Causes Of Delay In Nigeria Construction Industry Assignment Sample

Causes & Effects of Delayed Construction in Nigeria: Recommendations for Improvement

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Causes Of Delay In Nigeria Construction Industry Assignment

Chapter 1: Introduction

In this research work, the delay in the construction industry has to be discussed and analyzed in this manner. In this case, the cause of delayed construction in the context of Nigeria has to be analyzed and described in this manner. The delay in construction, there are several causes has been seemed such as weather conditions, lack of labor, political instability, and the safety of the construction site, etc. Those problems need to be addressed and discussed on the construction site. On the other hand, the aim and objective of this delay in construction need to be assessed and described in this field. On the basis of those objective research questions shave to be addressed and constructed in this phenomenon. In this process, the entire research on the delay in construction in Nigeria has to be processed in this case.

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Background

The concept of delay in construction has been getting prevalent in recent phenomenon. For the delay in construction, several problems have been faced in the construction industry such as lack of planning of the building projects, inadequate level of funding, low level of communication, poor level of quality control, and lack of construction in the context of Nigeria (Adeleke et al. 2019). Those lack of activities and behaviors has been seen in the construction sector. In this case, this delayed construction has been found deliberately in Nigeria. On the other hand, in this field different effects have been associated with this delayed construction (Ahmed, 2019). Those effects have been including time overruns, disputes of the services, low quality of the materials, lack of communication, low level of cooperation, arbitration, and the concept of total abandonment (Akinrata et al. 2019). In this case, the construction industry has been facing challenges regarding time management, cost management, and quality management. Communication among developer, planner, constructors, and employees have to be prominent for giving better services in the construction industry (Akomah et al. 2020). But in this case lack of cooperation and communication have been found which has reflected in the delay in the construction industry in Nigeria. Those are the causes and several effects of the delayed construction in the context of Nigerian construction projects.

Research aim and objectives

The main aim of this research is to find out the reason behind delays in the construction industry. On the other hand, addressing ad analyzing the time and cost-effectiveness due to the delayed construction in Nigeria have played an active role in this manner (Alintah-Abel et al. 2020). In addition, the negative impact needs to be analyzed in the construction fields.

  • To assess the cause of delay in the building industry
  • To address the role of clients and consultants in the building project in Nigeria
  • To describe and discuss the cost-effectiveness and time-consuming matter due to the delay construction
  • To denote the amount of loss of the productivity in the construction industry, in this case,

Research question

  1. How to assess the cause of delay in the building industry
  2. What is the role of clients and consultants in the building project in Nigeria
  3. How to reduce the cost-effectiveness and time-consuming matter due to the delay construction
  4. What factors have been influencing the amount of loss of productivity in the construction industry

Research rationale

The entire research is based on all the factors by which the construction industry of Nigeria is affected. Conducting the research will be very helpful for providing betterment to the industry and the economy of the nation in the upcoming years (Cherian, 2020). Apart from that, the study contains brief information for the determined development and well-being of the industry by which the construction project and industry can achieve the determined success (Egwim et al. 2021). The construction industry is one of the most effective and significant industries in the current phenomenon. The construction industry has to achieve sustainable growth and economic diversity for the entire development (Eja and Ramegowda, 2020). Green materials have to be sued in the context of sustainable development in the construction industry in terms of Nigeria. In this way, this country needs the improvement of performance in order to non-oil segments. Communication and cooperation have played significant roles in the entire project development. Even the role of stakeholders has been also important in the sector (Gamil et al. 2019). The managers, developers, planners, and suppliers need to help in the construction. In this way, the construction can be able to develop in the current period. In the country, the rate of GDP and the employment level is too poor (Ibrahim and Sirajo, 2022). The development of the construction industry is required to increase the rate of GDP in this area. On the other hand, the employment facility would also be influenced in terms of the development of construction projects.

Research significance

The delay in the construction industry in Nigeria has been prevalent in the current phenomenon. To denote the cause of the delay in construction has been understood in this context (Kabiru and Yahaya, 2020). The cost-effectiveness and the time-consuming matter have also be described in the construction industry. On the other hand, it has been assessed and addressed that, there is a correlation between the development of the construction industry and the increasing rate of GDP (Mittal et al. 2020). In Nigeria country, there is unemployment condition has been found on a large scale. In addition, the rate of GDP is too low compared to other counties. In this case, when the construction industry would be developed a huge concentration of labor and workers would be connected in the construction industry. Even the GDP has also flourished in this manner. With the proper research, the role of clients, contractors, and consultants has been known in construction projects (Muneeswaran et al. 2020). Due to the delay in construction, the facts such as time overruns, negative social effects, application of disputes, and resources have been generated in this construction industry. In this process, this research has played an active and crucial role to demonstrate and evaluate the reason and facts of daddy in the construction in the country of Nigeria.

Research framework

Research Framework

Figure 1: Research Framework

(Source: Self-created in MS Word)

Conclusion

The delay in construction has been discussed and analyzed in this research work. There are several causes have been found such as weather conditions, lack of labor, political instability, and the safety of the construction site, etc. On the other hand, several aims and objectives have been generated to ensure the quality of the entire research. On the other hand, the research questions have played an effective role to find out the cause and effects of the delayed construction in this country. The research rationale and significance have been constructed to evaluate the cause of delay construction in the context of Nigeria. In this process nature of research has been generated in enhancing the quality of the research.

