Human Body And Diseases Assignment Sample

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Introduction of The Human Body And Diseases Assignment

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Task 1: Role of antigens and antibodies in the immune system

  • Structure and functions of antibodies

Antibodies are recognised as immunoglobulin which looks like Y shaped structures and it is associated with two identical light chains (LC) and two identical heavy chains (HC) (Chiu et al. 2019). Heterodimer of LC and HC is associated with the disulphide bonds.

 Schematic presentation of Immunoglobulin G (a) and Immunoglobulin E (b)

(Source: Sutton et al. 2019)

Above figure indicates that LC has two social domains such as a constant domain and a variable domain (Sutton et al. 2019). Antibodies bind with foreign pathogens including toxins to ensure protection of the body and immune system.

  • Antigens

Antigens are recognised as large molecule proteins, which are identified on the surface of pathogens, and it induces immune responses for the body.

  • Production of antibodies

Antibody is produced from plasma cells and B cells. Antigen-specific T cell transfer signals to B cell and it binds with antigens, which mature and divide. Further, the differentiation of T helper cells enhances the production of antibodies (He et al. 2018).

  • Antigen presentation

Antigen Presenting cells including dendritic cells, macrophage and B cells are binding with T cells and it helps to induce innate and adaptive immunity (Gaudino, and Kumar, 2019). APC breaks protein into peptides and is identified in conjunction with class II MHC molecules.

  • Immune response

Antigen stimulates the immune responses, which allow the body to develop antibodies and protect the body from foreign particles including toxins.

Task 2: Principles of vaccination

  • Mechanisms of vaccination

In general, the principle of vaccines is to protect against foreign particles by copying their natural interaction with the immune system. Mechanism of vaccination is associated with immune response against foreign particles and immune responses of the body. The vaccine contains weakened parts of the virus, which help to accept the innate human responses. The weakened part does not develop the disease; rather it influences the immune system (Hasan and Ahmad, 2021).

The adaptive immune responses influence both B and T cells. T cell receptor recognizes antigens and it breaks into a small breakdown. While B cell Receptors Recognise d a whole antigen. It has to be mentioned here that T cells bind with Antigen-presenting cells (APC) to break down antigens into small fragments (Hasan and Ahmad, 2021). This section requires MHC to activate the T cell receptor. BCR activates Plasma cells, which help to produce antibodies and continue the work of vaccines.

  • Mass vaccination

Mass vaccination is a process of public programs to vaccinate a large number of people within a short period. In addition, mass vaccination programs allow a community to develop herd immunity. Mass vaccination is also important to scale up the entire vaccination (Dagan et al. 2021).

  • Evaluate the risks and benefits

In the context of mass vaccination, safety risk and specificity, risks have been identified. In the context of benefits, vaccines help to influence immune responses, which allow the body to develop antibodies. In the context of immunization, the program of vaccination played a significant role. Vaccination helps to improve immunity and protection of people against particular diseases (Hasan and Ahmad, 2021).

Task 3: Sites of cancer and the causes of cancer

  • Places (certain tissues or organs) that are more prone to get cancer

Epithelial tissue and connective tissue are one of the most common areas influenced by carcinogens. According to Nazari and Mukherjee, (2018), epithelial tissue and adipose tissue are identified in the breast, which is more prone to face the issue of cancer. In addition, sun-exposed skin, oesophagus, prostate and colon are the most common and vulnerable areas that face the issue of cancer. It has to be mentioned here that epithelial tissue or sun-exposed skin faced chemical and other radiation, which is one of the common causes of mutation (Vraga et al. 2018). This mutation may develop the carcinogen inside the body consequently it develops cancer.

