Self-Service Technology At The Airport And The Effect On Staff Perception Of Job Security
Get free written samples by our Top-Notch subject experts and Assignment Helper team.
In the airline industry, self-service technology is an important aspect to function different tasks more effectively. In this dimension, digital technology is useful to improve the efficiency level and provide better customer services. In the present time, due to the number of airports the level of competition is enhancing in the aviation sector. There are various bigger airports that are facing challenges due to the domestic rival airport hubs. Therefore, in this segment, airports are working on augmented services, they are focusing on self-service technology for better customer experience and it is generating some adverse perception in staff regarding their job security. In this era, expectations of passengers are increasing regarding digital securities for advanced facilities, safety, and security in their journey. The main aspect of using digital technologies in airports is to enhance the security system and to monitor the work or services providing by staff. Therefore, it can be said that self-service technologies are used relating to different objectives, to reduce the operational cost, establish a good security system, and create higher value for the passengers. In the service industry, businesses mostly focus on physical evidence therefore implementation of good self-service technology is a good aspect of physical evidence that shows standard services provided in the airport.
1.2 Background of the study
Today, in the service sector, self-service technologies are a large factor to generate better customer experiences due to increasing the level of competition. in the aviation sector, increasing the number of airports with the passing of days. It has been observed that airports are largely focusing on self-service technology used in the operation due to create better passengers and to sustain in the competitive environment. In addition, for the implementation of self-service technologies, staffs are being trained regarding the usage but on the other hand, it creating an adverse perception in staff minds regarding job security (Antwi et al. 2021). In addition, the aviation sector comes under the service industry, therefore due to enhance the level of physical evidence and providing better customer services, various self-service technologies are being used in different airport functions. At the airport continuously, SST devices are used due to the increasing expectation levels of passengers. In the context of air travel, passengers mostly think about augmented services, safety, and security, as well as convenience, therefore the core service area for airports is convenience and passenger safety. Apart from this, SST technologies are required to manage a continuous number of passengers in the airport and for the finest operational agility. In this dimension, on one hand, effectiveness and efficiency of performance are enhancing and on the other hand, an adverse impact is falling on the job security of staff. A popular SST technology, common use self-service technology (CUSS) is used in airports to minimize the level of staff interaction with passengers. CUSS is largely used in international airports where the number of passengers remains higher (Considine et al. 2017). In this segment, industries are losing interpersonal relationships and interactive relationships between staff and passengers. At the present time, in various domestic airports, there are various Self-Service Technologies are being installed. Therefore, the market size of SSTs is enhancing every and it has been found in the aviation sector that airport SSTs are the most developing aspect. It has been found that installation of Kiosks has grown due to higher implementation for multipurpose especially in service providing business. The main objective of applying Kiosks is to minimize the engagement of human resources in airports to serve passengers. On the other side, this study of the report shows that SSTs are affecting adversely on airport staffs' perception regarding job security. Therefore, it has been a serious problem for airport staff (Grone, 2019). This research represents that fewer staff are required in airports for different operate different operations and to guide passengers. In this context, it can be said that optimum efficiency can be got largely through SSTs and effective face-to-face services by staff. Therefore, the satisfaction and motivational factors of available staff are needed to be considered. Therefore, it can be said that using self-service technologies airports are providing better customer service but it is also a cause of staff dissatisfaction and demotivation due to less human-to-human interaction (Gures et al. 2018). Apart from that, the operation process of the service industry is very much different from the manufactured sector or any product-related business. In this service sector, a business creates strong physical evidence to increase the customers' perceived value therefore SST is playing a major role, especially in the service sector to differentiate from competitors. In the current scenario, in bigger airports, the SST system smoothes several operational aspects such as smooth check-in, monitoring over various functions, security of passengers, effective control over service delivery process, and so on.
1.3 Research rationale
In this research study, it has been observed that self-service technology is a major aspect in the service sector due to meeting the changing demand of passengers. In a few decades, it has been found that the number of airports has grown due to the increase in the number of air travelers which results in higher rivalry in the industry. In the service sector, service delivery processes and service gap fulfillment tactics are necessary to sustain in the environment. In the context of the service gap, it may be between passenger’s expectations and the perception of management. In this dimension, management should have such agility and capacity to meet the changing or growing passengers’ expectations (Ivanov, 2019). In addition, it has been recognized in this research study that once an augmented level of services is fulfilled by different businesses, it becomes a basic expectation of customers towards a business.
Therefore, in most of the bigger airports various devices are being used as self-service technologies, in this context, nowadays airports are largely focusing on the implementation of advanced SST technology and continuously reaching for the areas of SST services to create future augmentation levels of service. Therefore, in international airports very advanced technologies are used such as Common User Terminal Equipment (CUTE) and Common User Self Service (CUSS). In addition, it also has been observed that motivation and satisfaction factors of staff are needed to be focused on to erase any kind of adverse perception in their mind regarding job security. Higher implementation of self-service technologies is a cause of staff demotivation regarding job security for the less human-to-human interaction in the service delivery process (K?l?ç, 2019). In addition, measurement of business performance is required to bring more accuracy in the service delivery process with speed. In this dimension, customer's or passengers' level of satisfaction is the key factor to measure the business performance. In this context service, providers use PC algorithms to measure the level of customer satisfaction by utilizing different Self-Service Technologies. Add to that, this research represents measuring passengers’ satisfaction level. Apart from that, a service provider also analyses the tolerance zone to make customers satisfied and finds out the level where customers’ will get delighted. Therefore, it can be said that this research also shows various approaches to measure the efficiency level of operation through SSTs. Furthermore, the objective of this research study is to identify the current market situation of Self-Service Technologies and to analyze data to know the future growth rate of SSTs in the aviation industry. In the context of Kiosks, ATMs it has been found that the market size of these SSTs was around 2000 million USD in the year 2010 whereas in the present time this size has grown up to 6500 million USD. Therefore, with the help of different analyses, this research will show that a key developing aspect in the aviation sector is the installation of SSTs in airports (Phillips-Daley, 2020). This research represents that at the time of work overload operational efficiency level goes down. In this context of installation of Self-Service devices in the airport, it represents that it is difficult for a service providing business to handle the passenger crowd at the time of peak season. Add to that, in this segment, implementation of SSTs is crucial to maintain the efficiency level at that time. A few years ago the role of staff was essential to serve passengers which are continuously decreasing with the passing of days. In this context to staff demotivation, management has a major role to motivate available staff in the airport. Therefore, along with meeting passengers' increasing expectations, airport management has also a major role regarding maintaining work motivation in staff working in the airport (diva-portal.org, 2017).
1.4 Research Aim
The aim of this research study is to improve passenger experience in the aviation sector through self-service technologies. This research mainly concentrates on identifying the areas of using self-service technology, understanding the importance of SST in a competitive environment, and analyzing the effect of enhancing the use of SST on staff perception for job security. It has been found that the number of air travelers has increased in a few years. In addition, the objective of service and manufacture is to maintain work efficiency especially at the time of higher demand (Remencová and Sedlá?ková, 2021). Therefore, to handle a large number of passengers airports are transferring their business with the objective of maintaining efficiency. In the context of air traveling, some expectations remain in passengers regarding convenience and other facilities such as safety and security. Therefore, to remain adhered to passengers changing demands, Self Service Technologies are being implemented but on the other side, it is a cause of staff retrenchment.
1.5 Research objectives
- To provide better services to passengers through an automation system. In this competitive business environment, customer experience is an important aspect to differentiate.
- For creating stronger physical evidence through self-service technologies. In the service sector, physical evidence is an important aspect and in airports, SST can establish stronger evidence to show service standard
- To minimize the problems regarding less effective performance due to an impact on staff perception for job security. In this segment, due to the high implementation of SST in the workplace.
- For maintaining the level of staff performance for better outcomes. The role of staff has gone down due to SST; therefore, airport management has a major role in maintaining motivation on staff so that they contribute their best for the optimum outcome (pdfs.semanticscholar.org, 2021).
- To meet the changing needs of passengers in the airport. At the present time air travelers mainly look for speed, accuracy, convenience, and self-control on their journey. Therefore, various SSTs are being installed in the airport to provide greater customer service from the arrival to boarding aircraft.
- For identifying the increasing market size of Self-Service Technologies. In the context of establishing stronger security systems in airports Some SSTs such as Surveillance systems, Screening systems, primary security, and others. In these safe and security aspects, there are various SSTs being installed in airports to be established airports.
- To identify different service gaps that can resist delivery services effectively to passengers. Apart from that can also be the reason for passengers' dissatisfaction. In this dimension, installations of advanced SSTs are required to resolve these gaps to make passengers delighted.
- For identifying the importance of the analysis of Zone of Tolerance to get an optimum result through SSTs. Proper utilization of SSTs is required for a service-providing business to meet this Zone to meet the expectation of passengers (Turner and Szymkowiak, 2019). This Zone shows that if the functional efficiency is less than this, customers will be dissatisfied. The high gap between the efficiency delivered by the organization and this Zone may be the result of customers’ frustration.
- To focus on some independent factors that can meet the aim of the business. These factors can help a service provider to position its service better than competitors.
- For identifying the importance of installing and utilizing Self-Service Technologies for generating brand equity. In this dimension, the main focus area of this research is finding the ways of establishing the greater brand value of airports by SSTs installation.
- To identify the growth of the market size of Kiosks as a self-service technology and their various functional areas to allow passengers self-control. In this context of the application of Kiosks as a self-service technology, the objective of this research is to identify the continuous reduction of staff.
1.6 Research questions
In this research study, it has been identified that the role of SST is vast especially in the service sector. In the service industry, Airport Self Service Technology (ASST) has established a smooth service delivery process. In delivering service, it has been observed that due to various gaps in service, customer service efficiency goes down therefore in airports SST is being implemented in several operations to resolve these all service gap issues (Shahid Iqbal et al. 2018). In addition, it also has been observed in this research, that an adverse effect is falling on staff's perception of their job security due to SST implementation. Therefore, some questions are arising in this context:
- How Self Service Technology is impacting the staff job security?