Chapter 2: Literature review

The literature review is one of the most significant and effective parts of research work. This part of the literature review has generated information, knowledge, and perception regarding the reason for the delay in the construction sector in the context of Nigeria. In this part, the empirical study of several scholars has to be generated in this manner. The concept of dependent and independent variables would also be addressed to enhance the entire research work. On the other hand, several perceptions and approaches of different scholars, articles, and journals have played a crucial role in gaining knowledge and ideas regarding delays in construction management projects. Moreover, the gap or limitation has also been significant throughout the empirical study. Most of the time, scholars have emphasized a particular thing. In this case, various sites have been getting untouched in this manner. In addition, most of the time authentic sources of data can not be found in this case. That is why to address and find out the gap in the literature this empirical study has been also required for the research work.

Research hypothesis

H0: The negative impact of delayed construction would be addressed.

H1: The negative impact of delayed construction can be reduced.

H2: The negative impact of delayed construction cannot be reduced.

H0: The time-consuming matter has been rectified by this research.

H1: The time-consuming matter might be minimized in the construction.

H2: The time-consuming matter may not be minimized in the construction

H0: Proper construction management and planning would be generated to enhance the building construction project.

H1: Proper construction management and planning have been generated to enhance the building construction project.

H2: Proper construction management and planning have not been generated to enhance the building construction project.

Empirical studies

The empirical study has been required to gather information, perception, and knowledge regarding the cause and effect of the delayed construction in the country of Nigeria. Several scholars and journals have been able to develop different approaches and understanding of delay construction.

Extraction of delaying factors in construction

According to Egwim et al. 2021, different factors of the delayed construction in Nigeria have been assessed and addressed in this manner. Among the various types of construction projects are roads, highways, residential and commercial structures, tunnels, and railroads. Yet, it is unusual for infrastructure projects to be finished on schedule since ninety percent of global public works projects have overruns and delays as a result of various elements or events (Egwim et al. 2021). Many sizable international literature collections have examined the reasons behind delays across the planet's emerging and wealthy economies. In contrast, the descriptive research approach has been used to analyze the reasons for building delays from various nations and split them up into two categories: developing and advanced nations (Egwim et al. 2021).

In this country, the cause of delayed payments of clients, delays in planning and drawing, errors and changes in the design, financial difficulties of the constructors, deficiencies in scheduling and planning, delayed delivery of the materials, poor site management and supervision, deliberate changes of order, order and law, economy, political instability, inflation, supplier and subcontractor related causes, slow rate of decision making, delay in payment delivery, delay for the approvals and the force in majeure, etc (Egwim et al. 2021). Those are several causes have been addressed as the causes for delays in construction in Nigeria. On the other hand, much more reasons have been also identified for the delay in construction in the building project management (Egwim et al. 2021). Designing complexity, bad weather, delayed delivery of the equipment and materials, industrial strike and disputes, contractual disputes, and physical obstruction have been related to the late or delayed construction in the context of Nigeria. As per this empirical study, the major causes behind the delayed construction have been addressed and demonstrated in terms of Nigeria (Egwim et al. 2021). That misconduct has to be improved to enhance the quality of the construction industry. [Referred to appendix 2]

Effects of delay construction

According to Fashina et al. 2020, the effects of the delayed construction in Nigeria have been evaluated and described in this research work. Construction-related delays typically have negative impacts on investors. Additionally, it is claimed that the consequences of building defects are what occur when a development's reasons for delay go unresolved (Fashina et al. 2020). These impacts frequently have a significant impact on how a project turns out. The consequences of building delays are the subject of numerous studies. The budget shortfall, late delivery, legal, disagreement, arbitrators, and complete abandonment were the six repercussions of delay that the authors found. Another article by the same authors detailed some impacts of construction projects being postponed, including project rejection, liquidity issues, lawsuits, incredulity, and the need for the third-party outsider to resolve an issue among both parties involved in this contract (Fashina et al. 2020). They also mentioned adversarial rapport. [Referred to appendix 3]

Impact of delay construction

Figure 2: Impact of delay construction

(Source: Self-created in MS Word)

The author listed some delay effects and ranked them in the following order: time and expenses overrun, adverse impact on society, commodity waste, adjudication, conflicts, causing the client to recover debts, low quality, interruption in generating revenue for the holder, insolvency, lawsuit, emphasize on builders, complete rejection, and velocity losses. The effects cited by the writers include time and expense overruns, conflicts, complete abandonment of endeavors and prosecution, arbitration, enterprises being put on the government's blacklist, acquiring a poor reputation, & cash and time (Fashina et al. 2020). The authors examined the impact of project implementation in Nigeria's building projects and identified the following as the primary effects of construction delays: cost excess, an extension of time, program estimated expense, work violating timeline, dissatisfaction, litigation, and complete absence (Fashina et al. 2020). On the other hand, the scholars also concentrated further on a single of the key consequences of construction delays. The concentration of 30 multi-story buildings that the researchers looked at in great detail had cost overruns as a result of modifying parameters.

