The Role Of Local Print Media In The Fight Against Covid-19: A Case Of Sheffield Star Case Study

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The Role Of Local Print Media In The Fight Against Covid-19: A Case Of Sheffield Star Case Study

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Background

Covid-19 has caused concern among the world's population concerning health and safety issues. There were other standards that altered for the population and their fear for the virus, but the print media played the most significant role. Media has been bias for political agenda’s which have to be understood by the population. Power of words in the society needs to be monitored and controlled and that is to be explored in this research as well. This research will be published in Sheffield's Sheffield Star newspaper. Sheffield is a historical metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Print media played a lot of bad roles without even realising it, and they need to be discussed effectively so that appropriate steps may be implemented in the future. The media understood the power of their words in the eyes of their audience, but they did not realise that releasing the horrific Covid-19 updates would only cause panic among the public. There must also be treatment that is demonstrated so that individuals do not lose hope of living and wish to live peaceful lives. Officials in the government also did not want to risk publishing wrong information, which is why they did not provide assumptions. The government can only ensure that they are working for them if they have scientifically established and treatment for dealing with the situation. This research would discuss the power of print media as well the role it played in pandemic situation and how the results were changed that would make sure that there is better living.

Aim

To understand the impact of print media in coping with the current situation of Covid-19: A case study on: Sheffield Star.”

Objectives

  • To gain a better understanding of the public's perception of Covid-19 through the use of print media.
  • To assess the power of print media in Sheffield, as well as its influence on the populace.
  • To examine the procedures and issues that print media experienced as a result of Covid-19, as well as to obtain pandemic information.
  • To suggest activities that the print media could have done and will take to ensure that the population of Sheffield has a good level of living.

Research Questions

  • How did Covid-19 presented to the population by print media in Sheffield?
  • Did the readers get accurate information and knowledge of the virus from the print media?
  • What actions were taken by the government present in Sheffield to create a positive impact of print media on the readers?
  • What actions were taken by the print media in order to improve the environment for the readers in Sheffield?

Rationale

Covid-19 is a continuous topic around the world, and the media has had an impact on it, therefore this research will be informative. Many readers are interested in learning more about the media and how they may help raise public awareness about Coronavirus. Sheffield Star is a print media company that was chosen for this study because it is a well-known newspaper in Yorkshire and will make the research more visible to the public. Media did not know themselves as to what impact their words were making in the people but they wanted the public to know the truth, which was correct in their opinion.

Readers must gain the proper perspective and be motivated to live a healthy lifestyle, which was lacking in the print media. The government was not sure of the virus themselves and full information was missing from the healthcare workers but the print media attempted to gather information before the government made a statement. Another reason for choosing this issue is because readers are afraid of the impact of print media that is now available to them, and this study will assist to change that. The general public needs to understand how print media works because they might be biased and have political agendas. People have to know that there are actions like lockdown, shutdown, social distancing, etc which are being taken for them in improving the quality of working.

Significance

Role of print media in Covid-19 is currently very trending amongst the readers of the newspaper which is Sheffield Star and other audiences as well. Audience wants to know more about their role and see the transformation which took place after a point of time when they realised their mistake. Involving the government is very important which was lacking and that had to be improved upon and this research would be discussing the limitations, challenges and misunderstandings which were created during Covid-19 situation. Print media is an excellent topic for investigation since it has numerous issues that must be resolved. Numerous issues like getting the information from the health care workers which were not having the time to meet their own family. There was a state of lockdown but the media did not find people for the reviews and observers like before. Readers will be curious to learn more about the strategies that the print media utilised and are still employing to persuade individuals to change their minds. Without realising it, the population that was so negative and refused to leave their homes is gradually returning to their daily routine, thanks to the print media's collaboration with the government in ensuring that the proper words were used to stimulate the people. People must obtain accurate information in order to gain a better understanding of the situation and ensure that the living conditions in Sheffield are not adversely affected. Sheffield is a rapidly rising metropolitan metropolis; therefore focusing on this historically significant city would be advantageous to the research.

Limitations

The biggest issue is that there are many fraudulent websites out there, which could bias the study's conclusions. Finding people and getting primary data for this study was difficult, but the usage of internet social media made it easier. Participants will be contacted by phone, but they should make sure that they only give correct answers and communicate their views. As a result, sample size is limited in order to acquire a proper grasp of the population and, as a reader, their effect from the newspaper.

Another factor was that there is a lot of information available on this topic online, and deciding which is best for the readers takes time, causing the timeline to be off. This investigation could have been done more thoroughly, but time and financial resources were both limited. Resources like healthcare workers must be adequate to ensure that improved activities are made in order to achieve a better knowledge and data collecting.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATUE REVIEW

Pandemic is a recent issue that has risen in the last two years and that has to be effectively addressed so that a positive end can be achieved for the people. The populace of Sheffield, United Kingdom must ensure that they are taking the appropriate actions like lockdowns or masks in public spaces, etc, in order to ensure that there will be improved living standards and lifestyles. The information that is being disseminated to the public must be accurate in order for them to be able to ensure that their surroundings are improving. Covid-19 is rapidly spreading, and in order to properly combat it, the government must ensure that appropriate improvements are made available to the government for everyone. The newspaper and news channels media has played a critical role in ensuring that the general public receives the correct information, resulting in larger profit margins. The media has destroyed many situations by sharing their point of view through freedom of speech, such as raising the population's fear of losing their life, which is not a good thing because the printed media has the power to easily affect people's thoughts (Giannis and Ziogas, 2021). Understanding the media is critical, and the audience for this study would be interested in learning the facts as well. There are many people who have lost their loved ones as well as their employment, which is not covered in the news but focused on showing the government and their actions. This research will look at the factors that influence people's thinking through the messages they receive in order to better tackle the challenges that the population is facing. The government should be involved as well, and ensure that the media is aware of them, so that a better working and happy environment may be created for the entire people.

