms and medications of ADHD across the world. However, from the reports it has been observed that children, adolescents and adults may not receive the same or necessary medication and treatment of ADHD. According to the reports, it can be further argued that there is a higher probability that the children and adolescents can get variations in the treatment of ADHD. However, it is highly reliable on the doctors and authorities of the health systems that validate the effectiveness of safety of treatment considering the long term consequences of inappropriate treatment. However, the data has represented that there is no transparent or clear evidence on optimal rates of prescription. From the studies, it can be further argued that the children and adolescents of 12-17 years old may get inappropriate treatment or over treatment which is completely determined on the practices, guidelines and policies of the health care system of different countries.
The methodology for this paper is based on mixed methods because both primary and secondary data collection methods are used to illustrate ADHD disease in the UK. This disease mainly makes the child restless and interactive. Therefore, it is evaluated that Global Mental Health mentioned that children are more likely to be affected by these diseases in future. This research can be more descriptive if it will be based upon data that is collected from direct resources. The parents’ opinion and their conditions are to give a vast contribution to make the research more accurate. The primary data are given better understanding about a specific topic therefore; in future this type of paper and topic has to be used primary data. More data about children that are affected by this disease has to be included here. The data relating to children and their condition will improve the accuracy of this data. It must be concluded here that data related to ADHD disease in the UK’s children are not found through different methods. The journals, articles and websites are not giving much more data about how many children are suffering exactly from this disease in the UK.
The NHS does not disclose the mortality rate of children due to this ADHD disease in their country (Nhs.uk 2022). There are many more limitations that are also having to be maintained while data collecting because unauthentic data sources are not included in this paper. This is a global health practice matter therefore; health insurgents and health departments of the UK are only the source of data collected for this research topic. It is a mental concern; therefore, any pressure is created upon anyone to collect data because parents are already suffering brutally from this disease in their children. In future research, data from parents and children has to be included in this paper to illustrate how badly this disease in a family (Youngpeopleshealth.org.uk, 2022). This data improves the awareness among parents for their children to diagnose them if they are seeing the symptoms of restlessness and attention less in their children. This ware makes people more aware to recognise ADHD in the early stage of children that has chances to mitigate if it is an initial stage of this disease in children.
Conclusion and Recommendation
It is concluded from above that ADHD is a grievous disease that needs to be mitigated by children in the UK. The data evaluated to know deeply about this disease that gives information cause, symptoms and its affected people in the UK. A justification for this choosing question is also being present in this paper. The literature review part also evaluates the concepts related to this disease. This disease compels the children to lose their focusing power and makes them restless every time gives a bad impact on their mental health. The importance of this justification for choosing this disease is included above. The evaluate part illustrates that what re the future implications can be included in the future research of this study. Furthermore, in this paper, a question is concluded that is the main things where this paper's significance is stand. The data collection methods and data related to ADHD in the UK are also given above. A recommendation that is mainly in this research paper related to its data evaluates the condition of disease. Overall, demonstrates determines the ADHD’s every aspect in the children of the UK.
- A parent training behaviour has to be provided by the government of the UK to give basic therapy to its children.
- Proper knowledge and skills have to know by the parents to recognise this disease in early stages of the children (Youngpeopleshealth.org.uk, 2022).
- The children can get more side effects from the medication of ADHD that has to be remunerable by parents of the UK.
- Behaviour intervention has to be developed in the classroom of children.
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