Perception of the contractor over cash-flow effects

According to Omopariola et al. 2020, the perception of the contractor over cash-flow effects has been demonstrated and evaluated in this study. Around the world, multiple stakeholders in terms of contractors, clients, consultants, regulators, and stockholders that collaborate as a unified group of project managers’ entity supervise and oversee construction activities (Omopariola et al. 2020). The construction sector is crucial for creating wealth and making a substantial contribution towards the "Gross National Product", as well as for enhancing individuals' lifestyles through the development of socio-economic infrastructure (Omopariola et al. 2020). This sector has a lot of implications that help other sectors such as manufacturing thrive as it is intricately woven into the fabric of the entire economy. [Referred to appendix 4]

Nigeria's sector generated 5.8 percent of all exports. In light of here, the sector is beset by recurring issues such as huge costs, improper design, and business failure (Omopariola et al. 2020). Nevertheless, the risk of desertion appears to have gripped Nigeria's building industry. Clients' top priority is to finish projects within budget (Omopariola et al. 2020)t. The concept of, "project success" refers to the fulfillment of specific requirements for a given stakeholder, regardless of whether they're the designer, engineer, constructor, promoters, or the entire population as a whole. Poor economic behaviors, particularly insufficient emphasis on managing cash flow at the institutional level, are substantially to blame for the danger of outsourcing businesses going bankrupt. This concept has been involved in line with earlier research which discovered that contractors' ability to successfully complete a project in this building industry depends on their ability to control their cash flow (Omopariola et al. 2020). This study aims to assess the management methods and the consequences of the cash flow in Nigerian building projects. Finding out whether or not there's a major difference between how contractors perceive the effects of both beneficial and adverse cash flow for a building project is a concurrent goal (Omopariola et al. 2020). The main goal of this effort is to inform professionals in the building industry, and angel investors, lead to productivity about the dangers involved, and offer workable solutions.

Poor level of communication between contractors and clients

According to Ishaq et al. 2019, the poor level of communication between contractors and clients has been addressed and evaluated in this project. In the current phenomenon, most organizations must have clear communication (Ishaq et al. 2019). In this case, to achieve the project goals, the material must be precisely and promptly communicated among project participants during building projects. Among the key elements affecting project execution has been associated with low communication between contractors and clients throughout a building project (Ishaq et al. 2019). Consequently, this study's goals are to look at what contributes to poor client-contractor communication, what those impacts are, and what approaches would be most effective in addressing the issue. [Referred to appendix 5]

Poor level of communication

Figure 3: Poor level of communication

(Source: Self-created in MS Word)

The most frequent reasons for poor communication between contractors and clients have been aimed to lack of cooperation and self-interest (Ishaq et al. 2019). On the other hand, upholding honesty and having enough trust has been the key approaches to enhance communication between both the customer and supplier. Poor client-contractor communication, according to the premise, has a big impact on building projects (Ishaq et al. 2019). By providing enough information about the reasons for and consequences of the low rate of communication among these two parties, this study will assist the customer and consultant as well as the multiple stakeholder groups in the building projects, allowing for the required preventative actions to be taken (Ishaq et al. 2019). Also, this should give information on the proper techniques (methods) to use to enhance the relationship between both parties.

Dependent and independent variables

Dependent variables

  • Labors: In the construction or building industry the role of labor has been found as an effective part in this case. The laborers have been dependent on the construction project (Yap et al. 2022). In this case, when the construction field has been delayed, the laborers have been affected by this poor management. While this construction or building industry would be developed, the profession of labor would also be flourished in a broad way. On the other hand, most of the time lack of labor or poor availability of labor has also been seen in this industry (Babalola et al. 2019). Those laborers have been moving to other places due to the poor level of construction in the country of Nigeria.
  • Construction materials and equipment: The construction materials and products have been also dependent on the construction management project (Saka et al. 2021). In this building industry, there are several materials have been used such as bolsters, brick hammers, chisel, concrete mixture, bonding rods, bump cutters, circular saws and cordless drills,s, etc. Those are the construction materials which has been sued for the construction of building project (Bukar and Ibrahim, 2021). But in the context of Nigeria due to the delayed construction, those materials have been used in a low order. So, in this case, improvement has been required in increasing the use of construction materials and equipment in a broad aspect with respect to Nigeria.