- Why is SST required for better customer service?
- What is the role of SST in this competitive business environment?
- How can SST help to handle changing levels of passengers’ expectations?
- What are the advanced devices used in international airports regarding self-service?
- How is SST helpful to handle and to provide better service for an increasing number of air travelers?
- Why is SST being used in airports as a strong aspect of physical evidence?
- What is the level of passenger satisfaction by utilizing different Self-Service Technologies in the airport?
- What is the role of airport management regarding the motivation factor of staff because of the effect of Self-Service Technology on staff’s perception regarding jor security?
- How can SSTs be utilized in the airport to resolve different service gaps to match different independent factors to meet the goal?
- What are the application areas of Kiosks in the airport regarding the enhancement of self-services?
1.7 Research hypothesis
In this research study, two different areas have been analyzed regarding the efficiency and betterment in service delivery and regarding the perception of airport staff for job security. In addition, this portion of the study of research hypotheses represents some positive and negative aspects of the installation of SSTs in the aviation sector and the effect of SSTs on the perception of airport staff.
H1: The role of SSTs is multidimensional. It has been observed that to implement strategic service marketing SSTs are the crucial factors. In the context of service marketing, a service-providing business must focus on creating effective physical evidence. This physical evidence is required to show customers the standard and quality of service of the organization. SSTs are the main factors for service providers to establish strong physical evidence in the service environment. In the context of service business, it is an important aspect because service is not visible and cannot be touched. Therefore, it can be said various Self Service Technologies are being used in airports to provide their passengers better service. In bigger airports, SST such as Common use self-service (CUSS) technology, Common User Terminal Equipment (CUTE), and others are being used for great customer experience (Singh, 2018).
H0: Nowadays, the main objective of service-providing businesses is installing SSTs in business functions to minimize the use of human resources in the workplace. It also has been analyzed in this research that SST impacts the staff perception regarding job security. For instance, Using Kiosks in the airport for self-check-in, a receptionist was required previously. In this dimension, it has been observed that due to the reduction in human resources, organizations may lose the interaction between employees and customers which is an important aspect of interactive marketing. In the context of aviation, in airports, automation systems are mainly concentrated which reduces human-to-human interaction therefore SST is a big factor for staff dissatisfaction and demotivation (Venkateswaran, 2020).
H2: In this dimension, it has been shown that airports are doing continuous research in using SST in different operations to create future augmentation services. Nowadays, air travelers have high expectations regarding different convenient facilities in their journey. Therefore, SST is a crucial factor to generate greater consumer value. These days, it has been observed that air travelers are looking for convenience, speed service delivery as well as control over some services in their entire journey (Shim). In the context of self-control, SST is a crucial factor. This report study shows that around 50% of passengers want to track their bags during the entire journey and around 86% of passengers check the status of the flight. Apart from that, there are other aspects of self-control such as the utilization of self-bag drop stations, Utilization of Kiosks for self-check-in and self ticketing (McDougall et al. 2017). This portion of the study shows that most of the customers are highly satisfied by utilizing different SSTs worldwide. Therefore, service-providing businesses are largely focusing on the installation of advanced SSTs to provide more efficient services to their passengers to position services better than rival businesses. Therefore, to meet passenger changing needs, SST is the essential factor for service providing businesses.
H0: This research shows that staffs are not secure in their job for bringing self-service technologies into operations. This insecure perception of staff may impact the operational result. In this study of the report, it has been found that in the aviation industry the most developing aspect is airport technology. It has been observed that the number of passengers is increasing rapidly therefore due to the increase in passenger crowd, it can be difficult to handle and do operations with maximum efficiency with staff services of face-to-face service delivery. There, the installation of Self-Service Technologies has become essential to provide them greater experience (Ketimin and Shami, 2021). In this proportion, it has been observed that staffs are getting dissatisfied and installations of SSTs are affecting Staffs’ perception regarding their job security. Furthermore, it has been found that there are some numbers of customers who are unaware of the utilization of different Self-Service Technologies to get quick service. Add to that, they are still dependent on face-to-face service delivery, therefore to bring overall efficiency in the operational process; it is required of staff to perform well in the service environment. Therefore, it needs to be focused on the motivation factor of staff to bring maximum efficiency in the service delivery process in the airport.
H3: In the context of the growing market size of Self-Service Technologies, Kiosks are a crucial automated device. Nowadays, in the business functions, kiosks are being used for multi-purpose, providing the facility of online self-check-in, downloading and printing of boarding passes, scanning self-service for bag tags, resolving queuing problems, minimizing passengers' waiting times, and others. Therefore, Kiosks as a self-service technology are allowing passengers to control journeys and helping them to get fast services.
H0: Due to utilizing Kiosks in multi-functional areas, fewer staff are required in airports to serve passengers. Apart from that due to any technical fault in the service delivery process customer satisfaction factor may get harmed.
In this research study, it is concluded that in all the sectors automation system is a major aspect for providing better customer services. It has been observed that Self Service technologies are largely being implemented in the service sector for smooth delivery of services and to generate a better customer experience. In this study, it has been analyzed that physical evidence is an important aspect that is required to be strongly established as evidence of the standard level of service. It also has been analyzed that due to the increasing number of airports, the competition level has grown up in this sector therefore to create service differentiation and to provide augmented services; various ways are being searched for the implementation of automation systems. SST builds strong evidence for quality services provided by airports. It also has been found that due to the high implementation of Self Service Technology, staff has adverse perceptions regarding job security. In this dimension of staff perception regarding job security, it has been identified that airport management has an important role to motivate staff to bring a greater positive outcome in the operations. Finally, it can be said SST has become essential in the service sector for delivering services effectively.
This research study has been done to give a look at aviation and the importance of self-service technology in this sector. In the context of aviation, the service delivery process is an important factor for a better passenger experience. In this segment, various aspects are included regarding smooth check-in, smooth check out, security system, checking of lug gages, monitoring activities in the airport, and so on.
In addition, the number of air travelers and the number of airports are continuously increasing, and to handle large numbers of passengers and to bring higher efficiency in operation, SST is highly being implemented in airports. It is the significance of this research that it focuses on different aspects. On the one hand, it concentrates on the significance of the automation system, and on the other hand, it gives a look at the significance of maintaining staff motivation in the available staff in the workplace. Therefore, this research study is helpful to make a differentiation from rival businesses and to maintain efficiency in service delivery.
Chapter2: A Literature review
Nowadays, Self-Service Technology became an essential aspect of the service industry to provide greater customer experience and to make business operations agile. In this segment, enhancement of using SST made a change in the service delivery process, Service delivery system got converted from face-to-face service delivery to automated delivery of services. In this dimension, an organization got a new way of delivering different services effectively where it has interactive marketing - infraction between organization and consumers has gone down. In the context of aviation, air travelers can get service themselves because of self-service technologies, some services like a bag checking and dropping system SST services that can help airport management to minimize the check-in time of air travelers, Self-Service kiosks system and smooth ticket purchasing (SSTP) through SST devices and others. Therefore, due to self-service technology, passengers get different required services themselves in the airports. In this segment, it has been found that self-service technology is the main factor for staff negative perception regarding job security because of reduction in face-to-face services, the role of airport staff has decreased. Therefore, the large implementation of self-service technology is becoming a reason for the insecure feeling of staff for their jobs.
2.2 Conceptual framework
This research study shows that in the service industry, the main objective of an organization is to facilitate the service delivery process to generate a greater consumer experience. In this context, the dependent variable is providing better customer services than competitors where there are several independent factors that play a major role to fulfill a dependent factor or the aim of the business (Gurley, 2021). In addition, in the aviation sector, it has been found that the number of air travelers is continuously growing due to the convenient journey. Therefore, it has been found that a number of airports have grown up due to air traveling as travelers prefer. Because of increasing the level of competition in the market, airports are taking major steps regarding using advanced Self-Service Technologies to differentiate their services from their rival businesses.
In addition, convenience during the journey is the main aspect in the aviation sector and SST has helped service providing businesses to do different self-service operations that passengers can utilize themselves. Add to that, it is the main objective of this sector is to provide and search different areas of using SST to enhance the level of efficiency in the service delivery process to generate customer experience and to create greater value to consumers. In this dimension, several independent factors such as using SST for a smooth check-in and check-out, creating strong physical evidence, meeting the expectation of passengers’, adopting advanced different self-service devices with changes in the expectation level of passengers’, continuous searching for a better and augmented level of self-service technologies and so on (GONZALES, 2018). Apart from this, for high implementation of SST, the role of staff got reduced but the performance of available staff is required to get an optimum result from overall business operations. Therefore, in aviation these all the independent factors are required to be focused to meet an objective.
2.3 Empirical study
According to GONZALES, 2018, due to advancements in modern technologies, the sustainability of a service business is largely dependent on different modern technologies. In this dimension, it has been found that Self-Service Technology implementation is an essential side to sustain in the business environment and to position services with providing some unique facilities and convenience. In addition, in the aviation sector, air travelers have some expectations regarding some basic facilities, in this context Self- Service Technology provides passengers to get services themselves such as self-ticketing, dropping the bag, self-services regarding kiosks, smooth check-out self-services, luggage checking self-service, and others. Therefore, due to the use of server self-service devices in different operations, it becomes easier for airport management to handle passengers' crowd smoothly and due to the rapid service delivery process, it is a convenience factor for air traveler's regarding standing on raw large row or queue. As stated by Gurley, 2021, air travelers look for advanced facilities in their entire journey and most of the passengers use self-service technologies compare to face to face services. In this dimension, it has been observed that around 86% of passengers use self self-ticketing services globally. Apart from that it also has been recognized that around 55% of passengers like Self-Service Technology for smooth check-in facility in the airport. In addition, for the facilitating of Self- Service technologies, people are getting relaxation from the discomfort in standing in large sequence and feeling comfortable due to do several activities in the airport in a very easy and short time.