Analyses of Covid-19 for reporting local print media

Jones (2021) stated that Covid-19 sensitivity was found all over the world, and it needed to be monitored and regulated. The government was under a great deal of pressure, and this aspect must be closely monitored to ensure that the proper actions are being implemented. The government was compelled to close the market and order the population to remain in their homes for the first wave of Covid-19 virus for population protection. As the seriousness of this virus was not well understood by the scientists as well and making the population was not possible by the government (Legrand and et.al., 2020). It is critical for them to ensure that the appropriate activities are taken in order to get better results. Population of Sheffield Star was so terrified that the government had to take drastic measures for social distancing like lockdowns and compulsory masks in public areas in order to maintain the appropriate level of significance. The residents of Sheffield Star were extremely concerned that their employment and the income they needed to find stability and better work were in jeopardy in a matter of days (Wright and Reardon, 2021). The government's responsibility and role were significant, but it was also critical for them to comprehend the issue and take the appropriate action so that they could work more effectively and ensure that they were functioning properly for the population. Testing and medical assistance for those in need were not available in all facilities, which was due to the fact that this was a new virus that needed to be worked on so that proper procedures could be implemented.

In the opinion of Pirri, Fragiadaki and Evans (2020), infection was on the minds of the media, which the populace rapidly adopted due to the abundance of information available in the market. People had diverse perspectives on the virus, but the media pushed their own agendas of getting more customer base and becoming famous and popular in the market by supporting political parties and not thinking of the information of which the population has the right to know. Because the government lacked the necessary facts, they failed to clarify the media's interpretations. If the government releases inaccurate information, it will only increase panic. There have been numerous debts incurred by the media in order to ensure that the government takes the appropriate actions and improves the situation. As in the opinion of Osland (2020), lockdown in the country was not helpful for the country as individuals lost their jobs and the government's economy was also disrupted for the benefit of the entire population. The government must ensure that people's fears are reduced, and they have devised a solution that will be a significant factor in the overall functioning of the government, which is a critical factor, Abreu and Jones (2021). Government is the backbone of the country, and they must put the people first, though the country is having a structure of monarchy. Government of UK did not understand the right way of dealing with this pandemic situation in the first wave and continued with power play. But it is later that the government realised and made sure that they are putting out appropriate information that would assisting the people as much as possible so that things would run smoothly. There was a lot of bad news about crime, rapes, etc, but instead of having people think negatively, the media should have turned it positive by showing the advancement which the scientists did for being able to recover, etc.

Chajes (2019), the fight against the virus in Sheffield was not simple since the people had the right and wrong information through the easy access to news, and not understanding which was right and this made a lot of difference for the living situation in the location. People were self motivated and positive started to become negative as a result of local media, and they lost hope as a result of living in dread, which was not a good factor. The media focused on the instances and the effects of the virus on people, which was ineffective for a long-term knowledge of the community. The outcomes must be favourable in order to ensure that the necessary improvements are being made for a greater understanding. The healthcare facilities were covered by the local media to ensure that the people of Sheffield were aware of the facts. People were unsure who to contact or what they needed to do in order to discover the virus in themselves. This virus was difficult to detect because it began as a regular fever or cold and then progressed to the point of death. It was critical for the organisation to ensure that they were taking the proper steps in order to make the necessary improvements in the future. The population requires accurate information, but not always a pessimistic viewpoint, which is harmful to the population. People in the houses were already in a horrible state, and the media had to make sure that they were highlighting the development and progress that the government and medical institutions were attempting to achieve for everyone.

Interpretation of the news amongst the readers

According to Dwivedi and Kumar (2021), newspapers and online media were responsible for informing the public about the virus, which was unsupported and without evidence. The media had disseminated material accusing China of being responsible for the virus's spread. The virus spread through animals, and this might have been the worst scenario that needs to be dealt with so that proper steps can be performed in order to locate the proper working and functioning that will be there, also according to, McKenna (2021). Because the media organisation has freedom of expression, which the government cannot regulate, printing or expressing information on a national level is legal. The Sheffield administration has had a lot of trouble making sure that the information that they have with the media is being passed on to the public so that there is a better understanding of the population and that there is going to be right environment, as per Abreu and Jones (2021). Sheffield's environment had deteriorated to the point where it needed to be monitored and regulated in order for them to function well in the market. Only then will people be able to help if they have a proper knowledge of the situation that has arisen globally. Virus made the population change their views on government as they saw the government taking strict actions for their safety and the help related hospitality was increased over night which is very important for them to do as they got a lot of support from them. Population did not understand the actions which were being taken by the government and they did not understand for the safety of the population as the government was planning it for them, Saad, Bahadori and Jafarnejad (2021). Different countries government took different protocols according to the economic stability and the help which is required for the population so that there is going to be a better lifestyle which the people could have.

Author Lemmey (2020), states that the population was afraid of Covid-19 as many people did not acquire proper nourishment and did not visit stores to get basic necessities. Media unknowingly did not change the way they were putting out their information. The environment of Sheffield was so negative after a point of time that the population stopped reading the print media as there was only putting out disturbing news for them. Media helped in making sure that the population was not just terrified but also made sure that they are not going to step out of their homes for a long time. Getting back to normal lifestyle seemed impossible at that point of time. Because of the information that was being passed on, the media did not grasp the harmful influence that they were spreading around the country, and people in Sheffield went against the population travelling and made no connections with anyone else. As per Giannis and Ziogas (2021), there are many challenges that have arisen in people's culture and beliefs as a result of their lack of faith and optimism, which is causing environmental factors to be impacted. It is critical for the media to demonstrate proper operating and functioning in order to ensure that people have access to a healthy lifestyle. The population's lifestyle was impacted, and this component needed to be rectified in order to ensure that proper work was done. Audiences are interested in learning but are unaware that they are merely portraying the media's point of view and lack the requisite sources and information. In print media and social media, there is a lot of manipulation and misuse of freedom of speech, and the viewer needs to be aware of this so that they can make their own judgments and pass on accurate information (Osland and et.al., 2020).

