The travel and tourism industry is the largest industry and it attracts tourists by providing accommodation, entertainment and other recreation facilities. However, the growth has been both positive and negative- in this essay it focuses upon the economic contribution of travel and tourism following the statistics from WTO of 2015. The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) is a useful contact for analyzing this subject (Carrier and Macleod, 2011). As reported by WTO, the Travel & Tourism’s impact on the economic and social development of a country can be large; it helps to create new businesses, growth of trade and capital investment, it helps to create jobs and to develop the skills needed to do the job for the workforce and has a mission to protect the heritage and cultural values. Travel & Tourism produced US $7.6 trillion (10% of global GDP) and 277 million jobs (1 in 11 jobs) for the global economy in 2014. The growth of travel and tourism industry has given a good impact on the developments in the areas such as transport systems, environmental and economic sectors, sustainable tourism helps to monitor the bad and good impacts (Cheverton, 2004).
Tourism in general terms is a common perception that is limited to holiday activity only as people travel to different places around the world in order to leisure, business or other purposes. However, from the point of view of economy it is of great importance because tourists traveling to any destination carry out different activities such as transportation, entertainment etc. and increases country's balance of payments (George, 2010).
The Future of Travel and Tourism in the Middle East - A Vision to 2020: it is suggested that over the next 20 years upwards of $3 trillion will go directly into leisure and tourism and indirectly into the supporting infrastructure. As per the projects it is reported that by 2020 the airport capacity will be increased for 300M extra passengers, over 200 new hotels to be built with 100,000 additional rooms, to grow visitor numbers up to 150M, and to increase the size of its aircraft fleet by over 150% by 2025, an on- going study on growth and development to 2020 (Giudici and et. al., 2013).
The aim of their study is to identify the strengths and weaknesses with a purpose to reduce and increase the impacts in travel and tourism in the region. The study will focus on the key impacts: global, regional and local security, political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legislative trends, examine consumer behaviors and explore potential ‘wild cards’ and discontinuous changes. It will then develop scenarios highlighting their possible impact on the region’s plans (Harrison and Hitchcock, 2005).
Travel and tourism is a large industry divided by several sectors such as economic, socio cultural, environmental- every country has their own action plans to make tourism attractive to the visitors and to generate more money from tourism by investing into the data collection, studies on good and bad impacts of tourism, infrastructures, urban management and consumer behavior etc. (Kanagal, 2012). Travel of tourism sectors has got their own interest in sustainable tourism for example reducing carbon emission or improving the urban management. It is evident that the sectors do take seriously to focus more on reducing the environmental factors by using eco-tourism principles. The subject here will focus on the future visions of travel and tourism in Middle- East, the statistics available on internet and a brief overview on the future plans in travel and tourism with interesting new terms (Arthur and Mensah, 2005).
International tourism grew by 4.7% in 2014 to 11.38 billion and was expected to reach 1.5 billion in 2020.The forecast by WTTC for international tourist arrival will be 1.8 billion by 2030. The newspaper called The Guardian provides that the demand for air travel will be increased double by 2050. Accordingly, it will affect the environmental factors and thus the carbon emissions from flights departing in UK are to be increased to 33.3MtCO2 in 2011 year to 2050 (Chenoweth, 2002).
The agenda for 30 year – the Sustainable Development in tourism sector- the UN has great projects to tackle the water scarcity, and water pollution, to strengthen the cooperation on decertification, dust, storms, land degradation, and drought, and promote resilience and dust risk reduction, 13 conferences meeting on Biological diversity in Mexico (Rogerson, 2003). A huge importance will be given to urban development and management, renew and plan cities, and human settlement.
The authors have given concern about increased emissions and global warming, based on their research changes can be expected over 20 years. It is expected the travel in 2010 will become more ‘geo local’, this means holiday makers will travel much closer to home, tourism will no longer dominate by Westerns. By 2010 the hotels will use their sources (employee, material and services) from their own vicinity, the term to this is called ‘hyper-local’ sourcing, a new type of hotels- ‘the – kilometer-hotel’- all material will come within 10 kilometer radius, a metered system for energy and water, a separate charges will appear on their bill, discount will be offered for guest who keep the use of these services below average. This business solution is a future trend that are encouraged by Northern Ireland as well (Smith, 2003).
The use of so called ‘slow transport’ will start to grow, due to the increased costs of flight transport, the journeys by train, boat and bike. The ways to travel can be coupled to make the holiday more enjoyable. The fast trains make rail travel easy, they got good worldwide websites and booking systems. In air travel the tourism use more tour companies, the website will allow choosing the lowest-carbon airlines, airlines are increasingly making to use environmental bio fuel. Practicing new ideas such as adding giant sails to the cruise ships to reduce the enormous carbon footprint and to start using the old ideas such as to use airships for old shorter journeys (Timothy and Nyaupane, 2009).