According to Ivanov et al. 2020, there are various modern technologies or devices being used for automated services. Automation in the service industry helps a business to process rapid service delivery and it helps management to meet the service gap for making an effective service delivery process. In this dimension of this study, it has been observed that more than half of passengers prefer doing different activities in their journey through automated technologies but it also has been observed that there are customer groups who are unaware of utilizing different self-service technologies to get a newer service experience. In this research study, one of the important factors is the perception of the staff regarding their job, in this context, especially in domestic airports, there is a customer group where customers are choosing face-to-face services because of a lack of knowledge regarding different self-service devices. Therefore, to handle around 40% of passengers, staffs are required in the airports. In this context, it is found that the number of staff has gone down due to the majority of customer preference in SST that is around 60%. In the coming days, this number will go up, therefore, SST can be the reason for staff dissatisfied and less motivated towards their job. Therefore, airport management should have an important role get a task done through staff effectively by giving them motivation.
Therefore, it can be said that larger participation of SST and a proportion of the contribution of staff bring overall operational efficiency. As stated by REZA et al. 2020, in the service industry many organizations have established different modern technologies, in this segment, there are various self-service technologies are being used. In the service business, the role of SST is major in operations, such as rapid service delivery, installment of advanced security system, meet with the changing customer expectation, resolving the service gap between organization policy and required service delivery or the gap between management perception and expectation of customers and others. Based on this journal, it has been observed that higher implementation of SST has some pros and cons for the business and also for the customers or passengers. In the context of the benefit of SST, it takes very little time to deliver services to customers and decreases the cost behind service staff in the airports. On the other hand, this journal shows some areas that can harm the business operations, some of the areas such as losing human to human interaction. It is an impediment to building an interpersonal bonding between the organization and customers, in the case of disputes in machines or devices problems may bring inefficiency. Apart from that, this journal shows that customers are enhancing their skills regarding using the various applications of SST to maximize their utility level. For instance, passengers want to get tickets quickly, in this context enhancing the skills they can use self-service devices to get tickets quickly.
As stated by Webster et al. (2020), due to the Covid 19 pandemic, it has become essential for service-providing businesses to use several self-service devices so that human-to-human interaction can be minimized. In the context of the aviation sector, in bigger airports advanced SST has been installed to maintain a proper human-to-human distance. Therefore, this journal shows that in the present time, sustainability of service business is largely dependent on the SST, a business that provides augmented service installing automation devices will be the preference of customers in absence of this business will get outperformed. According to Kuo et al. 2017, there are various advantages of using SST, human management kiosk can help an organization to save cost, time and use more human resources. In this segment, staff, organizational visitors can do a self login that will minimize the time cycle. Some self-service technology such as world pay and another device VeriFone is mostly used in different airports as a payment technology that helps passengers to do instant payments. Based on this journal, in the aviation sector, in airports, the self-service kiosk is used to do different formalities in a shorter time. In these formalities, in this dimension, a self-service technology “Self-Service bag drop” is used. Therefore, on the basis of this journal, it can be said that in many operations self-service technology can be used. It minimizes the usage of human resources and allows passengers or customers to do some required tasks themselves which reduces stress and the time cycle of a particular operation. From the research study of Suwannakul (2020), nowadays, passengers not only look for convenience, but they also want rapidness as well as control over the activities in their entire journey. Starting from the entrance in the airport to departure, passengers look for speed service delivery processes from the airlines business, therefore, SST has made it possible to deliver speed services successfully by giving passengers control over different devices to gain required services in their journey. Therefore, it can be said that it is the main objective of a business to adjust its activities and business functions with the changing environment. In this portion of the journal, it is shown that the world and service industry is moving toward automated devices therefore the role of staff is getting very little in the service delivery process. In this dimension, the perception of the staff regarding job security in airports has been an area forced in this journal. It also has been observed in this journal that the number of passengers is still dependent on the human to humans’ service delivery process due to insufficient knowledge about different self-service devices being used (KNS and 2019). As stated by Owusu-Ansah et al. 2021, the service industry is going towards adopting various advanced self-service devices. Based on this journal, it can be said in the coming days the role of human resources will be very little in delivering services. Add to that, on the basis of this journal, in the retrenchment learning in robotic language acquisition is an important area as it is being focused to use robots in service operations on the behalf of humans to bring more efficiency in work and to provide better and speed customer services. In this context, it is shown in this journal that there has been a serious issue of staff regarding their job, and the interpersonal relationship between the employee and the customers. In this context, the major problem has been found that without direct interaction with the customers of business it will be difficult to correctly observe the perception and behavior of customers and their attitude towards organizations. On the other hand, it is required for the business involved with the service industry to adopt several automated services providing devices to sustain in the business environment and to create other potential services otherwise businesses may get outperform due to the market competition. Therefore, it can be said that SST has become more essential than the benefits of face-to-face service delivery to provide customers greater experience for generating strong and high positive brand equity in their minds. Therefore, this empirical study shows results regarding using SST as the essential way to create a monopoly in the business to maximize the profit and sales revenue otherwise business will get entangled in a competitive market.
2.4 Theories and Models
In this research study of applying Self-Service Technology, it has been found that there are various self-service devices being used in different business operations. This dimension of the study shows that to bring speed and efficiency in the business service delivery process, in the service sector, it becomes necessary for businesses to implement Self-Service Technologies. Apart from that, it has been observed that the requirement of adopting advanced automated devices is due to create service differentiation and generating greater levels of consumer experience (Abdullai, 2017). In this research, there are different theories and models are analyzed to show the importance of SST in the service sector.
Integrative SST Model: In this model of Self-Service Technology, it has been shown that the application of self-service devices is one dimensional or usage in a single operation. In the aviation sector, in airports, self-service devices are being used in various functional areas. Several operational areas have been observed in the airport such as a Kiosk system for self-ticketing and avoiding the discomfort of standing in the large queue, bag self drops automated technology, implementation of automated devices regarding safety and security, Smooth self-check-in and Check-out, and others (Patel, 2018). In addition, in the context of operational management, SST is helpful to reduce operational costs and to deliver optimum service quality. Based on this study of search, it has been found that passengers' have high expectations regarding convenience during air travel. In this portion, in bigger airports, various automated devices are being installed and they are allowing passengers' to utilize self-service devices to get quick service. In addition, on the basis of the research, it can be said that along with providing speed services and convenience, service-providing businesses are working on the self-control aspect by establishing SST in business functions.
SST In Service-Gap Model: In the service sector, organizations mainly focus on delivering better services to its customer and on meeting the expectation of customers. The Service-Gap Model shows a gap between the policy of a service business and the required process of service delivery that is known as the delivery gap. In this context, without applying the SST in the business function a gap may be found in the service delivery process. In addition, due to the increasing number of airports, the level of competition has gone up. Therefore, service-providing businesses need to adopt a way to deliver the services to customers effectively and with high efficiency. In this research study, it has been found that the implementation of Self-Service Technologies has become essential to minimize the gap between service deliveries. This research study shows another gap called the Standard gap when an organization knows about the expectation or changing customers' needs but fails to meet that (Tawari, 2019). In this dimension, it has been recognized that SST devices such as CUTE, CUSS, Kiosks System, and others are essential to resolve the Standard Gap. Installing SST in several business functional areas, service delivering business can meet with the changing needs of customers and they can also do research regarding other areas of SST to establish an augmented service level in the future. Another gap has been recognized in this research called the communication gap. In the aviation sector, it is required to resolve the communication gap to create maximum value and establish higher brand equity in consumers' minds. Therefore, it can be said SSTs can be utilized in multi-functional areas of a service-providing organization.
This model shows that communication occurs when management fails to meet the services that have been promised. Nowadays, the positioning strategy has become essential in marketing to differentiate business services from the rival business. In addition, at the time of positioning all the promised services are required to be fulfilled when customers will come to buy. In this context, Self-Service Technology can be utilized to position a service stronger than rival businesses and to meet beyond the promised services.
Theory of Servicescape: This research study shows that in the context of services, customers may have some doubts regarding the quality of services provided by a business. In this dimension, the theory of servicescape is essential to show customers the standard of services delivered by the business. This theory of Servicescape shows that a service-providing business needs physical evidence to show customers the standards of a business service (Galdolage, 2021). In this segment, the role of automated devices or SST is essential to establish a greater physical environment as physical evidence of the business.
In the context of airports, there are several Self-Service Technologies that can help passengers' regarding quick service delivery, self-control in various required formalities, quick check-in, and checkout, quiche luggage, and kiosks for different self-service functions (Huy et al.2019). Therefore, based on this research study, it can be said that the SST creates a standard or quality service image in consumers' minds that make the airports or service-providing businesses different from others. The model of Servicescape has been given by Booms and Bitner to design the environment where services will be delivered by the business. Therefore, it can be said that the installation of Self-Service devices is an important aspect in designing a service environment. In addition, in designing service environments with SST, allowing passengers to develop skills regarding different self-service devices and their usage to maximize their level of utility.
Service Quality Stimulus SSTs: This is the model of measuring the level of operational efficiency of a service-providing business through installing different self-service devices. This stimulus model is helpful in observing the impact of self-service devices on consumer behavior. In this context of the model, it has been observed that around 60% of passengers prefer using self-service devices compared to face-to-face services provided by airports (Pradhan, and 2018). Therefore, on the basis of this stimulus model, it can be said that passengers' are looking for more areas of self-service devices so that they get quick services and can control over different activities required to be done in the airport as well as the convenience. This stimulus model is helpful in identifying passengers' behavior in the service environment, therefore it is essential to get prepared for the future required services for a better consumer experience. An installation of a self-boarding system will help an organization to minimize the time cycle of an operation as well as the waiting time of passengers. In this dimension, it has been found that 73% of customers like to use self-boarding.