As stated by McGowan and et.al (2019), Covid-19 is a fatal virus that has yet to be shown to be manmade, but the media has made the assumption that it is, and this has caused people to think differently about it. Banning Chinese products and services has come to an end in many places, and Chinese people around the world are not being treated fairly, thus it is critical for them to have humanity. Low frequency is contained in the information being passed on, which must be adequately mixed and have decent printing. Government promotion is also prevalent in the media, which makes them appear good or terrible depending on the power that exists in the country it is critical for the audience to put their own knowledge into action in order to keep their own comprehension, which will be a significant aspect in the opinion of Stratton (2021). The media must focus on the audience's right to know, which includes disseminating accurate and sourced information to the public, rather than just for publicity, which will help to bring the situation under control. It is also critical to ensure that the general public has a proper understanding of how the media works. Disease has to be well understood and detailed understanding so that the population would be able to contribute in fighting against Covid-19 Virus together as one.

Power of print media communication on Covid-19

As stated by Kennedy and Kennedy (2021), misusing the power of a public print newspaper will not be a positive aspect in the overall work that needs to be done in order for the populace to think correctly. Council’s of print media has to be careful of the actions according to the right for information and help in creating a positive environment as well. Negative environment would have been avoided by the government if they had made the print media be aware of the sensitivity which this virus was having in the market. The anxiety was palpable among the population, and the only way to ensure that the readers were paying attention to what was being printed was through masks, social isolation, and lockdowns, all of which were taking place in Sheffield. People have to make certain that there would be more effective mobilisation. In the early days of the government's programme, there were many different kinds of the Covid-19 virus which were understood by the media and they published them as well without having the right knowledge (Wright and Reardon, 2021). It was critical to ensure that the virus's availability for cure is as high as possible in order to ensure that the proper treatments which the population can get. Vaccines is a great cure which the scientists have come up with which is going to make sure that the population is feeling safe. Communication which took place to the population was through media and other channels which was not one on one which has to be taken care of so that there is right performance that is going to be there. The media recognised the public's worries and modified the way they presented information, which now needed to be managed while also publishing positive news. It is critical to ensure that the public receives accurate and good information.

In opinion of Thakur, Tan and Chan (2020), there are many different points of view that people can have, but this destabilises international peace, which is bad for the government. Individual beliefs and values differ, and they must be managed and maintained in order to maintain healthy communication. What people are served has the potential to transform their life, therefore it's vital to make sure the right steps are done to achieve the right aim. Effective communication is required in order to ensure that the issues and other verbal information that people have can be properly addressed, resulting in good sourcing. Many crimes occur in the country when people are treated unfairly, which must be controlled and monitored in order to find the best working environment. Appropriate artists must be hired, and they must be properly watched to guarantee that no offences or unlicensed printing take place (Robinson, 2020).

In the view of Piga and Melis (2021), the populace has a high level of media influence because they do not have a hectic lifestyle and are well-informed about current events. People watched the news practically every day in the hopes of resuming a normal life and receiving information on the lockdown, which must be monitored. It is critical for them to ensure that they are taking the appropriate activities in order to improve their working conditions. Print media has a significant impact on individuals, and it must be controlled and monitored in order to get better results. The workers were hesitant to risk their lives during the lockdown, which is why Sheffield Star was unable to ensure that they were giving it their all. Cartoon sketches might also give people the wrong idea, so it's important to keep an eye on this. Translations can make a significant impact in overall comprehension, and this component must be effectively balanced in order to ensure that quality work is produced. Before broadcasting, the firm must be confident of their audience; they cannot take away people's quiet lives and make life so difficult for them; this part must be managed and present. It is critical that the media put up their utmost effort in order to get the greatest possible results. It is critical to provide the correct information to the audience at home, rather than any news that would modify their beliefs or harm them. The media, which first began to educate the public, has now evolved into a business, and this component must be addressed in order for proper functioning to occur. Globally infection is present for the people which have to be worked upon so that there is going to be better working which is going to be there.

Good practices and problems which are present in local media of Covid-19

As per the opinion of Kamal (2021), a lot of procedures can be adjusted by media to ensure that there is proper working and functioning. There must be good creativity present, as well as the proper application of that creativity. Posting on a regular basis is beneficial, but constantly being nasty is detrimental to people's personal lives. Media has initiatives in place to improve its performance. There is a lot of change that the media needs to make in order to be able to perform a better job so that everyone in Sheffield can think better. Daily news must have better leadership and capture, which must be done in order for better working to occur. There are set goals for the media, which will ensure that there will be consequences. Calendars can also be found in the media, but they need to be enhanced so that the repercussions are more significant. There were several challenges that the media had throughout the Covid-19 incident, and they must be readily solved so that better work may be done. Social media of Sheffield also has to be monitored by the organization to make sure that they are putting out right information which is positive in order to make sure that there are higher outcomes and improvement which can be done.

In review of Robinson (2020), boosting posts has to be done by the media all the time so that they would be able to make sure that there is going to be right working. Due to the intense competition that Sheffield Star faces, they ensure that they are putting in the necessary effort. Because the competition is fierce, tracking growth is critical, but the company must also ensure that it is not having a detrimental influence on its target audience. Because all of the printing media have online presences, there must be a good level of equity in order to ensure that social media has the appropriate level of involvement. It is critical for businesses to ensure that they are providing the correct information to their audiences and that their communication is effective. Individuals must strike a healthy balance in order to succeed. Quick decisions according to the government has to be made in order to be able to have the right balance and make sure that they are putting out information which is right and not publicity stunt which can make the audience have a wrong impression. There are numerous media sites that are employed in the market to ensure that the business operates in accordance with the law. Equality has nothing to do with the Covid-19 problem or the politics that are taking on in the country, which must be clearly known by the media in order for the appropriate actions to be taken.

