The Impact Of Hiv Aids On Children In Uganda, Nigeria, And Eswatini

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children in Uganda, Nigeria, and Eswatini

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Introduction: The Impact Of Hiv Aids On Children In Uganda, Nigeria, And Eswatini

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Chapter 1: IntroductionA Quantitative Or Qualitative Or Mixed Systematic Review Examing The Impact Of Hiv Aids On Children In Uganda, Nigeria, And Eswatini

Improper maintenance in the healthcare sector of those countries leads to the spread of HIV in the community process because they are not aware of proper instructions such as sharing needles. Sharing needles is responsible for creating connections with infected blood between mother to child during childbirth, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, which is responsible for increasing the death rate and expansion of HIV in Uganda, Nigeria and Eswatini. Furthermore, lack of education among community people plays a significant role in expanding this chronic disease during sexual contact and illicit injection.


This research aims to identify significant reasons for the increasing number of children dying due to HIVfor accessing a useful, solution for preventing death and the spread of HIV in Uganda, Nigeria and Eswatini.


  • "To identify theimpact of HIV on children and adolescents in Uganda, Eswatini and Nigeria"
  • "To assess thecomparative percentage of children affected by HIV in Nigeria, Uganda, and Eswatini"
  • "To analyse the factors that are causing HIV in children and adolescents in Nigeria, Uganda, and Eswatini"
  • "To suggest the efficiencyand existence of screening processes in the respective countries to trace HIV in children and adolescents"
  • "To evaluatesteps that have been taken by the governments of the respective countries to prevent HIV"


This research has proposing to analyse the increasing rate of children dying due to the spread of HIV in Uganda, Nigeria and Eswatini for analysing the significant reason for the increasing infection rate of HIV among community peoples that will contribute to providing astrategic and useful healthcare awareness system to minimise issues of HIV effectively. In this aspect, the evaluation ofsignificant curable treatment processes for HIV for encouraging healthy communitiesin Uganda, Nigeria and Eswatini is the main objective and focus of this research process.

1.2. Background:

According to a statistical report regarding the spread of HIV and the death rate in worldwide 2020, South Africa is facing the highest range of issues comparing other continents. In this aspect, Eswatini has placed the first position due to the increasing death rate of children for "acquired immune deficiency syndrome" which is a significant reason to conduct research regarding HIV and its effects in Eswatini. Moreover, "life-saving antiretroviral therapy treatment (ART) " is unable to access by Uganda, Eswatini, as well as Nigeria, regarding recent statistical "AIDS-related deaths" report worldwide. The current estimation revealed that nearly 680,000 people died due to "acquired immune deficiency syndrome" in 2020 (, 2021). Current research signifies an increasing HIV rate in Nigeria nearly 1.9 million among children up to 14 years. (, 2022). Those factors are specifies an increasing rate of issues regarding HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, Uganda and Eswatini which is a significant reason for conducting this research and reaching an empirical finding to minimise these issues for establishing health and well-being effectively.

The inaccessibility of "life-saving antiretroviral therapy treatment (ART)” is a significant reason for the spreading death rate and issues regarding HIV without any curable prevention and treatments (, 2022). The affecting infrastructure of the healthcare system due to COVID-19 plays a crucial role in increasing the death rate due to HIV because changing infrastructure is less associated with a lack of accessing proper treatments for HIV-affected patients and increasing the cost of healthcare. Apart from that, it can be stated that the increasing rate of the COVID-19 pandemic situation creates a vital impact on its healthcare sector as well as a treatment process of HIV affec6ed patients that leads to an increasing death rate with a high rate of expansion.

The low rate of accessibility for childcare and preventive treatment for children is based on the low rate of parents concerned that involves adequate education and parental awareness. Due to governmental concerns about the health, and condition of child government has amended care treatments for 0 to 9 years old children. This rate is poor due to a lack of healthcare infrastructure as well as the inaccessibility of "life-saving antiretroviral therapy treatment (ART) ". This disproportionate rate in adolescent girls has increased which is responsible for enhancing the affecting rate of HIV in Uganda, Eswatini and Nigeria. The increasing adolescent rate is associated with a lack of proper nutrition and awareness about diet and food consumption as well as healthcare-related concepts that are responsible for affecting immunity powers and increasing the death rate of AIDS. Concerning that factor, governments have to encourage healthcare education among community people to create awareness regarding HIV such as avoiding sharing needles, being protective during sexual interaction as well as avoiding contracting infectious blood.

