Introduction of Human Reproduction And Health-Related Issues Assignment
1. Structure of male reproductive system
Male reproductive system
Get free written samples by subject experts and Assignment Writing Service UK.
Male reproductive system can be categorised into sections, internal and external. Major portion of male reproductive system is located in the external body, such as penis, scrotum, testical and epidydimis. On the other hand internal organs are ejaculatory ducts, prostate gland, VAS deferens, bulbourethral glands, urethra, seminal vesicles, and. Penis is masculin organ for sexual intercourse, which are consisting with three parts, such as root which conducting the attachment of penis with the wall of abdomen. Shaft is like a tube or cylindrical portion of penis consisting of three internal sections. Those sections have a special kind of tissue termed erectile tissues, filled with blood during the intercourse. When the tissues are filled with blood the penis becomes rigid and elastic.
External reproductive organs
(Source: Magro-Lopez, 2021)
Glans of penis is also considered as the head of penius, is a cone-like structure covered with foreskin, which got removed in the process of circumcision.The introduction of urethra permits the transportation of urine and semen out from the body. The scrotum is a sac-like structure that hangs right behind the penis. It carries the testicles. The structure acts as a protective mechanism of testicles as well as maintaining a temperature in between 33 degree to 35degree celsius which is below body temperature, suitable for sperm production and development. Scrotum also prevents the intercollision of testicles as well as holds these tightly and relaxes (Magro-Lopez, 2021). Epididymis is a long coiling structure placed on the backside of each testicle. It carries as well as stores sperm cells until the maturation of sperm cells. Vas-deferens allows the transportation of urine and sperm looks like a muscular tube. Urethra is a tube-like structure that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. Seminal vesicles are enriched with fructose, providing energy to the sperms that can be compared as sac pouches.
2. Structure of Female reproductive system
Female reproductive system
(Source: Mbelle et. al. 2018)
The female reproductive system can be distinguished into two categories, external and internal. The working procedure of the female reproductive system is based on two factors that enable sperms to enter into the body as well as to safeguard the gential organs and also safe from infections. The external organs are, labia majora working as a protective layer and protecting external reproductive organs. Labia minora, situated right after the labia majora and next to the introductory of vagina. Bartholin glands are placed next to the introduction of vagina and secrete a fluid, which prevents contraction during intercource. The internal organs are, vagina, connect in the cervix which stated outside of the body, it is also known as the birth canal. Uterus plays a crucial role in foetus development and looks like a hollow as well as pear shaped organ . It has two parts, cervix and corpus (Mbelle et. al. 2018). Sperms are allowed to get in the body through the cervix and also menstrual blood exists in this way. Ovaries are oval shaped small glands placed on both sides of the uterus, responsible for producing ovum and secret hormones. Fallopian tubes are interconnected with the sigma portion of the uterus, responsible for transporting ovums from the ovaries.
3. Error factors of Meiosis and Mitosis
Maternal meiotic error
(Source: Leisegang et. al. 2018)
Errors can be found due to extra presence or absence of chromosomes during the stage of meiosis and mitosis. The errors are generally observed due to genetic disorder as well as during the pairing event of chromosomes after the fusion of different gammets. More specifically, it is the result of chromosomal miss abbreviation, non junctions, duplication and deletion causes error of meiosis and mitosis events (Leisegang et. al. 2018). Non junction formed during the events of meiosis and I or II, when homologous chromosomes failed to separate from each other. This error becomes the reason for Down syndrome in humans. Same error factors are also found in mitosis events due to excess production or less production of daughter cells.
4. Fertilisation, implantation, pregnancy and childbirth
(Source: Jing et. al. 2020)
Fertilisation takes place after fusion of male and female gametes and implanted in the uterus for further development. The sperm travels through the fallopian tube and penetrates the protective layer of ovum, which is termed as zona pellucida and fuses ovum to form zygote, which takes place in the uterus of the female body (Jing et. al. 2020). Implantation is the next step of fertilisation. The fertilised egg travels down through the fallopian tube, with the events of cell division, converting the egg into multiple cells and next to organs, tissues and soon a body. Pregnancy is the time when offspring develop in women’s womb. This stage is also known as gestation. Child-birth is the last stage of pregnancy in which the baby comes out by vaginal tract or by caesarean method.
(source: Jing et. al. 2020)
During fertilisation, ectopic pregnancy is considered a complication. It occurs when embryos get implanted outside of the uterus (Jing et. al. 2020). Miscarriage can be found after implantation. Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy within 20 weeks. In the stage of pregnancy and childbirth, mothers can face high blood pressure issues due to narrowing the placenta.