In the view of Hansen and et.al (2021), planning has to be good and the media has to be aware of the readers and the way they are interpreting it so that there is going to be a good balance which is present. Lockdown was emotionally and physically a lot of stress on the population and this aspect has to be controlled in order to be able to have a good initiative that is to be there. Collecting the right information and data is very important in order to be able to have good communities which are present. Departments in Sheffield must take their responsibilities more seriously in order to provide the greatest possible service to the public. Tags and posts must be constructive, emphasizing the importance of healthcare workers over personal agendas, in order for the country to experience pleasant waves (Kaushal and Srivastava, 2021). Brand voice has to be present in all the politics which has to be there in order to make sure that there is good networking which is present. Managing the right information and data which is going to make sure that there is good consumption of knowledge which the readers are going to take.

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research methodology is the method which all individual employs in order to conduct a thorough investigation. This aids in ensuring that the necessary planning to perform the research is in place, as well as ensuring that the job is done in a systematic manner. There are various types of research and being particular and focusing on a single direction is critical for the end result to be better for the readers. This strategy also aids in the resolution of issues that arise during the research and ensures that a better description is provided. Research must be conducted in a scientific manner in order to present better reasons.

To ensure that the audience is convinced of the work that they are performing for the good, logical working must be there. Book deals and basic research are both necessary tasks that researchers might complete in order to reach a superior conclusion. It is critical to provide the suitable information to the readers in order to obtain knowledge from the researches that are being read. There is an effect on the readers' behaviour and points of view, which can be altered. Having a systematic and scientific approach to research will not affect emotions and will also ensure that there is a good comprehension of the subject. When the actions in a research project are completed correctly, the time spent on it is minimised, and the problems that arise are adequately resolved.

Other information can be applied, and more data can be gathered to ensure that the findings are exceptional. According to research, people read researches to ensure that they have a better comprehension, which can be improved by include research technique in them, which aids in better discoveries (Wang and et.al., 2019). Further research would entail delving deeper into the methodologies and strategy that had been outlined.

Research type

The purpose of research is to obtain information, which can be done in two ways: qualitative or quantitative. Both are quite effective in their own ways, but each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Challenges can be overcome in this field when there is going to be good planning and outcomes would be accurate as well of this research. There are opportunities which are recommended in the end of the research which would be based on the type of the research which is being conducted. Quantitative analysis is a time-consuming strategy that incorporates statistical analysis (Melnikovas, 2018). Because there aren't enough interactions with the Sheffield population, samples required for this type of research aren't being obtained. Because the time lines did not match, and the constraints would have been higher, this technique would not have been viable to apply to this research based on the timeline.

This type is more exact, and it would not have been achievable due to Covid-19's limitations. Imperialism is one of the positive characteristics of this form of research, but there are a lot of errors that would have been present if the appropriate method had been found. People are drawn to it as a result of the research, thus it requires a good interpretation of the scenario. Knowledge changes the mentality of the people and the living can be changed as well.

This study uses qualitative research, which takes less time than quantitative research but results in a more detailed collection of data. This research can be done accurately, and many theories can be implemented in this manner, which will be appropriate for the end result. One-on-one interviews and surveys must be conducted in order to obtain the necessary data, which is limited but possible despite the Covid-19 scenario (Ulmer, 2017). Measured variables are used to ensure that there is a justifiable relationship, that the forecast is accurate, and that the end results are controlled. Hypothesis is present in qualitative and this can help in reaching the end goals faster and make sure that print media takes the right actions as well.

Research approach

There is a need for an approach to be able to do the research so that the present plan may be better selected. There are research questions, a framework that is available, and research methods that may be applied to ensure that better outcomes are achieved. Steps such as data collection, analysis, and interpretation are all covered in the research approach, allowing the researcher to contribute their best effort. The research design must be done well in order to produce a better classification of work that can be extracted from it.

There are two types of techniques available: deductive and inductive approaches (Daniel and Harland, 2017). The deductive strategy will test the existing theory with the research circumstance, resulting in a comparable outcome. It is critical to be specific to the audience, and new outcomes must be created in order for the readers to be enticed. According to quantitative approach the method which should be used is not deductive as that gets in an imbalance and no proper justification can be given as well. Deductive method would be able to test the theories which are going to make the outcomes of this research be higher for the readers to have. Inductive reasoning allows for the exploration of new theories as well as the development of new ones, which is beneficial in today's world. Everyone has their own point of view, which is why presenting a concept and understanding of oneself is so important. To ensure that this theory is properly used, good observation is required. This is a study inductive technique that is being employed since there is qualitative data that needs to be appropriately analysed, which this model can do. It's critical to take the proper strategy and conduct the appropriate research in order for the ultimate result to be effective (Kumar, 2018). Inductive is cost effective method as well and more on observation which is going to make sure that the challenge of limitation of conducting the research would be reduced as well.

Research philosophy

Research philosophy is a framework that can be utilised to identify direction for conducting research based on concepts about reality and knowledge's nature. There is also a systematic technique of delivering knowledge to readers to find the right value of it in the research. The evidence for the complete discoveries made must also be supplied to the readers. Readers' beliefs and behaviour may be disturbed as a result of the research, so make sure that it is analysed and information is gathered in accordance with this (Ragab and Arisha, 2018).

Fundamental systematic understanding has to be present for the outcome to be the best for the readers to take away from the research. Positivism is typically associated with quantitative research, which is not the case in this study because surveys and questionnaires are used. The position that Covid-19 has created is also not positive, and the nature of this approach would only confuse the reader further on the subject, thus it will not be used. Interpretivism is going to be on the data which is being collected from surveys and other sources so that there is good understanding of the topic. Observations which are being made can be interpreted but statistical are going to be a task for the researchers to be able to put forward their point of view effectively. This strategy, which was based on Kant's ideas of subjectivity, will ensure that the research is guided in a more positive direction.