Independent variables

  • Environmental condition: The climatic or environmental condition has been recognized as the independent variables in this construction industry (Abdellatif and Alshibani, 2019). This industry required a high rate of energy for construction. The climatic disorder of hazards, disasters, and cyclones have affected the building industry. Those environmental condition has been independent, but the construction industry has been dependent on climatic conduction. In another sense, environmental degradation has been found due to the construction industry (Johnson and Babu, 2020). This sector generates 24% of the air pollution, 55% of the total landfill waste, and 45% of the water pollution. This amount has been growing at an alarming rate due to the construction.
  • Resource availability: The construction sector has been highly dependent on the availability of resources. In this case, the resource has been seen as the independent variable. For building construction, resources have been required on a large scale (Adindu et al. 2020). These resources are human resources, consultants and contractors, developers, planners, suppliers, etc. The role of those participants has been effective in the construction. In this way, for extensive and good construction those resources have been required to enhance the quality of the building project.
  • Time management: Time is one of the significant factors of construction. In the Nigerian country, the delay of time has been seen in a large way. Time is not dependent on the construction. But the planning and entire projects have depended on time (Schuldt et al. 2021). In the context of Nigeria, the planning and operation of proper time in terms of time management of the building construction have been required on large scale (Mahmud et al. 2021). All the stakeholders and planners have to be determined at the time of the project. The beginning and the ending time would be a specific time period in the construction. In this process, the construction sector would be flourished deliberately.

Theories and Models

  • Model of delay occurrence in construction (PDO): The main outcome of infrastructure projects have been seen as a collection of related assignments and duties. Both external and internal factors have a direct impact on the quality of output time (bin Kusin and bin Kadri, 2020). The controlling team typically has little direct influence over external factors, which can directly impact direct impact on an action's reaction times. These elements include shifting governmental policies, varying weather patterns, and shifting economic circumstances worldwide (Al-Kilidar and Hasib, 2021). Nonetheless, the management team has control over the management, financial, and technological internal elements, which are influenced by the effectiveness of the project manager. By having a direct impact on the effectiveness of the material production process for the materials needed for construction, they can unintentionally affect how long an activity takes to complete (Ikediashi and Okolie, 2022). These internal factors are considered the main factor causing the inefficiency of the available resources. This model of the delay occurrence has included four categories such as: 1. External factors which are not being controlled, 2. internal management aspect which is controlled, 3. Supply chain management activity of resources and 4. Entire project activities.
  • Theory of resources and labor: This theory has been aimed at Penrose and was first originated in 1959. This theory has been constituting the process of gaining competitive advantages with the application of non-physical and physical resources in terms of construction sector disposal (Taofeeq and Adeleke, 2019). This resource theory has been recognized as a strategic theory that has been focused on effective strategies. This has been used to make support and gain competitive power in the construction sector (Dixit et al. 2019). On the other hand, labor issues have been accused by exercises and processes in the lifestyle of the building projects. This theory has been able to determine the correct skills and labor in building project activities.

Literature gap

In the previous Literature, the reason for the delay in construction in Nigeria has been developed in this manner. The delay in payment, resource unavailability, Design complexity, bad weather, delayed delivery of the equipment and materials, industrial strike and disputes, contractual disputes, and physical obstruction have been associated with the reason for the delay in construction (Alabi and Fapohunda, 2021). But the process of overcoming to reduce the lack of services in building construction has not been prominent in the previous scholars and journals (Farid et al. 2020). On the other hand, the authentic sources of data, information, and knowledge of construction in Nigeria have not been predominant in this manner.

Conclusion

The part of the literature review has been effective to gather knowledge, perception, and information regarding the cause of delay in construction in the context of Nigeria. The concept of research hypothesis has been constructed to enhance the quality of the research. Even, empirical studies have played a crucial role to determine the cause and effect of the delayed construction in Nigeria. Several theories and models of the construction have been evaluated to flourish the nature of the entire research. Moreover, the limitation or gap of the literature has also been generated to understand the overall matter of delayed construction.

Chapter 3: Methodology

The step of research methodology is one of the effective and significant parts of the entire research work. In this research work, the related data has to be collected on the basis of a survey of 127 respondents. The steps of research onion have to be constructed in enhancing this work. On the other hand, the process of research philosophy has to be generated in evaluating the delay in the construction sector. The research approaches would be developed for further discussion and analysis of the research work. In addition, the step of research design has to be evaluated to understand the design of this research. Moreover, the steps of data collection and the analysis of those data have to be flourished in this manner. On the other hand, the process of research ethics can be effective in menacing the quality of the research. Even, the limitation of the research work also has to be developed to evaluate the gap of the research.

Research onion

Research philosophy

In this research the process of realism philosophy has to be conducted in this research work. For the research-related data, knowledge, and information have to be collected o the basis of the survey in the real field (Kabirifar and Mojtahedi, 2019). The survey of 127 respondents has to be collected in this manner. After the collection of data that perception would be analyzed in further work (Pathirana, 2021). In this case, a questionnaire has to be prepared to evaluate the perception and behavior of delay of construction in Nigeria. In this process, the conception and perception of the human being have to be predominant regarding the construction (Kineber et al. 2020). The real phenomenon of cost-effectiveness, time-consuming case, and negative cash-flow rates would be flourished by the realism research philosophy.

Research Approach

In this research the deductive approaches have to be conducted for further analysis. These approaches have included the aspects of the research hypothesis, related theories, and models (Alhammadi and Memon, 2020). With the help of this deductive approach, the research hypothesis would be created to enhance the quality of the research. In this process, the concept of delayed construction has to be clear. Even, the factors and effectiveness, of cash flow, and relationships among clients and contractors would be preeminent in this manner (Dlamini and Cumberlege, 2021). The theories and models have to play a crucial role in generating knowledge, perceptions, and approaches regarding the late services of construction in the context of Nigeria. In this process, the research approaches have to conduct a significant construction of the entire research.