  • Reasons for cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, smoking and tobacco, diet and physical activity, sun and other radiation and infections are common causes of cancer. In the context of sun exposure and radiation, X-ray or UV ray is one of the common radiations identified, which affect cell composition and lead to mutation. The mutation of inactive healthy cells is one of the common causes of cancer. In addition, damage of DNA is one of the common causes behind the issue of breast cancer (García-Aranda and Redondo, 2018). In terms of tobacco smoking, multiple radioactive materials have been used in tobacco to develop cigars and other materials that play a significant role in developing the issue of cancer. In an appropriate diet, tobacco smoking, consumption of alcohol is common causes identified with the issue of colon cancer. It has been identified that an appropriate diet is one of the common causes that develop the issue of diabetes and create a significant effect on cancer (Noto, 2018). This literature also claims that obesity, overweight and diabetes are common risk factors behind the issue of cancer.

  • Cell division cycle and mitosis

The eukaryotic cell cycle is associated with a series of steps including synthesis of DNA, which is recognised as the S phase, division of cells identified in M phase. In order to ensure the growth of cells during the intervening gap is recognised as the G1 phase. Further, identification of integrity is identified in the G2 phase.

 Cell division Cycle

(Source: Venuto and Merla, 2019)

The above figure indicates that the normal cell cycle is associated with Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) and its regulatory partners cyclins. Cell cycles require different types of cyclins, which helps to continue each phase of the cell cycle. In terms of G phase, the above figure indicates that CDK 4/6 and Cyclin D play a significant role (Venuto and Merla, 2019). In this phase, Cyclin E and CDK 2 are also associated which helps to continue the process of cell cycle. During the S phase, Cyclinand CDK 2 played an emerging role to ensure the entire cell cycle process.

During the different phases of the cell cycle, mitosis played an emerging role in developing the daughter cell. Venuto and Merla, (2019) stated that mitosis is a dedicated phase of the entire cell cycle, which helps to ensure genomic stability. It has been identified that in order to copy genetic material each chromosome must be differentiated into two daughter cells. Every daughter cell contains the exact copy of genetic materials.

Task 4: Structure and function of prokaryotic cells and their organelles

  • Bacteria

Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and other organelles including bacteria, blue-green algae and Achaea.

  • Organelles of prokaryotic cells

 Structure of prokaryotic cell

(Source: Maria, 2018)

The above figure indicates the structure and function of prokaryotic cells and their different organelles.

  • Bacterial Flagellum: Whip shaped structure called flagella, which is developed with protein. It helps to provide mortality to the cells (Kim and Gadd, 2019).
  • Pili: A small, hair shaped structure is identified in the surface of prokaryotic cells, which are recognised as pili. It has been identified that pili help to extend from the cell envelopes. Further, pili played a significant role in attaching to the surface.
  • Plasmid: The above diagram of prokaryotic cells indicates the presence of smaller circular DNA, which is recognised as a plasmid. It has been identified that plasmid helps to carry multiple non-essential genes, which may be cloned independently inside the cell (Kim and Gadd, 2019). For example, in the context of antibiotic resistance, the plasmid in prokaryotic cells played a significant role.
  • Ribosome: Ribosomes look like tiny spherical shapes, which are associated with protein and amino acids. The role of the ribosome is to transfer messenger RNA to protein with the aid of tRNA. Prokaryotes have 70S ribosomes, where these ribosomes are associated with 50S and 30S subunits.
  • Cytoplasm:Cytoplasm is a gel-like fluid, which is identified inside the cells. It has been identified that cytoplasm helps in cell growth, expansion of cell and replication of cell (Kim and Gadd, 2019).
  • Plasma membrane: Plasma membrane helps to separate cytoplasm from the outside environment.

Task 5: Links between the overuse of antibiotics and bacterial resistance to antibiotics

  • Antibiotics

The other name of antibiotics is antibacterial. In the 20th century, antibiotics were first introduced for clinical use, which has a significant effect on medical grounds. It has a range of powerful drugs, which are used to treat or slow down bacterial growth (Hutchings et al. 2019). In contrast, Kovalakova et al. (2020) argued that antibiotics might be synthetic, semi-synthetic and natural compounds, which have the ability to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Antibiotics are associated with antibactericidal, antifungal and antiparasitic activities. Hereby focusing on the above discussion it can be stated that the crucial role of antibiotics is to inhibit the growth of microorganisms.