Interpretivism, often known as the Humanistic qualitative technique, will be addressed in greater detail. Choosing the right philosophy is going to be right for the outcome of this research as well and make sure that the readers change their point of views (Dodds and Hess, 2020). Realism approach can also be considered for this research as Covid-19 is a real situation which has been taken as the topic for this research.

Data collection

Gathering the information on the topic is known as data collection which can be done from any source but has to be authentic in nature. All the data which is being collected has to be well evaluated as a result, there will be superior consequences that can be reached for the best. There is a lot of information available from various perspectives, but in order to arrive at the best conclusion, the proper analysis process must be used.

There are two types of data collection methods which are present for researches to be conducted which are primary and secondary. Primary method consists of collecting the data from the source itself which is going to be accurate (Basias and Pollalis, 2018). This is good in case studies and putting out new information in own view point. Everyone is going to have a different take on the situation which is present but all individuals are not right as well. This can be done through one on one interview and talks. Not everyone has direct access to these sources, but in this case, the participants were, and therefore this form of data gathering was chosen to achieve the greatest results. Active participation is present in this research from the people which were included in this research willingly. This gets research be able to publish itself as well in the market by the researches.

The secondary method is a way of gathering data from a third person who, while watching the circumstance, has their own point of view on the topic, which cannot be totally trusted (Nayak and Singh, 2021). This is significant in some circumstances because there may be a different value system, ideas, or other factors that are incorporated that not everyone understands. This approach is also expected to be quite effective, according to the researchers. This is not reliable as well which is why this has not been used in this research to find the right and specific result.

Sampling

The method of obtaining and receiving from the source of sample is called sampling method. Sampling is done through surveys and questionnaires which can be gathered and collected with the willingness of the audience. There are total of 30 participants who were picked from Sheffield city to make sure that they would be able to share their experience of print media (Ørngreen and Levinsen, 2017). Sampling cannot be done till the lockdowns continue and finding the right participants would be difficult as well which is going to make the research authentic.

Objectives, aims of the research can be understood well when there is good sampling size for the best of the outcomes that can be received by the researcher easily. Probability is a non-bias method which is used by research which gets the research be more authentic in nature. This is used in qualitative study there is a descriptive achievement of the goals making the authenticity be higher as well for the research. Readers are going to be having the accurate understanding of the topic as well.

Non-bias survey is going to have random participants which are willing to participate and not selected participants from the beginning which are going to only speak positive of print media. Hypothesis is present in this as well as the participants have to be interpreted well. Non-probability is bias in nature which is not going to give away accurate information to the audience as well (Mohajan, 2018). This method would also confuse the audience to get the right idea of the topic and make them not be able to have the clear thinking about it as well. Research of this research has made sure that there is no bias implementation that might affect the reader’s attraction towards this research. Statistical processing must be present in order to ensure that there is a better understanding and working relationship.

Data analysis

The method which is being used can be statistical or logical for sources and raw research and this technique is called data analysis. The data that is being collected must be properly analysed in order to conduct a more thorough assessment. There are hidden patterns that are present as well but a person with good knowledge and leading would be able to find the right survey and comparison. Only once the data has been thoroughly evaluated and analysed, which is done in this phase, can the end result be extracted. It is critical for the industry to ensure that the correct understanding is included as well. There are theories and methods which are attempted and this research is thematic in nature. Thematic method is a great method that can be used in order to be able to come up with the best end product for the readers. Point of view and referring of the readers to their interested topic can be done if there are going to be themes that are used in this research. This makes the presentation of the research be better and make the readers be attracted as well.

This strategy is used for the questionnaire and all other portions of this study in order for the reader to find it engaging and to ensure that they have a good knowledge of it (Snyder, 2019). This method can be used in both the approaches which are qualitative and quantitative but mostly in qualitative which is used in this research. Theories are formed based on the analysis carried out in the theory section of this study, which makes the study more engaging for the audience. It is necessary to do effective interpretation in order to ensure that improved results may be predicted. Draws effective conclusions and ensures proper working and resolution of problems that are there by laying out the issues and making it easy for the audience to gain better advice in the research as well.

Ethical considerations

Ethical consideration refers to the process of working on the research in which the researcher makes sure that none of the respondents were harmed or forced to take the information about the research. It is the process of working on the research which provides the ethical way of approach and also shows that working on the research is important but to provide the research with ethical working is vital for the development (Papachristos, 2018). The ethical consideration includes 5 ways in which the ethical consideration is being done which include informed consent to the respondents working on the qualitative research. No one may force respondents to fill out the form and provide inaccurate information on the topic questionnaire because it is voluntary. While gathering information, take care not to infringe on the privacy of others. The ethical manner of working is critical since it ensures confidentiality while working on information security and prevents information from being leaked to others.

The benefits of ethical consideration in research methods are that it aids in providing accurate information about the topic (Khairuldin and et.al., 2020). It also enables the promotion of the value of collaboration working and accountability that the information is safe and true to work on the research. The researcher works on the ethical consideration to give the right information in their research and increase the efficiency. The ethical consideration responsibility is to safeguard the respondents from everything and to conceal the respondents' personal information so that they are safe and no personal information is revealed. The research can only guarantee the privacy and security of the details supplied by the participants by storing them in secure technology such as phones and laptops.

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS

Data analysis is the process of gathering of data, collecting, transforming, modelling of data goals for useful information and supporting decision making. This is a process in which the conclusion is made from the collected data and interpreted the information collected. The benefits of the data analysis that it provides the personalised customer experience, better decision making and enhance information.

Theme 1: Negative impression of the readers on print media during Covid-19.

In your opinion, did print media create a negative impression of Covid-19 in front of the readers?

Outcome

Yes

19

No

4

Maybe

7

Total

30

Interpretation: It can be interpreted from the above pie chart that the print media created a negative impression of covid-19 for the readers. The majority of the respondent agreed to this as out of 30 respondent 19 agreed that the print media created negative impact of Covid-19 for the readers. 7 respondents out of 30 denied to this as they feel that print media is not impacting negative on the readers. Remaining respondents choose maybe as they are not sure about it. The pie chart explains that people in the market feels the impact is caused by the print media as this is their responsibility to provide the right information so that the population can be aware. This can also help them in getting the best of precautions in their working to stay aware and safe from the covid-19 situation. To remain safe from the virus outbreak it is vital for the readers to get the right information and the government should take necessary action on the print media.