2.5 Literature gap
According to Ketimin, and Shami, 2021, in the aviation sector various Self-Service Technologies are being used in the different operations to bring more efficiency to the function. In this context, the author has focused on the implementation of Self-Service Technology to provide a greater customer experience and to sustain in the competitive environment. In this context, a gap has been found regarding the interpersonal relationship between customers and the organization. In the context of customer relationship management, interactive marketing between employees and customers is required to establish a better relationship and to identify consumer behavior and their perception. In this dimension of the research study of the implementation of SST in the airport, automated devices are being used on behalf of humans to minimizing the number of staff required in the workplace (Zaharia and Pietreanu, 2018). This reduction in the number of staff in the workplace will cause organizations to lose interpersonal relationships and interactive marketing. In this study of research, it has been mainly focused that the competition in the aviation sector is increasing with the passing of time because of increasing the number of passengers in air traveling. In this dimension, it has been mentioned that automation technology has become essential to generate an augmented level of service and to differentiate services from the competitors. In addition, it has been found in this portion of this report that customer satisfaction is a key factor to measure the performance of the business. In his dimension, in service-providing organizations, the PC algorithm is used to analyze the satisfaction level of customers by using different SSTs technologies and regarding the guidance provided by the staff in the airport. Apart from that, the service provider analyses the present level of efficiency of SSTs service delivery with the Zone of tolerance. In this portion, the efficiency gap is analyzed by the operational manager to make passengers' or customers satisfied. A higher gap will cause customer frustration and higher efficiency above the zone of tolerance will result in making passengers' delighted. In this literature, a gap has been found regarding other strategies of service marketing with the help of Self-Service Technology. In this portion of making strategies of service marketing, Servicescape, Service Gap is the main aspects. Apart from making strategies regarding the augmented level of services to provide customers better services and position services of business better than competitors, service providing business can also focus on making the physical evidence in the environment where services are provided (Bogicevic et al.2017). In this portion of creating physical evidence, Self-Service Technologies are an important aspect to show customers the service standard of the business, to show them regarding the speed and accuracy in services and the process of self-control of different Self-Service devices. In addition, in this literature, another aspect can be added regarding minimization of different service gaps during the service counter or the time while delivering service to customers. Furthermore, it has In this dimension, utilizing several SST, service-providing businesses can resolve different service gaps. Therefore, it can be said that Self-Service Technologies can be utilized in various work processes, to make service marketing strategies and to resolve the obstacles coming during the service delivery process effectively (semanticscholar.org, 2021).
In this part of the research of literature, it is concluded that Self-Service Technologies has been essential in the present time for service providing businesses to provide great customer experience and to differentiate services from rival businesses. In this portion of the study, it has been found that SST can also be used to make better service marketing strategies apart from generating an augmented level of service. It also has been found to make strategies in the service marketing such as Servicescape and strategies regarding service gap, the role of SST is essential to establish physical evidence in the service delivering environment can resolve all the coming service gaps. It also has been observed in this literature review that in the context of aviation, passengers' preference regarding Self-Service Technologies is growing with the passing of days due to speed, great efficiency and to allow them control over automated devices to maximize their utility regarding delivering service. Therefore, in this context of the study, it has been found that service-providing organizations may lose the direct interaction between organizations and customers due to reducing face-to-face service delivery; it is also getting the reason for the adverse perception of the staff about their job security. In addition, it also has been focused largely on this portion of the study, due to adjusting with the changes in the customers' expectations and for maintaining a proper distance due to the Covid pandemic, the role of self-service devices has become essential. Finally, it can be said that the use of SST is not single-dimensional; it can be used in operating different business functions as well as executing strategies regarding delivering services with high efficiency.
Nowadays, Self-Service Technology is an essential aspect for service providing businesses to make a service differentiation and to position services in the target market better than rival businesses. In the context of aviation, in airports, Self-Service Technologies are being implemented in the business function as multidimensional tools. There are various methods continuously being executed and researched to establish a highly effective and efficient service delivery process in airports. In the context of aviation, air travelers expect convenience and quick service during their entire journey. In this context of providing services quickly and with maximum efficiency in the airports some essential Self-Service technologies such as CUTE- "Common Use Terminal Equipment" and CUSS - "Common Use Self Service" are mostly being implemented in service delivering operations. Applying these all the self-service devices, airports are allowing passengers regarding enhancing their skills to use such Self-Service Technologies so that they can utilize them to control the paperwork in the airport quickly. There are several applications of these automated technologies that have been mentioned in detail in this research study where the key areas are Kiosks for Check-in, self-service counter for check-out, automated bag drop station, Self ticketing devices, counter for security checking, and others. In the present time in aviation, apart from the convenience factors, self-control and speed have become essential to avoid some harassment during completing different formalities or to fulfilling different necessary aspects. Therefore, in the context of applying advanced self-service technology, service-providing organizations are testing and applying several methods to get an optimum result through the entire work process through SST (semanticscholar.org, 2021).
3.2 Research onion
Figure 11: Research Onion
In the aviation sector, it has been found that the number of passengers' preferences is increasing regarding Self-Service devices with the passing of days. This research has been done on the basis of secondary analysis where it has been found that around 60% of passengers prefer to use self-service technologies by the end of 2017. In addition, it has been found that due to the Covid 19 pandemic situation this number has grown faster which is above 80% at the present time. In the context of maximizing the application of SST in the business function, it has been analyzed that demand for air traveling has grown in a few years, therefore to handle large numbers of passengers; it became necessary to implement advanced different automated devices in the service delivery process. In the airport, several service devices are being used where mostly CUTE and CUSS are being used to operate different functions. Using these technologies, the organization is allowing customers utilizing SST to do rapid check-in and check-out, Self-service bag dropping and luggage checking, self ticketing, and others. Therefore, SST helped to resolve the problem of standing in the queue due to some formalities in the airport. In addition, in this research analysis, it has been found that SST is helping organizations to reduce the time cycle of an operation (Wattanacharoensil et al. 2017). In addition, there are several other benefits of using CUTE self-service technology and CUSS self-service devices such as optimizing the assets in a function, providing greater flexibility in the service environment of airports, researching for the future augmented services, and others.
It also has been found that CUSS is a kind of self-service technology that offers Kiosks in the service environment to allow passengers' for self-check-in where it avoids using any staff or human resources as face to face interaction for service delivery. In figure 12, kiosks are shown as an important self-service device (Shim et al. 2021). In this portion of the study, kiosks are installed for multipurpose such as Scanning boarding passes, Online Self Check-in, regarding the painting of bags tags, resolving the problem of standing on queues in the airports to do different formalities, few customers requirement for serving various passengers in the airport and others. Therefore, the application of kiosks in multi-areas has been a serious problem for staff due to reducing the participation in service delivery functions (hattopadhyay and Savarimuthu, 2017). Furthermore, the job of airport management is to install different Self-Service Technologies to allow passengers all the formalities and to do all the necessary tasks from entry to boarding aircraft. Therefore, based on this research analysis it can be said that service-providing businesses are mainly focusing on business automation to meet the increasing customers' expectations (krishisanskriti.org, 2021). [Referred to Appendix 3]
3.3 Research approach
In this research of Self-Service Technology implementation in the airport and the effect of SST on staff perception regarding job security, several aspects have been analyzed on the basis of a secondary analysis. In this research study, quantitative data has been analyzed based on the application of Self-Service devices and the efficiency level business is getting in the service delivery process. In this context of analysis of the service efficiency level, business mostly focuses on the analytical "Zone of Tolerance". In this analytical part, service-providing businesses compare the data for efficiency level required to meet customers' satisfaction or to stand on the given promise and the delivering service through SST in the current time. For Instance, The required efficiency level is 85% to meet the expectation of passengers or to stand on the promise given for augmented services. In this case, if the business is providing efficiency below 85% like around 75% then it can be the reason for customer dissatisfaction and a high gap of business services and Zone of Tolerance can cause consumer frustration (McLeay et al. 2021). Therefore, in providing a greater customer experience and to provide maximum value to customers, a service provider mainly focuses on meeting this Zone or delivering service above this Zone. Apart from this, this secondary research approach shows the same data regarding the expectation of customers regarding services where it has been found 90% of customers enter a service environment with a perception of augmented level services from the end of services. In this dimension, this research study shows a service gap called the knowledge gap where the perception of passengers remains very positive and they expect higher levels of services from airports through SST (Batouei et al. 2021). Apart from this, it has been found that above 80% of passengers' prefer to use SST to get quick service and it also has been found that around 20% of customers are unaware of using different Self-Service devices therefore they are still dependent on face to face services especially in the domestic airports.
In this research study, it has been found that the market size of the implementation of self-service devices is increasing. In addition, in the year 2020, the market size of some SSTs was around 5500(USD million) and in the current year 2021, it has grown to 6500 (USD million). It has been observed that in the context of applying Self-Service Technologies such as ATM, Kiosks, and Vending Machine, the market size will be around 7900 (USD million) by 2023. This secondary analysis shows that in the year 2012, the application of Kiosks was very less in the business operation but with the passing of years it has grown continuously. This research analysis indicates that till the year 2023 application of Kiosks as self-service devices in the aviation sector will be very large worldwide. Therefore, the sustainability of service-providing businesses is largely dependent on the implementation of advanced Self -Service Technologies. In this digital era, businesses are mainly focusing on giving customers a great experience through different automated devices.