  • Plasmids

Antibiotic-resistant infection is one of the common and most crucial issues because it is increasing the rate of mortality in clinical aspects. The bacterial plasmid played a significant role in the spread of antibiotics resistant genes. Two particular routes played significant roles in developing antibiotics resistant microbes. Genetic elements including plasmid through gene transfer and mutation in chromosomes are routes of developing ARBs (San Millan, 2018).

  • Antibiotic resistance genes, Plasmids and conjugation

Antibiotic resistant mechanisms can be classified into four different groups such as limited consumption of the drug, drug inactivation, and alteration of drug target and efflux of a drug (Reygaert, 2018). Antibiotic Resistance genes (ARGs) are usually identified in a plasmid, which can be transferred from one cell to another through the process of transduction, conjugation (Jin et al. 2020). The rapid process of gene transfer among bacterial populations creates significant resistant bacteria and affects their growth.

Task 6: Function of the heart and associated vessels

The main function of the heart is to pump blood and it continues this operation to maintain heart rate and blood pressure. Associated vessels with the heart are ascending aorta, inferior vena cava, pulmonary veins, pulmonary trunk and superior vena cava. The ascending aorta is the start of large blood vessels, which helps to bring oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the rest of the aorta. Inferior vena cava is another associated vessel of the heart, which helps to carry blood into the abdominopelvic region from the lower limb (Barac et al. 2019). The pulmonary veins played the exact opposite role of pulmonary arteries, which help to bring oxygenated blood into the heart from the lungs. The pulmonary trunk played another significant role to carry carbon dioxide donating blood into the lungs. It has to be mentioned here that it specifically carries the right ventricles of the lungs. Superior vena cava helps to carry blood from chest, neck and head.

Task 7: Medical and surgical treatments available for coronary heart disease

  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)

CABG is one of the common surgical methods to control the issue of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). This method helps to divert blood into the major parts of the heart, which helps to improve supply of oxygen and blood flow (, 2021).

  • Cholesterol-modifying medications

Cholesterol-lowering medication including Atorvastatin, Lovastatin, Pravastatin may be followed by CKD patients which helps to reduce bad cholesterol and the issue of CHD.

  • Aspirin

In the context of abnormal heartbeat, Aspirin helps to reduce blood clots, which plays a significant role in controlling CHD.

  • Beta-blockers

Beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors help in increasing the filling time of diastolic and decrease cardiac contractility, In addition, beta-blockers help to reduce the demand for oxygen and control; heart rate (Sorbets et al. 2019).

  • Calcium channel blockers

Calcium channel blockers prevent calcium from entering the cell of the heart. It has to be mentioned that calcium entered into the cell and created CHD. In this aspect, calcium channel blockers help to reduce the issue of CHD.

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

ACE helps to inhibit the secretion of angiotensin II hormones, which helps to control the issue of CHD. It has to be mentioned here that secretion of angiotensin II hormones narrows the blood vessels of the heart and develop the issue of CHD.

  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

ARBs help to reduce the chemical secretion inside the body, which may narrow down the blood vessel and develop CHD.

Reference list


Kim, B.H. and Gadd, G.M., 2019. Prokaryotic metabolism and physiology. Cambridge University Press.


Barac, Y.D., Megna, D.J., Castleberry, A.W., Schroder, J.N., Daneshmand, M.A., Rogers, J.G., Patel, C.B., Podgoreanu, M. and Milano, C.A., 2019. Transplanting a heart with a persistent left superior vena cava. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery157(2), pp.630-631.

Chiu, M.L., Goulet, D.R., Teplyakov, A. and Gilliland, G.L., 2019. Antibody structure and function: the basis for engineering therapeutics. Antibodies8(4), p.55.