5. Pros and cons of male and female condoms
Pros of male condoms are, proper use of it can resist several STDs, such as AIDS, HIV, gonorrhoea. Male condoms are cheaper and can be found easily. It is also effective to resists pregnancy and sex transmitted disease, which is a great advantage of this. These condoms come with various flavours and sizes. In general there is no medical side effect on using. No need for advance preparation and suitable for unplanned sexs. Also several concs are there such as, condoms are generally made from latex, people who have latex allergy. They may suffer from skin irritation during the use of condoms (Gov.UK, 2022). In general condoms are very strong, but they may tear or damage if not properly handled.
On other hand, female condoms help both partners to get protection from STIs and pregnancy, women can use it as contraception which is a pro of female condoms. It also has several cons, such as it is not available widely as compared to male condoms. This can split or tear out if not use properly and causes STIs as well as pregnancy. Another disadvantage is that the inner ring of female condoms causes discomfort during intercourse. It also causes several infections in female urinary tracts.
6. Issues faced due to misdiagnosis of Chlamydia by NHS
Mycoplasma genitalium is a bacterial infection which gets secually transmitted from one individual to another individual. Genitalium infection is an iniquities cause and the prevailing rates are quite high. It is considered as a sexually transmitted disease. Some challenges that are faced due to misdiagnosis of chlamydia leads to death of an individual. Individuals suffering from the rise of Mycoplasma genitalium often seem to suffer from cancerous cells and tumours. Currently there is no FDA approved test for Mycoplasma genitalium. In order to mitigate the challenges various samples of vaginal, cervical swabs, uterine and endometrial biopsies are carried out. It is absolutely possible to be misdiagnosed with chlamydia and the concerns are related to different infections in the body (Mbelle et. al. 2018). It is a public health issue. The challenges faced by this are diseases in the pelvic girdle. There are poor reproductive processes and outcomes. Mainly women face problems related to unappreciated diagnosis of chlamydia. The biggest challenge that is faced by misdiagnosis in chlamydia is the rate of infertility. The symptoms are various infections that obstruct the fallopian tubes and probably the woman turns out to be infertile. Individuals having chlamydia trachomatis suffer from reactive arthritis. This is also known as reiter's syndrome. Having unprotected sex as in intercourse often leads to this disease that is the reason using proper protection is necessary while intercourse for individual safety. This is the genetic rise of the Mycoplasma genitalium.
7. Issues of IVF
(Source: Crncec and Hochegger, 2019)
The issues in the provision of in vitro fertilisation as in IVF in the United kingdom have different side effects. The medicines that are used during the treatment cause different side effects in the body. Many individuals in the United Kingdom have been facing these problems. The hot flushes as well as headaches are some problems that are faced by individuals. The criteria of multiple birth takes place, this turns out to be problematic for both the mother and the child. Another risk as a side effect of in vitro fertilisation is the ectopic pregnancy. This is a situation where the embryo implants itself in the fallopian tube. It does not settle down in the womb, rather it settles in the fallopian tube. There are some UK laws that got enacted against in vitro fertilisation.the legislation of the UK probably limits the number of embryos that are allowed to get transferred for in vitro fertilisation treatment. This happens where there are two embryos and number three if the patient is over the age of 45. The freezing of embryos is highly permissible in the UK. It has a time allotment of 10 years.
Crncec, A. and Hochegger, H., 2019. Triggering mitosis. FEBS letters, 593(20), pp.2868-2888.
He, Y., Wang, J., Ren, J., Zhao, Y., Chen, J. and Chen, X., 2021. Effect of COVID-19 on male reproductive system–a systematic review. Frontiers in endocrinology, 12, p.677701.
Jing, Y., Run-Qian, L., Hao-Ran, W., Hao-Ran, C., Ya-Bin, L., Yang, G. and Fei, C., 2020. The potential influence of COVID-19/ACE2 on the female reproductive system. Molecular human reproduction, 26(6), pp.367-373.
Leisegang, K., Henkel, R. and Agarwal, A., 2019. Obesity and metabolic syndrome associated with systemic inflammation and the impact on the male reproductive system. American journal of reproductive immunology, 82(5), p.e13178.
Mbelle, N., Mabaso, M., Chauke, T., Sigida, S., Naidoo, D. and Sifunda, S., 2018. Perception and attitudes about male and female condom use amongst university and technical and vocational education and training (TVET) college students in South Africa: a qualitative enquiry of the 2014 higher education and training HIV/AIDS (HEAIDS) programme first things first campaign. Journal for HIV and AIDS, 4(1), p.031.
Magro-Lopez, E. and Muñoz-Fernández, M.Á., 2021. The Role of BMP Signaling in Female Reproductive System Development and Function. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(21), p.11927.
Gov.UK, 2022. Welcome to the government of UK. Available at: https://www.gov.co.uk/ [Accessed on 22nd March]