In the dimension of the customer experience through Self-Service technologies, it has been found that above 75% of customers are highly satisfied with the quick service delivered through SST and 23% of customers are highly satisfied regarding easy to use different self-service tools applied in the service environment (Huhtamäki and Alapartanen, 2019). In the context of the application of SST in business operation, the number of staff has been reduced but few trained and knowledgeable staff are still required to give customers’ or passengers’ guide at the time of service encounter. In this dimension, it has been found that above 52% of customers are highly satisfied with the knowledgeable staff. Therefore, it can be said that this research shows that in the coming day's market size of automated devices will be larger. Apart from this, it has been found that around 90% of customers book their flight with Self-service devices and only 18% use a self bag drop. Therefore, airport management needs to take some major steps regarding the usage of some SSTs which are being used very little in the airport. Furthermore, this secondary analysis of Self-Service technology shows that some of the SSTs are largely being used and in the case of less usage of some SSTs, passengers’ can be pushed to use those to bring maximum efficiency with the proper utilization of SSTs. [Referred to Appendix 1]
3.4 Research Design
In this portion of Research Design, it has been observed that a service-providing business design various factors that are required to be operated effectively to get an optimum outcome with the minimum usage of resources. This research design shows that the number of passengers and the number of airports is increasing, in this portion to handle passengers and create a differentiation in the competitive business environment; SSTs are required to be utilized optimally. In the context of, delivering services to passengers’ through SST in the airport, customer satisfaction is essential regarding easy to use Self-Service Technologies, the processing time of automated devices in service rendering, available of knowledgeable staff to provide guidance or to educate unaware customers regarding the use of different self-service technologies in the airports and others.
In this segment, a business first designs a flowchart to establish SSTs to operate several functions in an airport (Zaharia, and Pietreanu, 2018). In addition, the number of staff to guide passengers and the position and place of staff are designed in the next phase. After doing these jobs, it is continued to monitor the increasing rate of using SSTs located in the service environment.
This research design provides a direction of utilizing the SSTs to maximize the profit with the consequence of customer satisfaction for the organization and for passengers’ it shows ways to focus on the satisfaction factors of passengers in the airports.
This research design shows that when a passenger arrives at the airport, there are several formalities required to be done. In this dimension of applying SSTs, passengers can complete different tasks within a very short time. This research design shows several tasks required to be done with minimum operation cycle and with greater efficiency, those tasks are Kiosks for Check-in, and smooth Check-out device, counter for fast bag dropping, quick checking of immigration and other till boarding. Furthermore, this research design represents that an air traveler expects convenience and speed as well as self-control over various required activities. As a service provider, it is necessary to adjust the business function with the changing market environment therefore replacement of face-to-face services is essential using automated devices (Liu, 2019). Furthermore, this research design also shows that higher implementation of SSTs results in minimization of human resources in the workplace. In this way of using Self-Serve Technologies, passengers prefer to travel via flight due to less time taken. Therefore, to handle passengers’ crowds it is mandatory to install an automated system. Furthermore, in this designing part, it has been analyzed that consumers’ or passengers’ behavior is needed to be identified to know about their perception about a SST and their level of satisfaction. In this context, it has been identified some staff is required in the service environment to provide some guidance to passengers about SSTs and those staff are getting dissatisfied. Insecurity regarding jobs due to the enhancement of the application of SSTs is the root cause of that. Therefore, it is the major duty of airport management to focus on the motivational factors of staff along with business function efficiency and customer satisfaction (krishisanskriti.org, 2021).
3.6 Data collection method
In this research study, the importance of installing Self-Service Technologies in various business functions and in the effective service delivery process has been shown on the basis of secondary data. In this dimension, data are collected from different sources such as journals, online articles, websites, and books. In this secondary analysis method, it has been found that the market size of SSTs is growing with the passing of days. Based on collected, it has been found that in ending of 2019, the market size of some Self-Service Technologies such as vending machines, ATMs, Kiosks was around 5000 USD million. In addition, it has been found that the market sizes of SSTs have grown to 6500 million USD till the first quarter of 2021 and this data speculates that this size will go above 7000 million USD within two years. In the context of the aviation sector, it has been found that the number of passengers is growing because air travel becoming a preference (Lee-Anant, and Monpanthong, 2021).
In addition, various SSTs are being installed in airports to handle the increasing number of passengers and to provide them with a greater experience. In this dimension, it has been found that 92% of passengers are utilizing SST for booking their flight and around 57% of passengers are using self-service technology to check-in. Apart from this, it has been found that around 64% of passengers track their bags in real-time with the help of mobile apps. In this context of research, it has been found that in air traveling passengers mainly look for the convenience and speed service delivery in the airports from arrival to boarding aircraft. Therefore, it can be said that the percentage using self-service technology is growing. In addition, data show that due to enhancement in using self-service technologies, face-to-face service delivery has reduced and this has become a factor of fear for staff in airports regarding their job security. Apart from this, this data shows that customers are very satisfied by utilizing different self-service technologies because of self-control and quick service delivery. Furthermore, through this data it has been found that around 30% of passengers are unaware of using different automated devices properly therefore they are still dependent on the face-to-face service delivery process. This data also shows the installation of SSTs has become essential in airports due to building a strong security system (Lazar et al. 2019). In this dimension, it has been found that the market size in SSTs in the areas of primary security, Surveillance, Cybersecurity, Screening, and others has grown up. Furthermore, this secondary data analysis shows that by the end of 2015, the market size of SSTs in the area of safety and securities was around 3000 million USD. Add to that, at the end of the first quarter of 2021, it has been found that these areas of a function of Self-Service Technologies have grown up to 3500million USD. Therefore, it can be said that SSTs are being installed largely in especially service-providing businesses to operate business functions effectively and to create a good service environment. In the context of building a security system, it has been found that the market share of passengers screening and security devices is around 46.7%. Add to that in the context of passenger assistance and retail, the market share is around 20%. Therefore, this data analysis represents that in the aviation sector, SSTs installation is the key factor of developing the business (Ye and Olson, 2019). This research data also shows that to bring higher efficiency in the service delivery process, service-providing businesses are mainly focusing on the analytical data of the Zone of tolerance. In this data collection method, some data has been collected through secondary analyses of the survey of around 10500 passengers in the year 2017. In this research, there are various data regarding the usage of different self-service technologies collected for identifying the utilization of SSTs and to check the satisfaction level of customers (Kim and Park, 2019). There are different areas of usage of SSTs by respondents of 10500 such as immigration gate self-service usage, tacking of flight and their luggage, usage of station for self bag dropping. Based on this research analysis, it can be said that in the present time all (100%) respondents are not utilizing some automated devices due to a lack of skills and they are dependent on face-to-face services. In this dimension, the role of available staff in the airport is major to guide and educate those passengers regarding new self-service devices. In this context of the performance of staff in the airport, it has been mentioned that due to the high implementation of SSTs the role of staff has become very less (Lazar et al. 2019). Therefore, the staff is feeling insecure about their job in future, in this portion, the airport manager has the main job is to focus on the motivational aspects so that they do their duty effectively regarding guiding passengers and serving unaware passengers using SSTs.
Add to that this tolerance Zone shows the required efficiency level to meet customers' expectations and to make them satisfied. Therefore, it can be said that by analyzing this efficiency data and monitoring the running operations, organizations can bring maximum efficiency through installing SSTs. This surveyed data can be utilized by the service providing businesses to search for different opportunities to make customers delighted. In addition, with the help of these collected data, service-providing businesses can do further research regarding future usage areas of SSTs to differentiate services and to generate potential or augmentation levels of service. This augmentation level creation through SSTs will help a service provider to position its business stronger than other rival businesses and to gain competitive advantages in the future. Therefore, In this secondary data collection approach, various data has been collected regarding utilization of SSTs, Measuring customer satisfaction, Identification of the satisfaction and motivation factors of staff, gap recognition in service, growing market size of SSTs, and others (arxiv.org, 2021).
In this portion of research methodology, it has been concluded that the market size of SSTs is growing rapidly with the passing of time. It has been found that in air traveling passengers look for self-control over different formalities and necessary things and also looks for using quick service delivery. In this dimension of research study use of SSTs are multidimensional. In the context of building a strong safety and security system in the airport, SSTs are installed for primary security, surveillance, screening, cybersecurity, access control, and others. Apart from this, the objectives of service-providing businesses behind installing SSTs are to bring high efficiency in the service delivery process, to resolve the problem of service gap, and to minimize the time cycle of an operation. Furthermore, a major finding of this research is that a service organization is facing difficulty regarding different service gaps. These gaps may harm the efficiency of service delivery and may be the cause of customer dissatisfaction. In addition, there are several gaps such as policy gap, knowledge gap, delivery gap, communication gap, and customer gap. By installing advanced Self-Service Technologies these all the gaps can be resolved by matching the changing customer expectations with the accurate service delivery. It also has been found that due to growth in the level of competition, service-providing businesses are implementing self-service technologies to generate augmented levels of service and continue to do research regarding some other ways of utilizing SSTs to make future augmentation. It has been observed that a portion of this research shows that SSTs can also be utilized in conducting strategic service marketing approaches. In this dimension, the roles of SSTs are very crucial to build strong physical evidence in the service environment and to resolve the gap between organization police and the service delivery process. Finally, it can be said that in the coming days market size of SSTs will be very large and the performance of service-providing businesses will be depending largely on the installation and proper utilization of SSTs.
Chapter4: Data analysis
Nowadays, Custom value and strong brand equity creation of service providing business is largely dependent on various Self-Service Technologies. In this dimension of data analysis, secondary analysis has been done to identify the current market size and future growth of different Self-Service Technologies. In this context of research, it has been shown that the reason behind the rapid growth in the implementation of SSTs is the growing number of passengers and their increasing expectation level. In the segment of the aviation sector, it has been found that passengers are allowed to utilize and to enhance skills in utilizing different SSTs to gain rapid service and to do different formalities in a short time. Through secondary data analysis, various areas have been shown to use SSTs. Those important areas are building a more efficient safety and security system, allowing passengers to gain real-time information, regain their baggage, reduce the time cycle of a function, and so on. In this data analysis part, it also has been analyzed that higher installation of self-service devices such as Common Use Terminal Equipment, Different Kiosks, Common use self-service and others, the job role of airports got reduced. In this dimension, it has been shown that participation in productive performance is also required from the available staff in airports to get optimum results through SSTs. This research study also shows that customer satisfaction is the key factor to measure the performance of a business. In measuring customer satisfaction, service providers use a PC algorithm to meet tolerance zones and to establish a strong customer relationship. In this portion of minimization of staff, it has been shown through this analysis that the organization is losing the interaction between staff and passengers which is an important aspect of interactive marketing to identify consumer behavior accurately. Therefore, all business functions are required to be monitored effectively to get optimum outcomes.