The climate changes or already has impact on creating travel destinations, the destinations have to change their focus on season choice because of too cold or hot temperatures. Alpine ski resorts had to close or create more summer walking holidays. Coral bleaching, coastal erosion and rise in seal level will affect the much traditional diving ad beach destinations, for example in Caribbean (Collison and Spears, 2011).
The after effect of the global warming on food sources (fruits, lands) and water can lead to mass migration, and social and political instability, in countries who depend on tourism. Because, of this the travel destinations needs to actively plan ahead to avoid such losses. It is noted that there have been ministers who are single minded in tourism industry, wrongly pursued the tourism to do more hard work without knowing the true cost of local tourism or how to or what people can benefit from the tourism (Vrana and Zafiropoulos, 2006). Smart tourism has learned not to focus on how just to increase the number of tourists but to study more what type of tourism is more needed and how to match the visitors to the most preferable areas. Democratization of travel, this means that the visitors will be encouraged to give feedback about the destinations and empowered to speak behalf of the destination they have chosen (Wise and Sirohi, 2004).
An array of labels: fair trade, organic, locally produced, ‘carbon rating’, similar scheme applies to holiday businesses. And the encouragement to use more 'greener and fairer' products, by 2015, the goal by TUI was to achieve 10 million greener and fairer holidays., to make easy for customers to use more sustainable hotels, their brands show the logo in the websites and brochures (for instance: Travelife Gold, Sustainability Tourism), to help customers to find certificated hotels (Platzer, 2014).
Here, in the current scenario, the rise of the package holiday culture has been increased that helps travelers to explore new destination. As per the recent trends and development, the advent of low-cost airlines has seen tourism becoming popular for many individuals and they travel to different destination. However, if he cost of travel increases they people will choose another mode of transport and it will also affect tourists from visiting different places. As the cost of flying enhances, people don't make plans for overseas holidays (Rowe, Smith and Borein, 2002). Thus, in recent times, it has been noticed that more number of tourists are visiting in order to explore the destination.
At the end, it can be articulated that responsible tourism helps in safeguarding the environment and providing best travel experience to tourists in order to explore the destination. Further, there are varied recent trends and developments have been noticed in the travel industry that encourages tourists to visit the place and enhance the economy of the country. Also, government bodies of the country are focusing upon developing the infrastructure, accommodation as well as transportation in order to provide leisure holiday facilities to tourists.
Arthur, A. N. S. and Mensah, V. J., 2005. Urban management and heritage tourism for sustainable development: The case of Elmina Cultural Heritage and Management Programme in Ghana. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal. 17(3). pp.299–312.
Carrier, G. J. and Macleod, L. V. D., 2011. Tourism, Power and Culture. Channel View Publications.
Chenoweth, J., 2002. Is tourism with a low impact on climate possible?. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes. 1(3). pp.274– 287.
Cheverton, P., 2004. Strategies, Tools and Techniques for Marketing Success. 2nd ed. Kogan Page Publishers.
Collison, M. F. and Spears, L. D., 2011. Marketing cultural and heritage tourism: the Marshall Islands. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 4(2). pp.130–142.
George, W. E., 2010. Intangible cultural heritage, ownership, copyrights, and tourism. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 4(4). pp.376 – 388.
Giudici, E. and et. al., 2013. Is intangible cultural heritage able to promote sustainability in tourism? International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences. 5(1). pp.101–114.
Harrison, D. and Hitchcock, M., 2005. The Politics of World Heritage: Negotiating Tourism and Conservation. Channel View Publications.
Kanagal, N., 2012. Role of Relationship Marketing in Competitive Marketing Strategy. Journal of Management and Marketing Research.
Rogerson, C. E., 2003. Review of the Royal College of Art / V & A Museum Conservation Department Research Symposium. UKIC Conservation News. 15(9). pp.19-20.
Smith, K. M., 2003. Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies. Psychology Press.
Timothy, J. D. and Nyaupane, P. G., 2009. Cultural Heritage and Tourism in the Developing World: A Regional Perspective. Routledge.
Vrana, V. and Zafiropoulos, C., 2006. Tourism agents' attitudes on internet adoption: an analysis from Greece. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 18(7). pp.601– 608.
Wise, R. and Sirohi, N., 2004. Finding the best marketing mix. Journal of Business Strategy. 26(6). pp.10–11.
Platzer, D. M., 2014. U.S. Travel and Tourism: Industry Trends and Policy Issues for Congress. [PDF]. Available through: < http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43463.pdf>. [Accessed on 4 Feb 2016].
Rowe, A. Smith, D. J. and Borein, F., 2002. Travel and Tourism. [PDF]. Available through: < http://assets.cambridge.org/052189/235X/sample/052189235XWS.pdf>. [Accessed on 4 Feb 2016].
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