1.3 Research question

A research question is concerned to provide a systematic data analysis process by delivering specific requirements and key aspects. specifies requirements and key aspects help to conduct research such as the main reasons for an increased rate of children dying due to the spread of HIV, the importance of healthcare awareness systems to minimise issues of HIV as well as significant curable treatment processes for HIV for encouraging healthy communities in Uganda, Nigeria and Eswatini. Following the research question to conducting, a systematic review helps to reach empirical findings with a significant recommendation process. Therefore, the research question can be recognised as a key component of the systematic review and data analysis process for conducting research and achieving effective outcomes.

Research questions

  • “What is the impact of HIV on children and adolescents in Uganda, Eswatini and Nigeria?”
  • “What is the comparative percentage of children affected by HIV in Nigeria, Uganda, and Eswatini?”
  • “What are the factors that are causing HIV in children and adolescents in Nigeria, Uganda, and Eswatini?”
  • “What is the efficiency and existence of screening processes in the respective countries to trace HIV in children and adolescents?”
  • “What are the steps that have been taken by the governments of the respective countries to prevent HIV?”

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The study explains the HIV impact on developing countries' adolescents and children. Mainly this HIV disease affects 1-19 children,but this literature discussed and identifies the average groups, affected by this HIV disease. This review of literature is discussed the developing countries' HIV affects types, and factors and identifies the studies' research gaps. This part is determining the critical data and information about the HIV disease's impact on Adolescents and children.

2.2 HIV Impact on Developing country

According to O'Brien (2019),HIV impacts and challenges lead to behaviouralandemotional transformations in children, action as delinquency and depression. In this rural area, children warded to health centres and hospital clinics with bacteremia”, has no distinction in the organisms infecting theHIV-uninfected and infected children, while the ratio of infections was two- to sixfold”more prominent among many children infected with HIV disease. Children could be contaminated with HIV diseases via mother to children; it is transmitted and contaminated through blood transmission and sexual abuse or medical equipment.

According toBekker (2018),HIV diseases badly affect the current developing countries' Child groups, this disease has no proper therapy and medication, and this disease the controlled through maintaining hygiene. The mothers and medical elements affect mainly children, and sometimes children face sexual abuse, which is one of the reasons for HIV infection.

2.2.1 HIV Impact on Nigeria

According toOladele (2020),in this current situation explain HIV disease infection is increasing the children and adolescents. This country is facing the highest ratio mortality rate, and this country's bad health care policy is affected the county's health condition. Children's nutritious status is very poor and their health condition is very bad.Around 5% of adults are affected by HIV disease,as per the public study county children mortality rate increase for the HIV infection, and also this disease is the transmitted mother to children and the child abuse. HIV and AIDS affected the households and 35% affect the ARVs in the total population, the poor health management policy is the reason for the increase in the child mortality rate.

2.2.2 Impact of HIV on Uganda

According toKirenga (2018),this county's population rate is too high, are this county's health infrastructure is bad, the bad health management and or nutrition affected the children and the adolescent's health immunity systems. This case study demonstrates that about 1.5 million persons have been affected by HIV disease. In this country, HIV infection's main reason is heterosexual transmission and 10% of infections are spread from the mother to children during this pregnancy time.

2.2.3 HIV Impact onEswatini

Teasdale (2022), according to this study, HIV mainly impact Adults and children, in 2021. According to WHO, the country's health condition is very poor; this poor health management is badly impacting the country's population. Its effect children's behavioural health conditions,country 94 %, of 15- 17 years patients suffer from HIV and this disease has mainly affected mothers and adolescent girls. The poor health condition and viral treatments poorly influences country's health condition and also increases the country's child mortality rate. The infected patients are mainly 15-24 age women, the main reason for the infection is unprotected sexual intercourse and the use of infected medical types of equipment, it increasing the country's mortality rate and badly impaction on the county's health infrastructure.