4.2 Finding and analysis
In this portion of this report, it has been found that in the context of the aviation industry, the major developing area in airport technology. This research study shows that the reason behind the rapid development of airport technology is to provide a better experience to passengers. In this dimension, it has been found that replacing human resources in the business functions, robotic application in the job function has become the main objective in the aviation sector to establish a good service environment. This research study shows that a survey was done in the UK with worldwide passengers.
In addition, in this survey, passengers of 152 countries have been focused on where the numbers of respondents were around 10500. Add to that, it has been found that apart from convenience and speed in the service delivery process they also want self-control over technologies during their entire journeys (Csiszár and Nagy, 2017). Therefore, Self-Service Technologies have been an essential aspect of providing a higher experience to passengers in the airport. Apart From that, in this research analysis it has been observed that due to increasing demand of a product or service and during the time of work overload, work efficiency level goes down in an organization. In this portion, SSTs are the crucial aspect to control the passenger crowd. In this research, it has been analyzed that real-time information is an area that passengers want. Furthermore, it is found that around 50% of passengers want to track their bags during air travel. Apart from that, it also has been observed that in the flight journey, 86% of passengers want to track the status of the flight. In addition, in the context of security and border control, around 52% of air travelers want to gain information. Furthermore, a stronger security establishment is another factor to be utilized through SSTs (Francina et al. 2021). In this portion, it has been observed that the number of passengers using Kiosks for the purpose of immigration gate has increased to 6% ending the year 2017. In this area, today, the numbers of passengers have gone up to around 59% and due to proper implementation of SSTs in the aviation sector around 91% of customers are satisfied with this SST. In addition, that survey report of 10500 respondents shows 73% of passengers like to utilize self-boarding. In addition, 69% of those respondents surveyed prefer to utilize SST as self tagging and among those respondents, 49% wanted to utilize SST for self bag dropping. This research analysis indicates that applications of kiosks were very less in the year 2012 but it has been found that it has grown with the passing days faster. Add to that, till the year 2023, it will gain a large market share. This study shows several application areas of Kiosks in the airport such as Self-check-in online through some applications, it selects the number and weight of bags and informs if required to pay, Boarding pass self downloading, Scanning regarding printing bag tags, and many more. Add to that these are the reasons behind the continuous growth of market size of Kiosks. Furthermore, the main finding of this research study is to design a flowchart to direct business functions effectively by installing and utilizing SSTs (Masran and Adis, 2019). A service-providing business needs to design a flowchart of the work process for proper monitoring of activities and meeting the tolerance Zone to make passengers dissatisfied. Apart from that, another important finding of this research is that the market size of Self-service technologies has grown faster in the past few years. There are several sets such as vending machines, ATMs, Kiosks that have a market size of around 6500 million USD at the present time and it has been forecasted that this size will be larger within two years of above 7000 million USD. Apart from that, the important area of building a strong security system in the airport has been observed due to increasing passengers' crowds. In this segment, airports are mainly focusing on Surveillance, Primary security systems, screening self-service system, Cybersecurity system, Access Control, and other aspects.
Therefore, it has been found that in the past few years the market size of SST safety and security devices has grown faster. Add to that, the market size of these security devices was 2400 million USD in the year 2012, and at the present time, it is around 3500 million USD. Therefore, based on this research study, it can be said that in the coming days the role of staff in airports will get more reduced which is affecting the perception of airport staff regarding their job security. Furthermore, customer satisfaction is one of the key aspects of the performance indicators of a service-providing business (Sandnes, 2018). Research shows that there are few passengers, especially in domestic airports who are unaware of using SSTs. Therefore it has been recognized in this research that airport management also needs to focus on the motivational factor of staff so that they perform well to educate those passengers group to utilize SSTs.Servicescape has been found as a key aspect to build a service environment that can show passengers the service standard in the airports so that they can maximize their utility (Lee-Anant and Monpanthong, 2021). SSTs in the portion of Servicescape to make strong physical evidence are an important factor. This is an essential factor for the service provider to build a greater customer relationship where customer satisfaction level is measured by the PC algorithm system. This algorithm shows that 80-90% of customers are satisfied with different SSTs. This research analysis shows that in the aviation industry, the main developing aspect is airport technology. Therefore, the role of SSTs is very crucial to make passengers satisfied and to establish strong customer relationships. [Referred to Appendix 2]
In this segment of the research data analysis, it is concluded that the number of passengers is increasing in utilizing various SSTs. It has been found from the secondary analysis that the level of customer satisfaction is higher with the service of SSTs. It has been found that in airports; SSTs are largely being implemented to operate several functions effectively. Therefore, in the aviation industry, the most developing aspect is airport technology. It has been observed that air travelers look for control over their journey and look for quick service delivery with higher efficiency. In this dimension, SSTs are the key factors to meet the changing needs of passengers. Apart from that, it has been found that service-providing businesses are mainly focusing on replacing human resources with some Self-Service Technology. In the research of replacement of staff, it has been identified that enhancement of installation of SSTs in business operation has adversely affected staff perception regarding job security. It also has been found that some passengers are satisfied with the easy to use SSTs where some were not satisfied. In this context, the objective of service providers is to install such SSTs which are easy to use and educate those customer groups who are unaware of utilizing several SSTs properly. Furthermore, it also has been analyzed that the market size of SSTS is growing rapidly with the passing of days and it has been forecasted that in the coming few years this size will be larger. It also has been found that a service-providing organization is doing continuous research and analysis regarding other required areas of SSTs and ways to create an augmented level to gain a competitive advantage in future.
Chapter5: Recommendations and conclusions
Nowadays, in the aviation industry, the most developing aspect is airport Self-Service Technologies. There are various Self-Service Technologies that are used in the airport to bring maximum efficiency to the service environment. In this dimension of the report, there are many areas that have been identified to utilize to generate a future augmentation and to provide greater value to passengers. This portion of the report shows that the use of SSTs is multidimensional therefore service providing organizations need to do continuous research regarding new ways of utilization of Self-Service Technologies. In this research analysis, it is mentioned that SSTs can be used in establishing strong physical evidence in the service environment, helping organizations to resolve the service gaps, creating strong equity, position organizational service better than rival businesses and others. Therefore, especially in a service-providing organization, Self-Service Technologies can be utilized in various business functions to make it more effective. In this context, SSTs are effective to make the service delivery process easier and faster. In this segment of this research study, customer satisfaction is mainly focused on where an organization can make a strategy to retain customers and can convert them into loyal customers. Apart from that, another is considered regarding the satisfaction and motivational factors of airport staff to achieve an optimum outcome. In addition, Due to the enhancement of installing SSTs, airport staff has some serious problems regarding their job security but some staff is required in the airport regarding functioning different operations. Therefore, it is also discussed in this segment that airport management needs to apply the process of work motivation to achieve the objectives. In this segment, the consumer behavioral aspect has been recommended to focus on after the usage of SSTs which is called post-purchase assessment of consumer behavior. In the aviation sector, the business environment is getting very competitive therefore the process of quality improvement with SSTs has been shown in this dimension.