Research design

In this research the process of quantitative research design would be generated for discussion and analysis of the research. With the aspect of quantitative research, the survey has to be conducted for further analysis (Oso Sunday, 2020). On the other hand, this survey would develop the perception and ideas related to the delay in construction. There would be several human beings in generating hr conception regarding delayed payment, poor level of communication among the stakeholders, lack of labor, cost of materials, etc. (Aslam et al. 2019). The amount of those filed has to be generated with the aspect of quantitative research approaches. In this process, these approaches would be effective to enhance the entire research work.

Data collection process

In this research work, all the related data has to be collected on the basis of a survey of 127 respondents. The data, information, and perception of the people need to be collected based on a primary survey. After the collection of all the data, those data need to be put in Excel (Safapour et al. 2021). On the other hand, with the help of SPSS software, the perception related to the delay in construction has to be found in this manner (Prayuda et al. 2021). In this process, the required information and data regarding the human conception of delay in construction in Nigeria has to be gathered and collected in the context of the primary data collection method.

Data analysis process

The related data has to be collected on the basis of the primary data collection method. After the collection of the required data, the SPSS Software needs to use for analysis of the collected data (Igwe et al. 2022). This SPSS Software has been useful for calculating mean, median, mode, standard deviation, T-test calculation, one sample test, chi-square, and much more analysis. Moreover, the pie chart and histogram have to be also prepared in this manner (Ogunnusi et al. 2021). In this process, this SPSS Software would be helpful for further discussion and analysis of the collected data in terms of the primary and quantitative analysis processes.

Research ethics

The country of Nigeria has been suffering from the issue of delayed construction. The reason and effect of the delayed construction need to be focused on and illustrated in this case. There are several reasons of delayed payment (Daniel and Ibrahim, 2019). Low concentration of labor, poor communication, lack of infrastructure, time-consuming sense, cost-effectiveness, and much more. In this way, the construction sector has been suffering from the late rate of construction (Tagod et al. 2021). The communication among the clients and contractors needs to be more strong for further improvements in the construction. On the other hand, the role of stakeholders needs to be prominent to enhance the entire construction sector.

Research limitation

In the research of the construction sector, the related data, knowledge, and information need to be collected from the survey in terms of a primary basis (Momade et al. 2021). In this case, most people have been showing less interest in sharing information and perception of the delayed construction in Nigeria (Genc, 2021). The problem of less cooperation has been faced in the field survey. On the other hand, for further analysis and gaining knowledge, there are authentic sources of data have been also found in this case (Kabirifar and Mojtahedi, 2019). For the entire research, more time is required to enhance the matter at a large scale. But lack of time has been recognized as the limitation of the research work.

Conclusion

The part of the methodology has been completed with several steps. The process of research philosophy has been generated in evaluating the delay in the construction sector. The research approaches have been developed for further discussion and analysis of the research work. In addition, the step of research design has been evaluated to understand the design of this research. For this research deductive approaches have been conducted for further analysis. These approaches have included the aspects of the research hypothesis, related theories, and models. On the other hand, the process of realism philosophy has been conducted in this research work. For the research-related data, knowledge, and information have to be collected o the basis of the survey in the real field. With the help of primary and quantitative approaches, the entire analysis has been conducted in this manner.

Chapter 4: Discussion and Analysis

For the entire analysis and discussion of the delayed construction project in Nigeria survey of 127 respondents has to be formulated in this manner. A questionnaire has to be conducted to evaluate the concept and perception of the respondent about the delayed construction in Nigeria. In this case, several questions have to be prepared on a large scale. On the other hand, all the questions and perceptions would be collected in Excel format. After that, the perception of all the respondents has to be analyzed and evaluated with the help of SPSS Software. A brief discussion of the delayed connection would be generated to enhance the research work. In this process, this research has to proceed and be analyzed in this manner.

Analysis

T Test

One-Sample Statistics
Statistic Bootstrapa
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Use_of_susyainable_products N 127
Mean 1.66 .00 .08 1.51 1.82
Std. Deviation .857 -.002 .033 .775 .912
Std. Error Mean .076
Incompetence_of_contractors N 127
Mean 1.31 .00 .06 1.21 1.43
Std. Deviation .626 -.001 .055 .514 .725
Std. Error Mean .056
a. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 1000 bootstrap samples

Table 1: One-sample statistics

(Source: Self-created in SPSS)

In this table the one sample T-test have been represented related to the construction industry. There are upper and lower value has been calculated. The lower mean value is 1.51 and the upper mean value is 1.82. The lower standard deviation value is 0.775 and upper standard deviation value is 0.912. On the other hand, the lower value of std. error mean is 0.76.