Theme 2: Role of government in print media putting out information to readers.

Does the government have a role in making the print media give out the wrong information?

Outcomes

High

7

Moderate

11

Low

12

Total

30

Interpretation: It can be interpreted from the above pie graph that government role in providing the wrong information from the print media in the market. The majority of respondents believed that the government's role is limited since it cannot hide information or promote incorrect data in the market, which can lead to problems with virus transmission as people come into touch with one another. It can be dangerous for the government and the country population itself. Out of 30 respondents 12 of the respondent agreed to low influence, on the other hand 11 respondents agreed that the government influence is moderate for the wrong information through the print media to readers and population. Remaining 7 of the respondents thinks that the government plays a high role in the influence of the wrong information through the print media. Influencing the wrong information can be critical for the population and it can make the situation worst for the nation in controlling of the virus.

Theme 3: Fear in the people of Sheffield from the news which was provided by print media.

Did the population of Sheffield get more scared after getting information from print media news?

Outcomes

Highly agreed

6

Agreed

12

Neutral

7

Disagreed

4

Strongly disagreed

1

Total

30

Interpretation: According to the above pie chart information, the majority of the respondents 12 out of 30 agreed that they get more scared after they get the information from the print media about covid-19 situation. They knew very little about the Covid-19 virus, but after reading the article in the Sheffield Star newspaper, they are even more terrified and concerned about the situation.

7 of the respondents show a neutral reaction to this as they believe that they were normal with the situation of Covid-19 news from the print media and it does not scare them much. The remaining 4 and 1 are disagreed and highly disagreed to this as they feel the print media does not scare them about covid-19. 6 of the respondents highly agreed to the question as they feel that print media made them scare and worried about the Covid-19 about the news. It is essential for the population to know the information and the print media to provide the information that the population get scare or worried but they need to understand about the situation.

Theme 4: Struggle of print media without having the authorities giving out their wording.

Did the media struggle to take out information without having the government give them the right information?

Outcomes

High

14

Moderate

7

Low

9

Total

30

Interpretation: It can be interpreted from the above pie chart that the print media work on providing the information to the audience and it is their responsibility to provide the trending news and situation. Even after the government's restrictions, 9 out of 30 respondents believe that the struggle for the print media is low. According to the information the print media is seeking to offer their audience via their publication, the remaining 7 respondents believe it is moderate. The majority of the respondent agreed that the struggle for the print media to find the information without the government permission is high. It is high because media did not understand the sensitivity and give out information to the population without understanding that it is creating negative impact.

It is the responsibility of the government to give the information to the print media so that they can enhance their working to provide the direct information to audience and population and make them aware about information of situation. The covid-19 news needs to be given to the audience in the early stage so that the people can control and stays with precaution on the early stage which can help them in stay healthy.

Theme 5: Impact of print media amongst population of Sheffield star

Influence of print media is high in Sheffield?

Outcomes

Yes

9

Certainly

13

No

3

Maybe

5

Total

30

Interpretation: It can be interpreted from the above graphical representation that the impact of the Sheffield star among the readers and population varies from person to person. The majority of the respondent 13 out of 30 thinks that the impact of the print media news from the Sheffield star is certain on the population of the Sheffield. Apart from those 13, 9 of the respondents think that there is impact on the population from the print news from the Sheffield star. The impact of the words that the print media distributes to its readers is high. Five of the respondents believe that the Sheffield Star news in their newspaper may or may not have an impact on the populace.

The impact of the new from the print media varies from people to people and it is essential for the media to provide all the relevant information if it’s scary or difficult for people to understand. Knowledge of the situation is critical, and it must be made available to all citizens of the country through the print media. The government should also take steps to remove restrictions on information and encourage the print media in developing speedier knowledge and information for the public.

Theme 6: Help received by health industry by print media for the readers.

Health industry helped the print media of Sheffield star to get the information and how was it used for the readers?

Outcomes

Information given out without realizing the importance

12

Misuse of information by media

10

High risk taken by health industry in pandemic for the safety of population

8

Total

30

Interpretation: From the above pie chart it can be interpreted that working in the health industry it is essential for the health media to provide the relevant information to the print media to forward it to the audience and population of the country. Health industry wanted the best for the population therefore they gave the information to the media without realising that they were creating a negative environment. The majority of the respondent agreed that the information given out to the audience from the print media of Sheffield by the health care without realizing its importance. The information can provide the negative and positive both impact on the market mentality of the people.

10 respondents out of 30 thinks that the information provided by the health care can be misused by the media and it can provide the impact negatively into the population. It is vital for the health care to aware about the situation which can make it worse for them. The remaining 8 of the respondents agree that the health care has taken the high risk in pandemic for the safety of the people. The health care look for the best of population sand provide the information so that the audience can get aware about every information which is important for them to know.

Theme 7: Printing negative news for readers a political agenda.

Was there any political agenda which the print media of Sheffield star while printing anything in the newspaper?

Outcomes

Seemed like

11

Not at all

5

Could be possible

14

Total

30

Interpretation: The above statistical graph interrelated that there can be a political agenda or not. Majority of the respondents think that it could be possible for the print media to work according to the political agenda. Out of 30, 14 of the respondents think that it can be possible to have a political agenda in the print media to give the news according to the political influence in the market. To ensure that political stability is not jeopardised as a result of the news and critical impact of the Covid-19 issue on political parties.

11 out of 30 respondents think that it seemed like there can be a political agenda in the print media and news printing for the Sheffield. The remaining 5 respondent think that it is not at all the political agenda to provide the news accordingly and to provide the information according the political influence to control the market and make a better stability. The print media need to work without any influence and it’s their responsibility to provide the exact news according to the situation so that the population gets aware about the situation and take control of their health and safety. They must also raise awareness about the government's efforts to ensure the safety of the nation's citizens.