5.2 Linking with objectives
In the context of installing several Self-Service Technologies, one of the objectives of airport management and other service-providing businesses is to generate greater customer experiences. Add to that, it is recommended in this portion of this study that a SERVQUAL measurement instrument is required to apply in the business to measure the current service quality of the business so that better service can be provided to passengers. In the context of utilizing SSTs for showing passengers of higher quality services, it is needed to create physical evidence. In this dimension, the model of servicescape is recommended to apply in the service environment effectively so that passengers get strong evidence regarding the quality services offered by the business. One of the objectives of the research study is to solve the problem regarding the negative perception of the staff regarding their job security due to higher implementation SSTs in different functions of airports. In this context, as a recommendation, Herzberg two factor theory is required to apply for effective management of satisfaction and motivational factor of available staff to gain optimum outcome (Hong and Slevitch, 2018). In addition, another objective of this research is to focus on different independent factors to meet with an aim of the organization. Add to that, in the current business environment, the ultimate goal of service-providing business is customer satisfaction. In this dimension, several independent factors are required to be considered along with installing and utilizing SSTs such as resolving the policy gap, differentiate service from a rival business, focusing on benefit aspects of staff and others. Furthermore, identifying the current market growth and the possible future growth in the aviation industry is an objective of this study. In this aspect, it has been found that the market sizes of Self-Service Technologies are getting higher with the passing of years. In the above research analysis, it has been found that the market size of Self-Service Technologies Such as ATMs, Kiosks was 2900 million USD ending of the year 2013 in the current time this size has grown up to 6500 million USD. Add to that, this study shows that within two years this size will be above 7000 million USD. Therefore, in this portion, the installation of advanced SSTs is recommended to position services stronger so that passengers can get high value. The key business performance indicator in the airport is the level of satisfaction of passengers such as frustrated passengers, dissatisfied passengers, satisfied passengers, highly satisfied passengers, and delighted passengers. In this segment, effectively analyzing the Zero tolerance especially in the domestic airports, the level of required efficiency can be measured to touch the delighted level with SSTs. [Referred to Appendix 4]
In this portion of the study, several aspects have been recommended for the proper utilization of Self-Service Technologies and making strategies to identify consumer behavioral patterns to know the satisfaction level of passengers or the customers after using an SST. In the context of the identification of consumer behavior patterns, it can focus on the level of SST usage and then measuring the frequency of using an SST by passengers over a period. In addition, collecting the data of using an SST over a period, it can be analyzed that the percentages of customers like to utilize an SST. In the airport, their satisfaction level can be measured through questionnaires and observing the actual behavior and behavioral intentions of passengers. In addition, it has been analyzed in this research study that the level of consumer satisfaction is a key indicator of business performance. In this context, service organizations need to be customers oriented not Technology oriented. According to changing consumer behavior or changing their need, a service-providing business needs to install a self-service technology to make customers satisfied (Yarbrough, 2021). It is recommended that businesses in the aviation sector and other service-providing businesses need to analyze the Zero Tolerance Zone (ZTZ) to measure the required service efficiency to meet the expectation of customers and to make them satisfied. In addition, through this analysis, SSTs can be utilized optimally in the airport to achieve efficiency at a level where customers will be delighted. Apart from this, in most of the service-providing businesses, SSTs are being used as a tool of generating greater customer experience but they can be utilized in multi-business functions. It is recommended that SSTs can be utilized in making positioning strategy, regarding service marketing strategy, building customer relationships, making good brand equity, and others (Nilsson et al. 2021). In addition, on the other side of this study, it has been found that SSTs are affecting airport staff's perception of their job security. There are so many SSTs being used in the airport in different functions in order to create higher efficiency and speed in the service delivery process. Add to that, the airport self-service Kiosk is the reason for reducing staff roles in serving passengers. In this context, it is recommended that management of airports need to focus on the motivational factor and need to create value for staff because the role of available staff in the airport is essential to bring an optimum overall functional efficiency (Moore et al. 2018). Furthermore, in this research study, it has been found there are some Self-Service Technologies that passengers are using less. Add to that, in the above analysis, it has been found that around 49% of passengers are using self-service bag dropping (SSBD), around 52% of passengers like to track their bags in their journey and around 50% of customers want to gain information regarding security and border system. In this context, it is recommended that the benefit of utilization is required to be positioned so that this usage rate gets increased (Ketimin and Shami, 2021). Apart from that, it is recommended that through the thorough visual learning process of the effective participation of airport staff, those passengers can be targeted to guide and educate them regarding the usage of different SSTs. Add to that, this strategy will help passengers to maximize their utility through SSTs. Furthermore, it has been found in this study that a number of passengers are facing difficulty for some complicated situations where around 23% of passengers are found highly satisfied (Kumar and Sajith, 2019). Therefore, the installation of SSTs that are easy to use and by providing proper guidance this problem can be resolved. In this study of the research, it has been found that the roles of SSTs are crucial to handle the passengers' crowd in the airport and in maintaining the efficiency level. In this context, proper utilization of SSTs is required to resist any gap in the service. In this area of this report, it is recommended that a service provider need to combine kiosks with digital marketing to gain customers feedback regarding some business service and other. Add to that a service provider can make a section of Q&A to collect passengers review so that augmented service level can be created to gain the advantage. Therefore, it can be said that there are so many areas to focus on to gain optimum results through SSTs and utilizing other related resources. In addition, in the aviation industry, the business environment is getting very competitive therefore service quality is required to be improved where Self-Service Technologies are essential factors to achieve this objective. Furthermore, measurement of service quality offered by the business is an essential area so that it can be improved to achieve the maximum level of efficiency to make customers delighted (ifitt.org, 2019).
5.4 Future scope
In the aviation industry, the scope of installing and utilizing Self-Service Technologies is large. In the context of improving service quality with SSTs, it is required to measure the quality of service offered by the business through business. In addition, the SERVQUAL instrument is essential to measure the service quality offered by the business so that future augmentation levels of services can be created.
In this measurement model, five dimensions are measured. In this first portion, the tangibility of the service is measured where a service provider measures the available physical evidence in the service environment associated with the offering. It is essential to make a service differentiation in the future. Apart from that, it is the scope of service to gain long-term consumer value by converting them into loyal customers. Therefore, a service provider needs to fulfill the promised services with SSTs for Reliability (Galdolage, 2020). In the context of responsiveness, a service provider is recommended to help customers by providing prompt services. In this dimension of responsiveness, SSTs are very effective where around 75% of customers are found highly satisfied. Add to that, in this segment, the role of SSTs is larger in the future. A service provider can establish a strong reputation or goodwill in the market by the assurance of higher service efficiency with SSTs. Apart from that, businesses can establish a strong relationship with customers by caring about the satisfaction factors (Hong and Slevitch, 2018). Therefore, empathy is another aspect that can be considered effectively by SSTs to penetrate a target market and to gain competitive advantages in the future. In the context of the aviation sector, air travelers look for convenience, speed as well self-control over the entire journey. Add to that, Kiosk is being used in the aviation sector for multi-purposes such as online self-check-in, self ticketing, printing and downloading boarding pass and others. It has been found that in the year 2012, the market share of Kiosks was very little whereas at the current time this SST has a good market size. It has been shown in the analysis that till 2023, this size will be larger. Therefore, service providers have a great scope for the application of Kiosks in different functions to establish efficient security systems and to achieve efficiency (Allhyany, 2019). Apart from that, in the above analysis, around 30% of customers are unaware of using various different SSTs and they are still dependent on the face-to-face process of service delivery. In the context of using various SSTs in the airport, providing guidance is not enough to solve the problems of customers therefore developing kiosks, passengers are allowed to solve their own problems. Furthermore, with the help of Kiosks, the service-providing business can get customer's feedback and can convert it to feed forward. In addition, in this portion of the study, it has been found that service providers can utilize kiosks by combining them with digital marketing. Kiosks can be effectively used as a tool for gathering customer reviews along with the service of online self-check-in, downloading boarding pass and others. Apart from this, combining the kiosks as a tool of digital marketing, a service provider can make a section of Q and A to do a survey or to gain customers' views about a particular service and others. In addition, it is a tool for saving passengers' time. Therefore, in the context of prioritizing time, businesses can do research to identify future opportunities and gain advantages. Therefore, it can be said that in the aviation industry, there is a large scope of Self-Service Technologies to generate an augmentation service level so that changing customers' needs can be met (pdfs.semanticscholar.org, 2021).
In this portion of the reported study, it is concluded that in service-providing business SSTs can be utilized in various business functions. In airports, Self-Service Technologies are installed for creating a greater passengers' experience. In this dimension, it is recommended that service-providing businesses utilize SSTs to position their services better than rival businesses, establishing strong physical evidence, regarding resolving various service gaps, creating strong brand equity, and others. These all the various dimensions are the independent factors that can help the organization to meet the ultimate goal. In the context of improving service quality with SSTs, a SERVQUAL measurement instrument is recommended to get optimum results with the proper utilization of SSTs. The key performance indicator for the airports is the level of passengers' satisfaction. In this dimension, observing the actual behavior and intention behavior, as well as the measurement of usage frequency of SSTs, is recommended. Due to the enhancement of installing SSTs in the business operation, staff has some negative perceptions regarding job security. In this aspect, it is recommended to apply the two-factor model in the service environment so that motivational factors and satisfactions of the available in the airport can be managed effectively. In bringing an optimum overall operational efficiency in the airport, it needs to focus on the beneficial aspects of passengers, staff as well as business. Apart from that, it is recommended that a service provider need to be customer-oriented not SSTs oriented. In addition, a service provider needs to adopt Self-Service Technologies and search for different areas of using Self-Service Technologies by identifying customers' behavior and their changing needs. Finally, it can be said that SSTs business can focus on different other functional areas to meet the ultimate objective of satisfying customers.
Abdullai, H.M., 2017. Effect of selected self-service technology on operational performance of commercial banks in Nakuru County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, Egerton University).
Antwi, C.O., Ren, J., Owusu-Ansah, W., Mensah, H.K. and Aboagye, M.O., 2021. Airport self-service technologies, passenger self-concept, and behavior: An attributional view. Sustainability, 13(6), p.3134.
Antwi, C.O., Ren, J., Owusu-Ansah, W., Mensah, H.K. and Aboagye, M.O., 2021. Airport self-service technologies, passenger self-concept, and behavior: An attributional view. Sustainability, 13(6), p.3134.
Considine, E. and Cormican, K., 2017. The rise of the prosumer: An analysis of self-service technology adoption in a corporate context. SciKA-Association for Promotion and Dissemination of Scientific Knowledge, 5(2), pp.25-39.
Galdolage, B.S., 2021. Prominence of Information Richness in Accepting Online Based Self-Service Technologies. Archives of Current Research International, pp.31-42.
GONZALES, Y.I., 2018. Assessing the Self-service Technology. Journal of Air Transport Management, 71, pp.215-219.
Gures, N., Inan, H. and Arslan, S., 2018. Assessing the self-service technology usage of Y-Generation in airline services. Journal of Air Transport Management, 71, pp.215-219.
Gurley, R.C., 2021. Strategies for Implementing Self-Service Technologies in Supermarket Retail Operations (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).
Huy, L.V., Nguyen, P.T.H., Pham, L. and Berry, R., 2019. Technology readiness and satisfaction in Vietnam's luxury hotels. International Journal of Management and Decision Making, 18(2), pp.183-208.
Ivanov, S., 2019. Ultimate transformation: how will automation technologies disrupt the travel, tourism and hospitality industries?. Zeitschrift für Tourismuswissenschaft, 11(1), pp.25-43.
Ivanov, S.H., Webster, C., Stoilova, E. and Slobodskoy, D., 2020. Biosecurity, crisis management, automation technologies and economic performance of travel, tourism and hospitality companies–A conceptual framework. Tourism Economics, p.1354816620946541.
K?l?ç, S., 2019. The Effects Of Self-service Technology-related Characteristics On Brand Experience And Customer Satisfaction At Airports (Doctoral dissertation, Institute of Social Sciences).
KNS, P. and TA, P., 2019. Impact of Self Service Technology on Customer Behavioral Intention: Case of Intercity Railway Service in Sri Lanka.
Kuo, C.M., Chen, L.C. and Tseng, C.Y., 2017. Investigating an innovative service with hospitality robots. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Mukhtar, N.D., Afthanorhan, A., Ghazali, P.L. and Foziah, H., 2020. A conceptual paper for self-service technology (sst) on grabcar users. Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews, 8(2), pp.569-578.
Patel, V., 2018. Airport passenger processing technology: a biometric airport journey.
