Introduction Of RESE 1173 Understanding Research in Evidence-Based Practice Assignment
The present essay is based on Evidence-based Practice in nursing and in this essay; critical review of article is done. Present article is about experiencing shame of alcoholic patients and feelings of barrier in a way of sobriety. This essay is going to include research method that has been used in article and along with that critiquing tool; forms are also incorporated in this essay. Critical analysis of findings of an article is also elaborately discussed in this assessment. Evidence-based practice is also evaluated according to resources in this essay.
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The thesis statement of this essay is to evaluate evidence-based practice through chosen article.
Background of article:
In United Kingdom, a bigger percentage of people have been caught with issues of "problem-drinking" and they have been addicted to coping with negative emotions in them. On the other hand, shame, guilt and inferiority complex in person also trigger binge drinking habits in them. Other than that, social emotions including shame arise in person when habituated with addictive nature (Sawer, Davis & Gleeson, 2020). Anxiety and depression are other outcomes of a person that can be related to drinking habits. Main result or outcome of continuous in taking alcohol can also give rise to different physical and psychological issues that can affect a person along with his family members (Linsley et al. 2019). Moreover, people habituated with drinking are also engaged in foul works with or without his consent. In that case, guilt and shame can consume a person more than before. In order to relive that shame, a person drinks much more and cycle repeats.
On the other hand, according to research, it has been seen that sobriety becomes impossible for an addicted person for a prolonged history of drinking. The shame and guilt of a person becomes biggest barrier to being sober. In order to bring them into mainstream life, they are introduced to an acceptance and commitment therapy group (Chatfield, 2017). Eventually, an affected person can reduce shame and they can recover from the previous stage and state. Therefore, either remorse can be beneficial for an addicted person and can accelerate a person towards a path of redefining or guilt can otherwise push a person to be much more addicted to suppress inferiority complex.
In case of treating and counselling patients, evidence-based practice (EBP) is necessary and appropriate. With this format, condition of a patient can be assessed and for that, exact techniques of treating a specific patient can be identified (Aveyard & Sharp, 2017). The best available evidence is found from scenarios by nurses, doctors, or any kind of healthcare practitioner and with clinical expertise, a healing process can be initiated.
Methods that have been used:
Type of research:
Present research was held in a primary quantitative way and for that, interviews were held including 8 participants. There were questionnaires formed in research method to interrogate participants about their recovery phase experiences. Sampling was done for a necessary methodology of research and an unstructured questionnaire was taken into consideration for sake of research purposes.
Method of sampling:
In this article, participants were taken for observation and research has been conducted on behaviour that has been shown by them. All participants were adults in a group and they were all a total of eight in number. Among 8 participants, 5 persons were males and 3 persons were females. Hence, age range of persons that were taken into consideration for research purposes was 27 to 74 years. Among all participants, persons were ranging from 21 months to 35 years in sobriety. They portrayed themselves as being in a state of recovery from alcohol obsession. On the other hand, participants were assigned to recognise patterns of alcohol dependence. Phases were defined as presently abstinent, recovery phase and “Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) philosophy of abstinence". The “Snowball Sampling Method” samples participants that are included in this research from AA phase.
Collected or engaged participants were given ideas about research method and purpose and narrative interviews were conducted for elaborated answers. Other than that, professional and structured question and answer patterns detailed stories about participants were gathered. In this way, particular aspects of recovery phase can be determined and the researchers can identify steps (Sawer, Davis & Gleeson, 2020). Interview highlighted a single question that could narrate a personal story or phase of recovery of participants. Other than that, best and worst time of phase of recovery was also included in research interview. Answers and narratives of participants were listened to and recorded thoroughly in order to gain insights from them and then analysis of data was done.
