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Cell Culture And Antibody Technology Assignment

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Introduction

Cell culture is a process in which cells from a plant or animal are removed and subsequently grow in an artificial favorable environment. For this process, the cell can be removed directly from tissue and multiplied under specific conditions until it occupies all the substrate. Cell culture is a major tool to study biochemistry and physiology of the cell and the effect of drugs in the cell. Antibody technology is the production of identical antibodies on industrial yields or large scale. Antibodies are very important tools that are used to diagnose disease, biomedical research, treatment of different diseases that are infectious, and cancer. Tyrosine kinase receptor named the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is up regulated in cancer. There are different mechanisms incorporated in this up regulation activity of EGFR which include common truncations and mutations of the extracellular domain. All this process is a very important tool for modern biomedical research which gives hope for the treatment of various critical diseases. Monoclonal antibodies used in the EGFR for the therapy of cancer are discussed in this essay.

Discussion

The use of antibody-based approach to study the EGFR signaling mechanism

The survival and proliferation of the cancer cell is dependent on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This receptor plays an important role in the transduction pathways in cancerous as well as in normal cells. Different varieties of tumors in the human body including neck, head, breast, colorectal, lung, kidney, prostate, ovary, and pancreas, bladder, and brain cancer are over-expressed by EGFR. The inhibition of the EGFR function has been successfully used by two pharmacological approaches in the treatment of cancer. These are small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are developed first against EGFR for cancer therapy. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies are bound to the domain in the inactive extracellular of EGFR. LIgand-binding region is occluded by the receptor binding for the competitions and then blocks the activation of ligand-induced EGFR tyrosine kinase. EGF increases the growth factor of vascular endothelial in the human body, which results in the increase of angiogenesis. To date three are two monoclonal antibodies of anti-EGFR, Cetuximab, and Panitumumab, which are used widely in the treatment of cancer.

An immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 transcript of murine mAb M225 is Cetuximab (C225, ErbituxTM). The first trial stage of Cetuximab demonstrated that the Cetuximab is safe anole or in combination with the cytotoxic chemotherapy which is used in the treatment of cancer in the neck and head, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Cetuximab plays an important role in the treatment of carcinoma of squamous-cell of the neck and head cancer which is platinum-resistant or in chemotherapy.

A human IgG2 targeting mAb in the extracellular region of EGFR is Panitumumab. Panitumumab is developed by the technology of Abgenix’s XenoMouse. This technology creates an antibody that does not contain murine proteins. An effective high-affinity therapy is offered by Panitumumab and it also provides minimal allergic reactions. It toxically affects the dermatological system and it does not reach grade 4 in the trials. The reason is its structure as it is a human antibody, minimal reactions related to infusion. Panitumumab can be administered every week, within a fortnight, or every three weeks without any visible changes in the parameters of pharmacokinetics.

Nowadays this has been shown as an anti-tumoral effect of a monoclonal antibody or mAb. On the basis of the ability, it created an act on the human’s immune system. On the other way, immune responses that create chimeric antibodies to specify the molecule lead towards the destruction of the tumoral cells. As per the report, invivo and invitro both antibodies elicit the dependent cellular cytotoxicity. That affects the responses that are created to the binding portion of the antibody. That can express the discriminating difference of the specific cell types. That depends on the mast cells and eosinophils. On the basis of that, it created a complex mechanism to bind several receptors that are used as natural killers and Langerhans and also platelets. Therefore, it can be noted as a B-cell, macrophages, natural killer cells, neutrophils, platelets, and other types of cells. There will be receptors called Fc receptors that can create effects on the natural killers. Also, all types of bindings that lead to an array get an effect on the killing uptake. That is also called legation. These things can create an effect on the monoclonal antibody to build up the immune system. These are two types of therapy to build up the immune system. The monoclonal antibody and the epidermal growth factors receptors can be expressed to the T cells that can be activated as per the recognition of the trogocytosis. It can be a part of the antigen-presenting cell that emerges from the Fc receptor.

Advantages of the antibody-based approach

Antibodies are very important tools that are used to diagnose disease, biomedical research, treatment of different diseases that are infectious, and cancer. Identical antibodies are produces on industrial yields or large scale through the antibody-based approaches. Through this approach, different medication processes can be achieved. Antibody-based drugs have very few adverse effects as compared to non-antibody-based drugs. An effective high-affinity therapy is offered by antibody-based approaches and it also provides minimal allergic reactions. It toxically affects the dermatological system and it does not reach grade 4 in the trials. The reason is its structure as it is a human antibody, minimal reactions related to infusion.

Limitation of the antibody-based approach

The mAb based treatments approach has limitations which restrict its widespread therapeutics use. These are:

  • Cost of the production: the treatment of disease based on the antibody based approach is huge, which is only affordable for limited people.
  • Tissue penetration versus pharmacokinetics: mAb directed against antigen which are tumor-specific and it is remain in the blood cell in huge amount. And about 20 percent of the administrated doses are interacting with the tumor, which are the major limitations of this approach.
  • Mode of action: mAb antibodies have different mode of in vitro action and when actual action mode are injected in the patient’s body it is not clear.  

Conclusion

Cell culture and antibody technology have widespread use in the modern biomedical study. It is largely used in the different study biochemistry and physiology of the cell and the effect of drugs in the cell and it give hope for the treatment of various critical diseases specially the treatment of cancer. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the transduction pathways in cancerous as well as in normal cells. Different varieties of tumors in the human body including neck, head, breast, colorectal, lung, kidney, prostate, ovary, and pancreas, bladder, and brain cancer are over-expressed by EGFR. Through the antibody-based approach, different medication processes can be achieved. Antibody-based drugs have very few adverse effects as compared to non-antibody-based drugs. And the same time it has many limitations.

References

Journals

Canfarotta, F., Lezina, L., Guerreiro, A., Czulak, J., Petukhov, A., Daks, A., Smolinska-Kempisty, K., Poma, A., Piletsky, S. and Barlev, N.A., 2018. Specific drug delivery to cancer cells with double-imprinted nanoparticles against epidermal growth factor receptor. Nano letters18(8), pp.4641-4646.

Dhara, V.G., Naik, H.M., Majewska, N.I. and Betenbaugh, M.J., 2018. Recombinant antibody production in CHO and NS0 cells: differences and similarities. BioDrugs32(6), pp.571-584.

Iqbal, M.N., Ashraf, A., Ling, S. and Wang, S., 2018. In vitro improved production of monoclonal antibody against zearalenone in supplemented cell culture media. PSM Biological Research3(3), pp.106-110.

Paul, M. and Weller, M.G., 2020. Antibody Screening by Microarray Technology—Direct Identification of Selective High-Affinity Clones. Antibodies9(1), p.1.

Salehnia, Z., Shahbazi-Gahrouei, D., Akbarzadeh, A., Baradaran, B., Farajnia, S. and Naghibi, M., 2019. Synthesis and characterisation of iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody as MRI contrast agent for cancer detection. IET nanobiotechnology13(4), pp.400-406.

Wu, Y.L., Zhang, L., Kim, D.W., Liu, X., Lee, D.H., Yang, J.C.H., Ahn, M.J., Vansteenkiste, J.F., Su, W.C., Felip, E. and Chia, V., 2018. Phase Ib/II study of capmatinib (INC280) plus gefitinib after failure of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy in patients with EGFR-mutated, MET factor-dysregulated non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology36(31), pp.3101-+.

Yamaoka, T., Ohba, M. and Ohmori, T., 2017. Molecular-targeted therapies for epidermal growth factor receptor and its resistance mechanisms. International journal of molecular sciences18(11), p.2420.

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