Pradhan, M.K., Oh, J. and Lee, H., 2018. Understanding travelers’ behavior for sustainable smart tourism: A technology readiness perspective. Sustainability, 10(11), p.4259.
Remencová, T. and Sedlá?ková, A.N., 2021. Modernization of Digital Technologies at Regional Airports and its Potential Impact on the Cost Reduction. Transportation Research Procedia, 55, pp.18-25.
REZA, M.S.A.B.A., BAHRIN, M.F.A.B.S., ISKANDAR, M.H.B.A., AZHARI, F.N.H.B.H. and RAM, N.S.B.A., 2020. PERCEIVED EASE OF USE AND PERCEIVED USEFULNESS TOWARD CONSUMER ATTITUDE IN USING SELF SERVICE TECHNOLOGY IN KIOSK AT AEON SHAH ALAM.
Shahid Iqbal, M., Ul Hassan, M. and Habibah, U., 2018. Impact of self-service technology (SST) service quality on customer loyalty and behavioral intention: The mediating role of customer satisfaction. Cogent Business & Management, 5(1), p.1.
Singh, A., 2018. Evaluating Passengers' Perceived Service Quality Towards Self-Service Luggage Check-In Technologies at Airports Using SSTQUAL Scale (Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University).
Suwannakul, E., 2020. Role of Technology Readiness in Airline Passengers’ Perceptions of Self-service Technology Quality.
Tawari, K.N., 2019. The impact of Self-service technologies and other non-technology drivers on customer satisfaction in the Irish supermarket industry (Doctoral dissertation, Dublin, National College of Ireland).
Venkateswaran, A., 2020. The impact of Self-Service Technology (SST) on Passenger Satisfaction-a study for Indian Metropolitan City Airports (Doctoral dissertation, Dublin, National College of Ireland)
Batouei, A., Iranmanesh, M., Mustafa, H., Nikbin, D. and Ping, T.A., Research in Transportation Business & Management.
Bogicevic, V., Bujisic, M., Bilgihan, A., Yang, W. and Cobanoglu, C., 2017. The impact of traveler-focused airport technology on traveler satisfaction. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 123, pp.351-361.
Huhtamäki, T. and Alapartanen, J., 2019. The effects of self-service on senior passenger’s customer satisfaction in Helsinki Airport.
Ketimin, S. and Shami, S., 2021. An Insight of Customer's Behavior Intention to Use Self-Service Kiosk in Melaka Fast Food Restaurant. The Journal of Technology Management and Technopreneurship (JTMT), 9(1), pp.13-24.
Liu, C., 2019. Customer experience with the application of self-service technology in hotels in China: a high-tech or high-touch debate.
McLeay, F., Osburg, V.S., Yoganathan, V. and Patterson, A., 2021. Replaced by a robot: Service implications in the age of the machine. Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.104-121.
Na, T.K., Lee, S.H. and Yang, J.Y., 2021. Moderating Effect of Gender on the Relationship between Technology Readiness Index and Consumers’ Continuous Use Intention of Self-Service Restaurant Kiosks. Information, 12(7), p.280.
Wattanacharoensil, W., Schuckert, M., Graham, A. and Dean, A., 2017. An analysis of the airport experience from an air traveler perspective. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, pp.124-135.
Zaharia, S.E. and Pietreanu, C.V., 2018. Challenges in airport digital transformation. Transportation research procedia, 35, pp.90-99.
Tarudin, N.F., Adlan, M.A.A., Mohamed, W.M.W. and Shariff, S.S.R., 2020. KUALA LUMPUR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (KUL) AS A WORLD CLASS AIRPORT TERMINAL: PASSENGERS’AIRPORT SATISFACTION RATING. Advances in Transportation and Logistics Research, 3, pp.917-924.
Francina, V.J., Selvavinayagam, K. and Elavarasan, R., A STUDY ON OPERATIONS OF AIRPORT SERVICE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CHENNAI AIRPORT.
Ye, Y. and Olson, E.D., 2019. Examining Event Attendee Perceptions of Self-Service Technology in Event Registration.
Kim, J.H. and Park, J.W., 2019. The effect of airport self-service characteristics on passengers’ perceived value, satisfaction, and behavioral intention: based on the SOR model. Sustainability, 11(19), p.5352.
Koloay, K.C. and Pandowo, M.C., 2018. A Qualitative Analysis of Citilink Passenger Self Check-in at Sam Ratulangi International Airport. Jurnal EMBA: Jurnal Riset Ekonomi, Manajemen, Bisnis dan Akuntansi, 6(4).
Csiszár, C. and Nagy, E., 2017. Model of an integrated air passenger information system and its adaptation to Budapest Airport. Journal of Air Transport Management, 64, pp.33-41.
Bruno, G., Diglio, A., Genovese, A. and Piccolo, C., 2019. A decision support system to improve performances of airport check-in services. Soft Computing, 23(9), pp.2877-2886.
Masran, N.H. and Adis, A.A.A., 2019. The Influence of Self-Service Technology on Consumersâ€™ Privacy and Securityâ€™ s Threats in the Airline Industry. Malaysian Journal of Business and Economics (MJBE).
Sandnes, F.E., 2018, July. Improving the robustness to input errors on touch-based self-service kiosks and transportation apps. In International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs (pp. 311-319). Springer, Cham.
Lazar, J., Jordan, J.B. and Vanderheiden, G., 2019. Toward unified guidelines for kiosk accessibility. Interactions, 26(4), pp.74-77002E
. Factors Influencing Airport Technology Selections in Each Service Touchpoint of Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(13), pp.3804-3816.
hattopadhyay, S. and Savarimuthu, X., 2017. Self Circulation using RFID Technology with KOHA Software at St. Xavier’s College, Kolkata.
Shim, H.S., Han, S.L. and Ha, J., 2021. The Effects of Consumer Readiness on the Adoption of Self-Service Technology: Moderating Effects of Consumer Traits and Situational Factors. Sustainability, 13(1), p.95.
Chen, T., Guo, W., Gao, X. and Liang, Z., 2020. AI-based self-service technology in public service delivery: User experience and influencing factors. Government Information Quarterly, p.101520.
Mason, R.B. and WRLC, C., 2020. Project 2019/28: Status and Challenges of Automation in the South African Retail Sector, Including Automated, Self-Service Checkouts.
Ketimin, S. and Shami, S., 2021. An Insight of Customer's Behavior Intention to Use Self-Service Kiosk in Melaka Fast Food Restaurant. The Journal of Technology Management and Technopreneurship (JTMT), 9(1), pp.13-24.
Turner, J.J. and Szymkowiak, A., 2019. An analysis into early customer experiences of self-service checkouts: Lessons for improved usability. Engineering Management in Production and Services, 11(1).
McDougall, C., Pearson, D.A., Torgerson, D.J. and Garcia-Reyes, M., 2017. The effect of digital technology on prisoner behavior and reoffending: a natural stepped-wedge design. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 13(4), pp.455-482.
Phillips-Daley, K.G., 2020. Self-Service Technology in a Library System: An Examination of Potential Library Member Adoption of Self-Service Checkout at a Southeastern County Library System (Doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University).
Grone, E.J., 2019. Disrupting Complex Systems with Emerging Technologies: A Study on United States Airport Operations.
Nilsson, E., Pers, J. and Grubbström, L., 2021. Self-Service Technology in Casual Dining Restaurants. Services Marketing Quarterly, pp.1-17.
Moore, A., Reinecke, K. and Plekker, M., 2018. Kiosk Welcome Center.
Yarbrough, W., 2021. Service Barometers. Information Technology and Libraries, 40(2).
Boucher, D., Dave, N., DeDomenic, S., Frey, K., Goetz, M., Gomez, C., Hamman, E., Hitch, K., Jordan, J., Khan, W. and Larsen, J., 2021. Challenges Faced by Persons with Disabilities Using Self-Service Technologies.
Ketimin, S. and Shami, S., 2021. An Insight of Customer's Behavior Intention to Use Self-Service Kiosk in Melaka Fast Food Restaurant. The Journal of Technology Management and Technopreneurship (JTMT), 9(1), pp.13-24.
Kumar, P.S. and Sajith, G., 2019. Application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology in State Central Library, Thiruvananthapuram. KLA Journal of Information Science & Technology, pp.32-40.
Hong, C. and Slevitch, L., 2018. Determinants of Customer Satisfaction and Willingness to Use Self-Service Kiosks in the Hotel Industry. Journal of Tourism & Hospitality, 7(5).
Allhyany, S., 2019. Self-service Phone Kiosk Attributes and Pilgrims Experience: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework (Doctoral dissertation, Auckland University of Technology).
Galdolage, S., 2020. Customer Choice of Self-Service Kiosks in Service Transactions.
Taillon, B.J. and Huhmann, B.A., 2019. Strategic consequences of self-service technology evaluations. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 27(3), pp.268-279.
pdfs.semanticscholar.org, 2021, Self-Service Technologies (SSTs)—The Next Frontier in Service
Excellence: Implications for Tourism Industry, Available at:https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6658/d1cd45ce180c1c74c497ae0f5ca313bd0e96.pdf [accessed on: 2/08/2021]
diva-portal.org, 2017, How to compete effectively
with self-service technologies, Available at: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1111218/FULLTEXT01.pdf [accessed on: 2/08/2021]
semanticscholar.org, 2021, Investigating the Factors Influencing the Usage of Smart EntryService: Incheon International Airport Case Study, available at: \https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/efef/9c0ea61d6e5372f993a8279886f861fbbd01.pdf [accessed on: 07/08/2021]
arxiv.org, 2021, Digital Transformation in Airport Ground Operations, available at:
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1805.09142.pdf [accessed on: 18.08.2021]
ifitt.org, 2019, Analysis of Inter-Relations between Technology Adoption, available at: http://www.ifitt.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/ENTER2019PhD_Proceeding.pdf#page=46 [accessed on : 11.08.2021]