2.3 Impact on children

This challenge is affect the children's behavioural and emotional acceptance, which increases the country's mortality rate and the children's health. In this epidemic situation, 17 million children have been affected by in diseases the African country (Wedderburn et al. 2019). The poor health condition and the bad educational systems badly impact the children's health and mental condition. 40% of women are suffered e from HIV and AIDS, and school-going girls and boys are also effective by HIV, HIV affects children's education life, and infected children are not going the school, which is hampering their education life. HIV is effected children growth and neurodevelopment and also is effected early growth and development and late childhood, it hampers the children's life and health.

2.3.1 Types of impacts

HIV badly impact child and adolescent health and mental condition,this HIV spread through unhealthy lifestyle, sharing medical needles, transfusions of blood and during delivery and pregnancy. It affects mental and behavioural health conditions (Bourgeois et al. 2019). It affects the internal body cells and the infected body cannot fight against the foreign particles and the person's immunity systems also do not work properly. Its spread by certain body fluids and also attacks the person's body's immunity systems. It destroys the infected person's immune cells n ad the body's immunity mechanism cannot work properly and cannot fight against any infection or disease.HIV OR AIDS affected the currently developing county's social and environmental systems. It badly affects the county's health condition, increased the country's mortality rate and effete the population of the nation and demographical situation (Felker-Kantor et al. 2019). Their effect on the country's infrastructure, these reasons contains poor education systems, poverty, stigma, gender inequality and discrimination,and It also affects the geographical factors and the county populations.

2.3.2 Factors

Different types of factors influence the HIV disease, mainly the country's poor health condition and bad educational systems are influences the HIV-related factors. Various types of risk factors are affecting children and adolescents and increasing the country's mortality rate. Unprotected sexual intercourse, needle sharing, early marriage, unhygienic and poor society and blood transfusion are increased HIV infection in society (Kim et al. 2018). Various types of sexually contaminated diseases and infected medical equipment are increasing and influence HIV factors. The poor health condition infected the pregnant mother and the infected mother and some of the childhood abuse affect children. Early marriage and unprotected sex spread the infection easily, and the infected mother spread the infection to the newborn baby. This increases the court mortality rate and badly influences the social and health factors in the country.

2.4 Research gap

This research determines the gaps, such as improved poor health conditions in the county and HIV prevention methods; this research does not mention the current situation of HIV morbidity and mortality rate in the county demography. Research does not properly mention the country's current health condition, clarify the HIVincreased rate and ratio and the unawareness around the rural nation. It is explaining the urban, developing country suffering conditions, and the reason for HIV infection in children and adolescentgroups.

Chapter 3 Research design

3.1 Theoretical basis

The methodology chapter is concerned with highlighting key techniques and strategies for conducting a research process that includes identifying data sources and data types well as the data sampling process to conduct research successfully and reach empirical findings. Quantitative research is concerned with dealing with numerical data that involve numbers and statistical data. On the other hand, qualitative research focuses on dealing with words and meanings concerning developments of verbal understanding relevant to aims and objectives. Quantitative methods help to measure variables concerning analysis and test hypotheses systematically that emphasises evaluating collected information and numerical data to reach findings with an effective calculation process. In contrast, using qualitative methods helps to explore experiences and concepts in depth during the data analysis process. Apart from that, it can be stated that quantitative studies are based on numerical or measurable data. In another aspect, qualitative studies are based on developing documents and illustrating verbal concepts regarding people's perspectives and viewpoints. According to Stiglic & Viner (2019) using effective substantiation during data collection regarding health workers and patients have to analyse experimental factors.