One-Sample Test
Test Value = 0
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Use_of_sustainable_products 21.859 126 .000 1.661 1.51 1.81
Incompetence_of_contractors 23.666 126 .000 1.315 1.21 1.42

Table 2: One-sample test

(Source: Self-created in SPSS)

Form this above table the one-sample test have been generated in the context of construction industry. In this case there are two variable has been collected such as: use of the sustainable products and incompetence of contractors in the construction project work. The lower rate of use of the sustainable products is 1.51 and upper rate of use of the sustainable products is 1.81. In another sense the lower rate of incompetence of contractors is 1.21 and the4 upper rate of incompetence of contractors is 1.42.

ANOVA

ANOVA
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Lack_of_labour Between Groups 40.528 2 20.264 81.101 .000
Within Groups 30.983 124 .250
Total 71.512 126
Efficient_role_of_consultant Between Groups 13.973 2 6.987 41.465 .000
Within Groups 20.893 124 .168
Total 34.866 126

Table 3: ANOVA

(Source: Self-created in SPSS)

From the above table the ANOVA has been calculated in showing Nigerian construction industry. The value of sum of square in between groups is 40.528, df value is 2, mean square value is 20.264, F value is 81.101. It constitutes zero significance in this case. The value of sum of square within groups is 30.983, df value is 124, mean square value is 0.250. Total value of sum of the square is 71.512 and df value is 126.

Descriptive

Descriptive Statistics
Statistic Std. Error Bootstrapa
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Problem_Of_Infrastructural_shortage N 127 0 0 127 127
Minimum 1
Maximum 3
Mean 1.29 .00 .05 1.20 1.39
Std. Deviation .592 -.004 .055 .472 .692
Kurtosis 2.483 .427 .124 1.284 .711 5.581
Loss_of_productivity N 127 0 0 127 127
Minimum 1
Maximum 3
Mean 1.57 .00 .07 1.43 1.70
Std. Deviation .762 -.003 .039 .671 .830
Kurtosis -.668 .427 .045 .398 -1.263 .334
Negative_effect_of_construction N 127 0 0 127 127
Minimum 1
Maximum 3
Mean 1.79 .00 .07 1.65 1.92
Std. Deviation .783 -.003 .030 .715 .833
Kurtosis -1.263 .427 .028 .164 -1.509 -.876
Valid N (listwise) N 127 0 0 127 127
a. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 1000 bootstrap samples

Table 4: Descriptive statistics

(Source: Self-created in SPSS)

Form this table the descriptive statistics have been represented with the Bootstrap value in the construction industry. Lower mean value is 1.20 and upper mean value is 1.39. Lower SD value is 0.472 and upper value is 0.692. In this way the value of three variables have be calculated in the construction industry.

Correlation

Descriptive Statistics
Statistic Bootstrapa
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Use_of_susyainable_products Mean 1.66 .00 .07 1.53 1.82
Std. Deviation .857 -.004 .033 .784 .910
N 127 0 0 127 127
Incompetence_of_contractors Mean 1.31 .00 .06 1.21 1.43
Std. Deviation .626 -.003 .056 .505 .729
N 127 0 0 127 127
a. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 1000 bootstrap samples

Table 5: Correlation

(Source: Self-created in SPSS)

In this table the correlation among loss productivity, time consuming matter and cost have ben represented in the construction industry. The value of standard deviation is 0.910 and another variable’s value is 0.729. The mean value is 1.82 and other variable’s mean value is 1.43. Finally the N value is 127.

The problems of the infrastructural issues in the construction sector have been represented by this pie chart. Almost 70% of the total respondents said, the infrastructural issues have been prevalent. 10% replied that there is no issues of infrastructural problems and rest of the people has not sure about infrastructural issues. [Referred to appendix 6]

Cross tabs

Use_of_sustainable_products * Increasing_cost_and_time * Gender Crosstabulation
Count
Gender Increasing_cost_and_time Total
Yes No Not sure
Male Use_of_sustainable_products Very much 62 62
Total 62 62
Female Use_of_susyainable_products Very much 13 0 0 13
Not sure 20 0 0 20
Neutral 1 15 11 27
Total 34 15 11 60
Others Use_of_susyainable_products Neutral 5 5
Total 5 5
Total Use_of_susyainable_products Very much 75 0 0 75
Not sure 20 0 0 20
Neutral 1 15 16 32
Total 96 15 16 127

Table 6: Cross-tabs

(Source: Self-created in SPSS)

This table represent the calculation of cross-tabs in the building industry. Due to the shortage of labors and use of unsustainable materials the time and cost have been increasing in this industry. Most of the respondents have ensure the unsustainable use of materials which amount to 75%. Some of the respondent shared average use of the sustainable products which shares 15% and rest of the people shared low amount of use of the sustainable products.

Chi square

Chi-Square Tests
Gender Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Male Pearson Chi-Square .b
N of Valid Cases 62
Female Pearson Chi-Square 56.078c 4 .000
Likelihood Ratio 73.554 4 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 35.719 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 60
Others Pearson Chi-Square .b
N of Valid Cases 5
Total Pearson Chi-Square 121.750a 4 .000
Likelihood Ratio 132.262 4 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 87.572 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 127

Table 7: Chi-square

(Source: Self-created in SPSS)

This table reflected the Chi-square test with several of variables. No of valid case is 62. Person in the chi-square is 56.078, Likelihood Ratio is 73.554, and Linear-by-Linear Association is 35.719. For the another variable the “No. of Valid Cases” are 60, “Pearson Chi-Square” is 121.750, Likelihood Ratio is 132.262, Linear-by-Linear Association value is 87.572.