Narrative thematic analysis was taken into consideration for this research purpose and identification was done based on influence of other peoples’ narratives on story of participants. For research purposes, “post-modernist position” was adopted to ensure free flow of narrative of participants. In this way, experience of participants was clearly accepted by researchers. On the other hand, a 5-step process was taken into consideration at time of analysis including “reading and familiarising”, “identifying narrative tone”, “identifying imagery and themes”, “weaving a coherent story” and “cross-analysis”.
Ethics and governance:
Participants were taken as per their will in research process and they were all adults. On the other hand, “University of Surrey Ethical Review Board” issued Ethical approval. Brief of story was explained to participants of study and written consent was given to them. Identity of participants was not disclosed and pseudo names were given to them for research proceedings.
Potential for Bias:
Number of participants was very low, that can hide actual data, and outcome might not be relevant enough to be relied on. Much more data sources could be taken into consideration and secondary sources could increase reliability of research. These issues can create bias in outcome of research process.
Critiquing tool form
[Referred to appendix 1]
Critical analysis of findings
The research considered two specific findings that can highlight the main two outcomes or the result of the research process. Between the two searched findings in the research article, one is about having an addictive parent in the life of the addicted person and another one is having addiction for inner guilt or the inferiority complex.
Findings 1: Most of the participants were having addictive parents
According to the research, the participants have disclosed the history of having parents with addiction. Half of the participants were noticed to have a past of having an addictive parent and the initial shame of having such parents triggered the alcohol consumption habit. Initially, the affected children do not want to follow a similar path as their parents and they end up doing the same as their parents. This also activates the guilt and shame in the person’s mind that can even more decline them towards the path of alcoholism. The children in a family can feel awkward about the parents getting divorced for the addictive nature of any of them (Yurasek et al. 2019). They try not to get into a similar tract like their parents and they have a prolonged history of feeling ashamed and taking liabilities on themselves. Feeling constant shame can also make them realise to take shelter from addiction.
On the other hand, some of participants think that they have inherited behaviour of addiction from their parents. The children can end up being followers of addictive parents for finding the route of easy escape. Hence, a disintegrated relationship of parents and turmoil of situations and environment can lead children into path of addiction in further life (Malka et al. 2018). All the adverse conditions generally leave a foul impact on the behaviour and nature of the offspring. On the other hand, the comparison with the normal family can leave into a very shameful place and for that, the adolescents are engaged into escaping through a similar pathway as their parents (Yurasek et al. 2019). They also used to consider themselves as the core reason for the addictive nature of the patents and be guilty. This guilt formation can also change its formation and can change into an addictive nature afterwards.
Moreover, some parents of the kids were not protective at all, that could leave a deep impact of sorrow and anger into the mind of the kids, and that can be another reason for giving up the normal life and getting busy with alcohol consumption (Malka et al. 2018). On the other hand, the mood swings of the alcoholic parents used to confuse the children and the sudden loving to aggressive nature of the parents can leave a deep impact on the psychology of the children (Gunn & Miranda, 2020). Some of the parents of the children were even abusive and torturous after getting drunk. The domestic violence and substance abuse of the children or any family member can also leave a greater impact on the mind of the child and they can later be addicted by themselves.
Findings 2: addiction initiate to suppress core shame or inferiority
The research article has mentioned and highlighted another result or outcome that describes selective inner shame and insecurities of having an addictive past. Moreover, inferiority complex of a person can also trigger alcoholism in the person (Snoek et al. 2021). On the other hand, feelings of being less than others can be a key reason for feeling ashamed. People tend to squelch their shame by being introverted and they can also try to suppress their agony and pain by drinking too much. Inner bad feelings of a person can also make them believe that they are not decent people and can make them feel less of themselves (Wogen & Restrepo, 2020). This scenario can also make them believe that depending on alcohol is only way to discard the pain from life (Alsawalqa, 2021). Other than that, participants believed that addiction made them better people and make them into completely changed individuals. The crudeness and complexity of life can also be discarded by alcohol and they enjoyed a time of being drunk.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is main opportunity to treat patients with displayed traits by patients. The treatment process includes a range of complications other than alcoholism in people. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are also treated by evidence-based practice (Parahoo, 2014). The treatment procedure differs from person to person and each process is unique of its kind. Medical practitioners and health care staff manage the trial methods. A single observational study is conducted for individual patients and patterns are thoroughly identified (Ellis, 2018). The research evidence is also aligned with treatment process and clinical expertise is complementary in this process. The practice of clinical staff also provides information of treatment and values of circumstances of a selected patient are considered in EBP process (Brayford, 2004). The EBP also allocates evidence-based medicine to a specific person.