Health-related information is important for conducting "bare data collection styles" that are associated with conducting a systematic review to reach a conclusive point of being a witness of unborn possibilities. This systematic research is concerned to develop verbal concepts with statistical information that can be recognised as a qualitative data collection method. Understanding the demographic factors in this systematic review helps to analyse the possible percentage of patients in urban or rural areas (Mehta & Pandit, 2018). Researching HIV and health-related information with demographic data leads to affecting the increasing rate of HIV in children of Nigeria, Uganda, and Eswatini. As opined by Baumgartner & Thiem, (2020) systematic literature reviews help to explain each factor effectively based on hypothesis and numerical data that is associated with both quantitative and qualitative data analysis processes. Using both data collection processes with detailed interaction helps to provide an exponential and dynamic research method to reach ultimate findings in this data collection process.

3.2 Search Strategy

In the literature review and thematic analysis, the process has assessed the increasing rate of HIV patients in Uganda, Nigeria and Eswatini by applying research detail of PICO or SPIDER. They can be recognised as a part of the systematic review process for analysing current data regarding HIV and death rates. Apart from that, it has been analysed that this research process has been conducted by collecting information from secondary data sources such as journals, articles and websites regarding HIV and its death rate in Uganda, Nigeria and Eswatini that is associated with qualitative data sources for developing proper data set. Collecting information from different websites to learn about the statistical growth and decline rate of HIV worldwide is recognised as a significant way in data collection and data analysis process with qualitative secondary research methodology.

The quantitative data collection process contributes to allowing experiments to collect important aspects from authentic spots, clinical trials, case studies, and as well as numeric data based on the content. In contrast, As stated by Mehta & Pandit (2018), qualitative is recognised as "bare data collection" that helps to produce findings by summarising each element based on previous research. As researched by Baumgartner & Thiem (2020) former studies in systematic literature review help to provide conclusive findings based on previous studies that are segmented as qualitative data collection and analysis processes. The qualitative data analysis process includes conducting Face-to-face interviews and assessing clinical trials. Therefore, the qualitative data analysing method is responsible for reaching findings through developing concepts and understanding based on people's perspectives and viewpoints relevant to aims and objectives and providing numeric data of previous experiments. Research questions emphasise collecting information regarding different consequences of HIV with less numerical information in the data analysis process that is justified utilisation of the qualitative data analysis process.

In this aspect, an explanation of key areas of HIV is required to conduct a research process and reach finding regarding effective healthcare processes for reducing the spread and death rate of HIV. As argued byDavies & Fisher (2018), research philosophy is a significant part of research methodology that includes positivism, realism and Interprivatism. This research has been conducted with a "positivism research philosophy" that helps to analyse every dimension concerning developments of assumptions relevant to the aims and objectives of this research project. Positivism research allows for explaining each factor concerning health-related information and the death rate of HIV. The ontology research process is associated with collecting information regarding human beings and their healthcare facility concerning existing evidence based on previous research. This research emphasises analysing healthcare effectiveness and the reason for human death due to HIV concerning the treatment process and its preventive activities that help to acquire knowledge and recommend a significant way to minimise these existing issuers. Apart from that, it can be stated that Using Ontology for researching human diseases and the healthcare system is a justified research paradigm.

Analysing objectives of the nature of reality through conducting a literature review is concerned with collecting actual and independent information but there is a lack of personal interest in reaching an empirical finding, which makes the research, proves successful. In this aspect, a lack of personal interest in the research process affects effectiveness which can be considered a waste of time. This part is responsible for analysing information regarding HIV and its death area as well as the healthcare process due to existing limitations in the literature review and thematic analysis process that can be considered a remarkable disadvantage in the research method.

3.3 Data Reduction and Analysis Methods

Epistemic Constructivism follows the meaning-making theory to gain adequate knowledge regarding human beings and a healthcare system that has been utilised in this research process because the research objective specifies the implementation of the healthcare system and the quality of human beings with effective findings. The ethical consideration part is concerned to signify the ethical practice of the research method concerning limitations that are associated with following protective steps in the data collection and data analysis process. In this aspect, Researchers have to follow data confidentiality and data security as well as copyright acts. During the secondary data analysis process researcher have to follow copyright acts which are important for reducing plagiarism and the reputation of pieces of evidence based on previous research and the researcher's viewpoint without following a personal perspective in the data analysis process (Navalta, et al. 2019). Data manipulation is a significant aspect that has to maintain during the data analysis process concerning ethical consideration of research methodology. In this research, the researcher has followed those instructions significantly w to reach ultimate findings with proper guidelines and limitations.