Theme 8: To put forward information, what challenges were faced by print media

Challenges faced by Print media to get the accurate information about Covid-19?

Outcomes

Did not get time to interpret it properly

6

Paying money to health industry to receive information in return

9

Quality of data was not present in Covid-19 information in Sheffield Star

15

Total

30

Interpretation: From the above statistical graphical representation, it can be interpreted that there are different situation and challenges which are faced by the print media to find the accurate information to print. Majority of the respondents 15 out of 30 agrees that to find the quality data which was not present in covid-19 information by the Sheffield star. The remaining 9 out of 30 thinks that the paying money to health industry to receive the information. This means that the print media and newspaper are paying the financial support to the health industry to get the exact and accurate information about the covid-19 so that they can develop and transfer it to the end customer. The remaining 6 out of 30 respondents think that print media did not get time to interpret it properly.

While giving the information to the audience fast the print media is not able to provide the right interpretation of the information which can cause conflicts and confusion with the limited knowledge and it can be negative for the people and audience. It is hard to find the right information and the accurate information for the print media. They put in a lot of effort to get information from various people and locations so that they can improve the specifics and present the audience with the necessary information.

Theme 9: Recognition given to pharmaceuticals and doctors by print media was accurate

Correct recognition for pharmaceuticals and doctors being presented for the readers by print media?

Outcomes

Yes

12

No

18

Total

30

Interpretation: The above representation of the graph interpreted that the health care and the pharmaceuticals and doctors got recognition by the print media. At the early stage of the situation of pandemic in the country the print media was not fully on the recognition to the doctors and healthcare workers. However, as the epidemic spread and the virus became uncontrollable, the print media began to recognise the value of doctors and health care in the workplace. In their print medium, they began to correctly identify doctors and drugs.

The majority of the respondents disagreed, with 18 out of 30 saying no, that the print media does not publish accurate information from pharmaceutical companies and doctors who are willing to risk their lives to keep the people of Sheffield safe and prevent the virus from spreading. The remaining respondents agree that yes, the print media was giving the right accurate information about them in print media and newspaper.

Theme 10: Change in putting forward the information by print media about Covid-19

Did Sheffield population feeling safe after the media changed their way of putting forward their information about Covid-19?

Outcomes

Maybe

10

Yes

15

No

5

Total

30

Interpretation: From the above chart it can be interpreted that Sheffield population feeling safe after the media changed their way of putting forward their information about Covid-19. The majority of respondents agreed with this because they believe Sheffield residents are feeling better and are more alert. They are feeling safe since the information they are receiving from the media is much more accurate and detailed, which is assisting them in finding the best remedy and preventative measures to stop the virus from spreading. Remaining 10 of the respondents think that maybe they are feeling safe after the detailed information from the print media to the Sheffield star, it is essential for them to get the information from the print media and to get the ways to control and develop better safety in the nation. There are 5 of the respondents who think that they are not agreeing to the statement that they are feeling safe after the news and information providing to them by the print media in details. It depends on person to person but on the other hand it is essential for the audience to get aware about the details and the print media is making it better for the people to get best of information to stay aware.

Theme 11: Help provided by print media for the population for getting the right information for treatment

Did print media help in making sure that the population was being able to get the right help with the health conditions?

Outcomes

High

8

Neutral

7

Low

15

Total

30

Interpretation: The above graphical representation interpreted that does print media help in making sure that the population was being able to get the right help with the health conditions. The majority of the respondents 15 out of 30 thinks that this is low and they did not get much of the help form the print media for the condition of Covid-19 control and where they can get the right facilities for the better health condition. 8 respondents think that print media is giving the high information for the treatment and also to provide better help towards the health condition of the country people. 7 of the respondents think that it is neutral for them to get the information from the print media about the treatment and get the help from the media for better condition. It is essential for the people to get the right information and the print media plays important role related to the treatments and control of Covid-19 by different ways. This helps them in getting better understanding and right way of working to enhance developed control over the pandemic situation.

Theme 12: Authentic and accurate news was being presented to the readers by print media of Sheffield Star

News which was being printed by the media of Sheffield star, accurate and authentic in nature?

Outcomes

Highly agree

12

Agree

8

Neutral

6

Disagree

3

Strongly disagree

1

Total

30

Interpretation: From the above pie chart, it can be interpreted that News which was being printed by the media of Sheffield star, accurate and authentic in nature. The respondents agreed differently as the majority of the respondents highly agreed to this statement that the information and news provided by the Sheffield star in their print media was accurate and authentic in the nature which the people can trust and work accordingly.

8 out of 30 respondents agree to the same as they are thinking that the information provided by the health care industry that can be trusted and accurate which can be taken seriously. 6 out of 30 think that the information is neutral and it can be authentic or it cannot be. There are 3 respondents which disagreed to this and feel that the news and information by the Sheffield star in their print media is not accurate and the nature is not authentic. The print media of the nation are working on giving the right information to the audience so that they can provide the supporting hand and also making them aware before the situation gets worse. This help in increasing the pre awareness and controlling the pandemic better and quick.

Theme 13: Critiques made on the guidelines by the print media of Sheffield Star

Where the guidelines being critiqued by print media which were being made by the government?

Outcomes

Highly

12

Moderate

8

Low

10

Total

30

Interpretation: From the above pie chart, it can be interrelated that guideline being critiqued by print media which were being made by the government. The print media critique and the respondents 12 out of 30 thinks that this is high and the print media critique the guidelines of the government. Print media attempts to get the greatest information out to the public; however they are not supposed to give out information unless they get the correct information from the government, yet they do. This refer that working in the condition and controlling the guidelines and making the use of working to promote better information to the audience is essential for the print media. The government was criticised in the print media, and the respondent agreed with the majority. The government recommendations were initially depicted in the print media as a negative aspect for the country, but after the situation was stabilised, they were revised to indicate that the government worked hard to contain the pandemic. The print media criticised the information in the media because of the change of terms and the style of conveying it based on the situation.