The negative effected of construction has been represented in this filed. Most of the people has been agreed with the problem, some has not been agreed and several has not been sure about this issue. [Referred to appendix 7]

Delivery is one of the most effective issues of the construction. 80% respondent has been agreed with the delay delivery, 40% is not agreed with delay delivery and 8% has not been sure with this issue.

Regression

Residuals Statisticsa
Statistic Bootstrapb
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Predicted Value Minimum 1.02
Maximum 2.46
Mean 1.55 .00 .05 1.45 1.65
Std. Deviation .462 -.002 .035 .396 .533
N 127 0 0 127 127
Std. Predicted Value Minimum -1.143
Maximum 1.970
Mean .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
Std. Deviation 1.000 .000 .000 1.000 1.000
N 127 0 0 127 127
Standard Error of Predicted Value Minimum .038
Maximum .110
Mean .058 -.001 .003 .050 .063
Std. Deviation .019 .000 .003 .014 .025
N 127 0 0 127 127
Adjusted Predicted Value Minimum 1.02
Maximum 2.49
Mean 1.55 .00 .05 1.45 1.65
Std. Deviation .464 -.002 .035 .398 .534
N 127 0 0 127 127
Residual Minimum -.462
Maximum .704
Mean .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
Std. Deviation .339 -.005 .019 .292 .371
N 127 0 0 127 127
Std. Residual Minimum -1.346
Maximum 2.050
Mean .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
Std. Deviation .988 .000 .000 .988 .988
N 127 0 0 127 127
Stud. Residual Minimum -1.381
Maximum 2.069
Mean -.001 .000 .000 -.002 .000
Std. Deviation 1.001 .000 .001 .999 1.003
N 127 0 0 127 127
Deleted Residual Minimum -.486
Maximum .716
Mean -.001 .000 .000 -.001 .000
Std. Deviation .348 -.005 .019 .301 .380
N 127 0 0 127 127
Stud. Deleted Residual Minimum -1.386
Maximum 2.097
Mean .002 .000 .001 .000 .004
Std. Deviation 1.008 .001 .003 1.003 1.016
N 127 0 0 127 127
Mahal. Distance Minimum .544
Maximum 11.859
Mean 2.976 .000 .000 2.976 2.976
Std. Deviation 2.728 .122 .546 2.003 4.190
N 127 0 0 127 127
Cook's Distance Minimum .000
Maximum .045
Mean .007 .000 .001 .005 .008
Std. Deviation .010 .000 .002 .007 .014
N 127 0 0 127 127
Centered Leverage Value Minimum .004
Maximum .094
Mean .024 .000 .000 .024 .024
Std. Deviation .022 .001 .004 .016 .033
N 127 0 0 127 127
a. Dependent Variable: Gender
b. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 1000 bootstrap samples

Table 8: Residual statistics

(Source: Self-created in SPSS)

The regression values with mean, median, maximum, minimum and standard deviation have been constituted in this construction industry. There are 12 variables has been represented the regression values. Where the values is positive there is null hypothesis accepted and negative value show rejected of the null hypothesis. [Referred to appendix 1]

Discussion

In this part, the discussion of the causes of delayed construction have been discussed in this manner (Al Maktoumi et al. 2020). There are several causes that have constituted the delayed construction in Nigeria. The causes and effects of the late construction have been discussed in this case.

Causes of delay in project Amount
Delay of the payment 22%
Approval of drawing 23%
Developmental decision 23%
Economic process difficulties 21%
Other factors 11%

Table 9: Cause of delay in building projects (Source: Self-created in MS Excel) In this table, the discussion of the causes of delayed construction have been discussed in this manner (Prasad et al. 2019). There are several causes that have constituted the delayed construction in Nigeria such as delayed payment, poor financial condition, drawing approval, development decisions, etc. [Referred to appendix 9] From the above pie chart, the amount of delaying actors of the construction has been represented (Durdyev and Hosseini, 2020). Delayed payment has been shared by 22%, poor financial condition has been shared by 23%, drawing approval has been shared by 23%, development decisions have been shared by 21%, and other factors have been represented by 11% in this field.

Elements and parties of delay construction Amount
Materials 5%
Project 4%
External 30%
Equipment 1%
Design 5%
Consultants 7%
Contractors 18%
Owners 25%

Table 10: Elements and parties of delayed construction

(Source: Self-created in MS Excel)

The above table represents the role of different elements and parties which has been associated to the late construction (Viles et al. 2020). Those elements consist of materials, external, design, contractors, projects, consultants and owners, etc.

From this bar diagram, the amount of elements and parties for delayed construction has been represented in this manner (Hassan et al. 2019). The materials share 5%, external shares 30%, the design represents 5%, and contractors share 18%, the project shares 4%, equipment shares 1%, consultants’ shares 7% and the owner shares 25%.