Chapter 4: Findings

4.1 Overview

The chapter has provided a brief explanation of the research topic related to the "Effects of HIV aids on the children around Eswatini, Uganda and Nigeria" respectively. In this regard, using the Secondary analysis by creating the themes based on the research topic the discussions have also been effectively going on.

4.2Uganda effectively decreased the rates of "Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV with CDC Support"

As opined by Namara-Lugolobi et al. (2022), over 90% of innovativepediatric HIV infections have been acquired among mother-to-children transmissions. It has created "Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMCT)" research around sub-Saharan Africa by informing the WHO guidelines that have enabled the evaluations in PMTCT programmers based internationally. The author has been creating clinical trials by considering the MU-JHU and giving strong evidence and maintaining the guidelines that have based on WHO guidelines. The MNRH Programmers’ have also analysed the demonstrations in the important decline through the MTCT rates around the last two decades. The authors have also been providing a brief explanation by using the m method related to Secondary analysis that has been providing reliable information related to the research topic effectively.However, Maingi et al. (2022) argued that in the year 2015 WHO have been released instructions by diminished the "Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)" through HIV and provided strategic recommendations that have renowned as Option B+ by including the necessary actions through using "Antiretroviral therapy" regarding among CD4 and counting the breastfeeding mothers and HIV-positive pregnant respectively.

The accurate ranges of targets have been transmitted around<5% of the populations of breastfeeding as well as<2%around the non-breastfeeding populations that have been previously breastfeeding populations. The authors have analysed the effects of Option B+ around the MTCT in African countries systematically. Taking the help of the PRISMA guidelines the creating a wider range of searches in Google Scholar and PubMed the chances of database identifications and discussions have also been effectively going on. Interpreted the statistical analysis it can be represented that in the countries of South Africa the rates of vulnerable children and HIV orphans have been transformed by around 67% and in Tanzania, it has been transformed by nearly 51% [Referred to appendix 1]. The rates of determinations have also not remained the same in the differentiation of c countries related to Zimbaboiye, Nambia, Uganda, Central African Republic and Gabon respectively.

4.3Children's Educational Attainment has created negative effects of HIV/AIDS

As stated by Zinyemba et al. (2020), around the last three decades 35 million individuals have died due to the enhanced rates of AIDS which have created effective reductions of the human capitalist structures and especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several ranges of studies have examined the impacts of AIDS/HIV on human capital in the accurate ranges through the human capital and creating educational attainments. "A "SystematicLiterature Review" has been briefly used in this entire study and that has been creating a dataset through the multiple ranges of countries and improving the cultures of the educational attainments by making comprehensive data by making an overview of Peer review papers that have been overcoming the educational outcomes. HIV has also infected children that have been creating a negative effect on educational attainments and has created a negative effect on the financial infrastructure and the m motivational rates in education. In addition, the author has created a comparison among the groups and formulated the policies. It has developed the schooling outcomes around vulnerable children effectively by analysing the risk factors.

In contradiction, Vreeman et al. (2019) have argued that the effective ranges of validations around AIDS/HIV Stigma have determined the children with HIV and their families effectively. In addition, the larger study has also been following the 240 students of the Child- caregiver dyads who have been considered as ages 10-15 in the 8 clinics. The key points have also created a construct of validity by accessing the comparisons of the criteria constructions and using the generalised estimations by taking the help of the equations models effectively. The authors have created a survey analysis and interpreted the results in an effective manner. The survey has also been effectively considered among the 52% of the womenand12.3 years. It has provided the reported experienced higher ranges of HIV Stigma by distinguishing the children effectively. In this regard, 14% of caregivers and 9% of children have been providing reporting structures of the HIV Stigma that have been feeling anxious, stressed and depressed cultures thus, the above-mentioned items have been creating a behavioural outcome and construction validity respectively.