In this process, probability values (P), number needed to treat (NNT), and relative risk (RR), hazard ratios (HR), and odds ratios (OR) are included and these can define success of EBP on patients (Canberra, 2020). The doctors follow 5 steps including “Ask”, “acquire”, “appraise”, “apply” and “audit” in this EBP mode. In an initial step, details given by patients are converted into clinical queries. After that, shreds of evidence are collected regarding questions that were asked to individuals. In third step, validity and applicability of pieces of evidence are appraised (Canberra, 2020). Next, evidence is integrated into a decision making in clinical form. In a final step, ways to improve conditions are searched and previous steps are evaluated.
Evidence-based practice is significant as it can aim for most cogent and reliable care to affected people. Moreover, all patients from EBP care (Mikkelsen et al. 2020) can expect most relevant and effective care. The shreds of evidence that are collected from patients and their circumstances are most decent fitted clinical planning for them. Selective decisions made by people in a clinical organisation are mostly reliable and fitted best for affected people. In that case, chance of recovery for affected person is greater than before (McGovern & Carroll, 2018). In addition, evidence-based practice is validated by doctors in hospitals and nursing homes along with other healthcare units by assessing and reassessing condition of patients. On other hand, impact of medical practice and medication is identified and observed thoroughly for a prolonged time (Son?ur et al. 2019). Treatment procedures can be changed based on measurement of procedures made by medical staff in healthcare domain. The applicability of procedures is checked for selected patients and planning of treatment could be changed after strategically changes. Safety of patients or affected persons are checked and monitored for their utmost comfort. Development of previous therapy can be done by efficacy testing.
According to this research article addicted persons or persons that are affected by addicted parents previously, are also could be driven through evidence-based practice care and medication. Each of addicted people can show different behavioural outcomes that can be treated by EBP based on their expression. The root cause of alcohol addiction can be removed or healed by prolonged care agenda of affected individuals (Bowling, 2014). Asking them about their journey towards alcohol addiction can clearly describe about main cause of addiction and can drag that individual towards a positive approach and aspects of life. On the other hand, post operative symptoms of individuals are checked and monitored for absolute perfection in medical treatment planning (Guillermo et al. 2015). Clinical intervention can be modified by the healing process or the phase of improvement. Researchers also think that addicted people can be obtained back to the mainstream life and they can again be free from alcohol addiction (Cluett, 2019). Acknowledging condition of self and giving away guilt can also bring balance into their lives. On other hand, EBP can give them a new approach to life and a significant thought process by which they can be able to nurture their values and integrity.
Based on the above discussion it could be said that kids were not protective at all and that could leave a deep impact of sorrow and anger into minds of different kinds. At the same time, it showed there are several factors that play an essential role in managing different evidence-based practices in case of nursing and medical field. On the other hand, anxiety and depression are other outcomes of a person that can be related to drinking habits. Main result or outcome of continuous in taking alcohol can also give rise to different physical and psychological issues that can affect a person along with his family members.
In addition, there are several treatment processes that help to manage different medical problems and complications as well. Therefore, treatment process includes a range of complications other than alcoholism in people. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are also treated by evidence-based practice. However, it could be said that there is a different effective method that helps to manage the evidence-based practices in the nursing field. Several theories have also helped to support the concepts of evidence-based practice in medical sector. Lastly, data collection processes used in the article is also appropriate as it has helped to meet research objectives and questions as well.
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