Conclusion

In this part, the entire analysis and discussion of the delayed construction have been completed in the case of Nigeria. The questionnaire has been prepared to know the perception of the 127 respondents about the delay in the construction industry. Those perception has been analyzed with the help of SPSS software. T-tests, chi-square, one sample test, cross tabs, and many more statistical analyses have flourished in terms of the delayed construction in Nigeria. In this process, the entire research has been completed with a discussion and analysis of the delayed construction in the context of Nigeria.

Chapter 5: Conclusion

The construction sector has been facing the problem of delayed construction in the context of Nigeria. In this field, the causes and consequences have been discussed and demonstrated to evaluate the reasons for the late construction. The aim and several objectives have been prepared for further analysis of the issues. The part of linking with the objectives needs to illustrate in the analysis of the delayed construction. On the other hand, for better construction in Nigeria, several recommendations have to be suggested to enhance and evaluate the entire research topic. An effective suggestion can be helpful for the betterment of the construction in this sense. The conception and perception regarding the construction need to be flourished and addressed in this delayed construction. In this process, the part of the conclusion has been prepared to enhance the delayed construction and make the improvement in the construction sector in the country of Nigeria.

Linking with objectives

  • In this case the causes of the delayed construction have been generated with respect to Nigeria (Prasad et al. 2019). There are some causes have been seen such as financial difficulties of the constructors, deficiencies in scheduling and planning, delayed delivery of the materials, poor site management and supervision, deliberate changes of order, order and law, economy, political instability, inflation, supplier and subcontractor related causes, slow rate of decision making, delay in payment delivery, delay for the approvals and much more (Durdyev and Hosseini, 2020). Moreover, the poor weather condition, lack of design, cases of strikes and disputes, and physical obstruction have been also found as the causes of the delayed construction in this manner. con
  • In the building industry the role of clients and consultants has to be strong in terms of well communication and cooperation in the construction sector. One of the most significant reasons for late construction has been associated with poor communication levels (Viles et al. 2020). In this way, communication has to be illustrated and be strong among the clients and contractors to enhance the strategic development of the construction project (Hassan et al. 2019). On the other hand, a relationship among all the stakeholders needs to be developed for the improvement of the delayed construction in this field. In this process, self-interest would be increased (Khoso et al. 2019). Even, trust and honesty would also be demonstrated with a high level of communication.
  • The construction sector has been facing problems with cost-effectiveness and time-consuming matters (Dusso and Bayeh, 2020). This issue of cost-effectiveness has to be reduced for the development of the building construction. In this case, all the stakeholders like the government, suppliers, clients, developers, contractors, and planners need to help to reduce the cost of the construction (Abbas and Burhan, 2022). On the other hand, the assumption of the project needs to be set in terms of budget setting. In addition, the time would be reduced by creating the timer management planning during a construction project.

Recommendation

Minimization of cost and time

The construction industry has been facing the issues of increasing costs during construction. In this case to minimize the cost of the construction a budget needs to be set for the contractor (Anigbogu et al. 2019). This budget has played an effective role in the assumption of the cost of construction. In this way, the budget should be reduced to enhance the entire construction management (Safapour et al. 2021). On the other hand, time management has to be set up for the construction. The planning time should be 1 to 2 years for short construction, it should be 3 to 4 years for a big project (Prayuda et al. 2021). In this way, for small and big projects, planning time has been required in this field.

Increasing productivity

The construction sector has been facing less amount of productivity in this manner. For the entire development of the construction, time management and cost management need to be set for the construction (Igwe et al. 2022). More laborers need to join for speedy construction projects. The developer, planners, contractors, subcontractors, operators, and more stakeholders have to be joined for the entire improvement and development of the construction sector (Ogunnusi et al. 2021). In this way, productivity would be increasing in a large way which should be resulted in the growth of the revenue cost and the GDP would also be increased in this sense. [Referred to appendix 8]

Development of stakeholder relationship

Due to the lack of communication and cooperation among the stakeholders this industry has been facing delayed construction. In this case, the communication would be strong to enhance the building project (Daniel and Ibrahim, 2019). The government, developers, planners, contractors, subcontractors, and operators have been recognized as the stakeholders in the construction sector. The share of the amount has to be equal in this case (Tagod et al. 2021). Even most of the time lack of trust and mutual understating have been seen during the project. Trust and mutual understanding need to be Strong in a better sense (Momade et al. 2021). In this process, the decision-making power would be flourished and improved in the construction sector in the context of Nigeria.

Conclusion

The construction sector has several causes of delayed construction. Even the effect of the delayed construction has been heated in the entire research. The part linking with the objectives has been effective to generate knowledge and ideas for the improvement of the construction. On the other hand, several recommendations have been suggested to enhance and evaluate the entire research topic. An effective suggestion has played a crucial role in the betterment of the construction in this sense. The conception and perception regarding the construction need to be flourished and addressed in this delayed construction. With those suggestions, the stakeholder relationship would be developed. Productivity has to be increased in a large way. Moreover, the time and cost would also be reduced in the construction sector. In his process, the entire development and improvement of the construction would be generated a long way in this industry with respect of the country of Nigeria.

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