Theme 14: Any kind of discrimination or bias feeling as a reader from the print media of Sheffield star

As a reader, did you feel like there was any kind of discriminations or bias information by the print media?

Outcomes

Public expectations in the beginning (Brutal information)

6

Health care working being praised

13

Government was not being supported

11

Total

30

Interpretation: From above statistical data it can be interpreted that as a reader there was any kind of discriminations or bias information by the print media. There was different situation on which the discrimination happened in the print media while providing the information in the print newspaper to the audience. The majority of the respondents think that health care working being praised more in the pandemic and 11 out of 30 thinks that government was not being supported. The remaining 6 thinks that public expectation was brutal in the beginning. As the circumstances evolved, the phrases used in the print media varied, and varying levels of support and prejudice were seen in the media. At the time of the pandemic's emergence, health care offered the assistance that the people desired and required, but on the other hand, government support is critical, and they also needs public support to remain strong. According to the interpreted data it is essential that the respondents agreed that the health care working is being praised and were more biased towards the health care in the whole situation of the pandemic.

Theme 15: Readers point of view on their knowledge and information on the virus.

According to you, what the media should have done in order to be able to give out their knowledge and information in the right manner to the audience.

Interpretation: According to the participants, the media should have provided the right information and does not manipulate the audience just because the people were scare. It is the responsibility of the media to provide the exact information so that the population gets aware about the situation and work accordingly. Giving the appropriate remedies from reputable doctors in the print media so that readers may obtain the knowledge and use it to control their health concerns as well as ensure the safety of their family and friends. Working on the expansion of print media information and obtaining reliable information rather than misleading news in order to increase TRP in the market. The pandemic situation is important, and information about it must be made available to the entire population so that they can act more effectively.

Challenges

The issues the print media encountered were that acquiring data from the government was not viable, thus they had to rely on alternative media channels. The challenge was not just gathering the data, but also the negative impact that the people had begun to have, which caused the audience to dwindle with time. When a newspaper exposes its readers to a lot of negativity, the readers stop it from happening again. There were actions taken by the government to highlight the true status of the pandemic, but they were also criticised in a negative light, leaving the audience with no hope. The media has a significant impact on the readers, and they also have a vast audience. All of the words put on the paper will have some sort of influence, and this is a risk factor as legal actions can be taken against them. The government made no public comment, which would have made it easier for the media to interpret. This is the biggest difficulty for Sheffield star. The local government was assisting health care personnel in finding a solution for the populace, while the media was busy digging up negative information for them. Health-care employees were also not treated fairly at first since they had an impact on how things were done, and they were never thanked for the years of effort they had put in.

Issues and challenges that arose as a result of completing this research include the fact that many concepts were not explored owing to time constraints. Because media is such a big field, a lot of material must be discarded, and incorporating all of the evidence into a single study will be tough. Data gathering is also important in order to provide accurate interpretations and results, however there were difficulties due to social distancing and lockdown that made reaching out to the audience in Covid-19. Not only was reaching out difficult, but getting information on a current subject was also challenging due to a lack of comprehension of the situation.

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION

Recommendations

Print media did have a lot of impact on the readers during the pandemic situation that has to be understood and right methods have to be followed. There is a lot of improvement which the print media have started to have after the government was involved. People started having a positive living environment and started getting back to normal lives very quickly. The recommendations which are going to be present for the Sheffield star are as follows.

  • The print media must ensure that they are providing correct information to the public in order for the public to have a more informed opinion. To be able to gain the right information they have to wait for the government to make their statements which can be interpreted. Using the words in the print media has to be done positively so that there are no legal actions which can be taken on them which would affect the working of this industry. Sheffield population did not have the necessary information, but they attempted to obtain it from doctors and health care personnel so that they could deliver what the audience wanted. Even if there are no exact criteria or other acts that are decided, the media always works according to the current news, and newspapers have always started providing their perspectives on it from the beginning. This is not a favourable aspect, but the newspaper must ensure that they are obtaining the correct information from the appropriate sources, which the readers will receive and which will have a beneficial influence.
  • The government also waited for the cure before speaking to the public to ensure that they were creating a healthy environment for the people. In order for the government to ensure that the public receives accurate information and that they are able to deliver the best for them, the print media must be trusted. In order to increase productivity, health-care workers must guarantee that they are providing accurate information. The print media must ensure that information from the government is disseminated in a way that is appropriate for the general public to hear. Living has already been tarnished by the media, and many people have lost hope in it, which must be restored in order to provide a right worth to it.

Conclusion

Based on the findings, it can be determined that any media, particularly print media, has a significant impact on the Sheffield population. Population of the location is always dependent on the newspaper as the guidelines are clearer in them. People require a safe and healthy lifestyle, which they must recognise and ensure for themselves. People's lives were impacted by the media, even if they didn't have all of the necessary knowledge. Emotions of the public cannot be used by the media, which changed during a period in Sheffield when the print media realised they were only publishing negative news. In order to ensure that the correct experience is provided, control over the information that is displayed to the audience must also be present. The responsibilities of the internal workings of Sheffield Star must also be recognised in order for the print media to be able to set higher standards for themselves. Health-care personnel need to be recognised for their efforts, and media should portray them as heroes during this tough time. Political agendas will not be beneficial to the people of Sheffield in terms of a positive living environment. Covid-19 was a trying moment for everyone, not just one industry, and it must be viewed favourably because work and normal life must resume shortly. The media has changed the way they perform for the public in order to ensure that there is a higher level of population attraction. They must become more self-sufficient and ensure that the media receives accurate information. These findings suggest that individuals are quickly influenced by news, and that print media may assist to improve the situation as well. Misusing is not right but print media can be used another way to make sure that there is going to be better influence that takes place on the people.

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