Dagan, N., Barda, N., Kepten, E., Miron, O., Perchik, S., Katz, M.A., Hernán, M.A., Lipsitch, M., Reis, B. and Balicer, R.D., 2021. BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine in a nationwide mass vaccination setting. New England Journal of Medicine.

García-Aranda, M. and Redondo, M., 2019. Immunotherapy: a challenge of breast cancer treatment. Cancers11(12), p.1822.

Gaudino, S.J. and Kumar, P., 2019. Cross-talk between antigen presenting cells and T cells impacts intestinal homeostasis, bacterial infections, and tumorigenesis. Frontiers in immunology10, p.360.

Hasan, M.Y. and Ahmad, R., 2021. Understanding vaccination in the era of pandemic. International Journal of Health Sciences15(6), p.1.

He, L., Gu, W., Wang, M., Chang, X., Sun, X., Zhang, Y., Lin, X., Yan, C., Fan, W., Su, P. and Wang, Y., 2018. Extracellular matrix protein 1 promotes follicular helper T cell differentiation and antibody production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115(34), pp.8621-8626.

Hu, W., Tong, J., Kuang, X., Chen, W. and Liu, Z., 2018. Influence of proton pump inhibitors on clinical outcomes in coronary heart disease patients receiving aspirin and clopidogrel: a meta-analysis. Medicine97(3).

Hutchings, M.I., Truman, A.W. and Wilkinson, B., 2019. Antibiotics: past, present and future. Current opinion in microbiology51, pp.72-80.

Jin, M., Liu, L., Wang, D.N., Yang, D., Liu, W.L., Yin, J., Yang, Z.W., Wang, H.R., Qiu, Z.G., Shen, Z.Q. and Shi, D.Y., 2020. Chlorine disinfection promotes the exchange of antibiotic resistance genes across bacterial genera by natural transformation. The ISME journal14(7), pp.1847-1856.

Kovalakova, P., Cizmas, L., McDonald, T.J., Marsalek, B., Feng, M. and Sharma, V.K., 2020. Occurrence and toxicity of antibiotics in the aquatic environment: A review. Chemosphere251, p.126351.

Maria, G., 2018. In-silico design of Genetic Modified Micro-organisms (GMO) of industrial use, by using Systems Biology and (Bio) Chemical Engineering tools. Juniper Publ.

Nazari, S.S. and Mukherjee, P., 2018. An overview of mammographic density and its association with breast cancer. Breast cancer25(3), pp.259-267.

Noto, H., 2018. Unfolding link between diabetes and cancer. Journal of Diabetes Investigation9(3), p.473.

Reygaert, W.C., 2018. An overview of the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of bacteria. AIMS microbiology4(3), p.482.

San Millan, A., 2018. Evolution of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance in the clinical context. Trends in microbiology26(12), pp.978-985.

Sorbets, E., Steg, P.G., Young, R., Danchin, N., Greenlaw, N., Ford, I., Tendera, M., Ferrari, R., Merkely, B., Parkhomenko, A. and Reid, C., 2019. β-blockers, calcium antagonists, and mortality in stable coronary artery disease: an international cohort study. European Heart Journal40(18), pp.1399-1407.

Sutton, B.J., Davies, A.M., Bax, H.J. and Karagiannis, S.N., 2019. IgE antibodies: from structure to function and clinical translation. Antibodies8(1), p.19.

Venuto, S. and Merla, G., 2019. E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM proteins, cell cycle and mitosis. Cells8(5), p.510.

Vraga, E.K., Stefanidis, A., Lamprianidis, G., Croitoru, A., Crooks, A.T., Delamater, P.L., Pfoser, D., Radzikowski, J.R. and Jacobsen, K.H., 2018. Cancer and social media: A comparison of traffic about breast cancer, prostate cancer, and other reproductive cancers on Twitter and Instagram. Journal of health communication23(2), pp.181-189.

Websites, 2021. Coronary artery bypass graft. Avsailable form:,oxygen%20supply%20to%20the%20heart. [Accessed 22/03/2022]


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