4.4Morality and progression with untreated HIV infection have proven the evidence synthesis of "HIV seroconvert cohorts"

As stated by Glaubius et al. (2022), "Model-based estimation" has been considered an HIV indicator that has created past epidemic trends and derived based on assumptions through the diseases of HIV and making morality and professions of the "Absence of antiretroviral treatment (ART)". In this regard, the "Population-basedHIV Impacts Assessments (PHIA)" have considered a survey by collecting valuable information effectively. Therefore, the individuals that have provided the general information for creating estimation and improved the cultures of morality rates through taking the help of the ART respectively have determined CD4 cell counts. However, Dodd et al. (2022) have argued that the transmission of modelling infrastructures has created a tuberculosis incidence, morality and relevance of settings by generalising the HIV epidemicseffectively. In this context, the authors have generalised the "Tuberculosis (TB)" that have killed a wider range of peoples based on international context and making surveillance weak by estimating the TB burden by using the structures of modelling. Most African countries have increased the rates of HIV prevalence criteria and the effective usage of "Antiretroviral therapy (ART)" has made a change by diversifying the cultures and estimating the burdens, potential environments and trends effectively. Thus, the chances of transmission around Africa have also been contextually evaluated by prevalence notifications among the 12 African countries respectively.

Overviewing the statistical representations, it can also be stated that the rates of HIV transmissions have created a negative effect from 2005-2013 effectively, which has also been making negative effects on the development of economic stability [Referred to appendix 2]. In the year 2005, it has transformed by nearly 33% that have been sustainably reduced in the year 2013 is 16%. Wider ranges of rates of fluctuations have also been overviewed in the respective countries related to African countries.

4.5 Summary

Throughout the above analysis, it is clear that the entire discussions have been providing a brief explanation of the topic impacts of HIV that of based on children’s perspectives around Africa,Eswatini and Uganda respectively. Thus, it has also created negative effects on the development of child growth and increased the rates of risk opportunities by manifesting the health conditions of making negative effects on the impaired community.

Chapter 5: Discussion

5.1 Discussion onLiterature Review

This research review literature is discussed the HIV impacts and influences factors and determines the county mortality rate and ratio. This explains the HIVfactors and the diseased infection how spreads in the country and the child, the early age marriage, unprotected sexual transition, needle sharing and blood transmission are increased HIV infection. The children are infected by the mother, sometimes pregnant mothers are suffering from HIV disease and after birth, the newborn baby has also infected with the disease. Mainly the lack of educational structure, poverty and an unhygienic society influences the HIV disease factors. This disease is infected with the children's behavioural and emotional health conditions. It badly impacts children's education and children's childhood, this disease in affected the person's body cells and infected the person's immunity systems, the infected person's immunity systems cannot work properly and the person is suffering from HIV disease conditions. This study describes the developing country's health condition and the infected person rate and ratio. In developing countries, education systems are too poor and these children's health condition is bad. Infected person immunity systems did not work properly and this increased the country's mortality rate and also enhanced the society's health care systems. Mainly developing country health care management system is bad, and the bad management is gaining impact on the children's health condition. Their mothers affect children and bad hospital hygiene influences the HIV disease factors. This research review literature describes the county's poor health conditions, HIV diseases infection spread and impact the children's health and social life. It mentions the bad mother's health condition and the different types of factors that influence the HIV virus. Its impacts the patient's mental health condition and immunity systems. HIV virus is destroyed the body's immune cells and this increased the chances of infection in the body, the bad immunity systems are affected the county's demographic systems.

5.2 Discussion of findings

After this research analysis and determining Uganda countries suffering rates are increased, the country's mother-to-child transmission is increasing HIV infection. Mainly the pregnant mother is infected with HIV diseases and it’s easily transmitted to the newborn child through breastfeeding and blood transfusion. It affects the children's school and educational life, infected children could not go to schools it's hampering the children's educational systems and lives, and also influencing the country's poor educational systems. The unhygienic mother delivering and the breastfeeding resise the HIV various infected children. This HIV infection badly affects the education system in the children; this influenced the child's emotional and behavioural health condition. It affects the country's demography and the country's education systems or health care condition. Education is the main past to improve the social condition, but the infected children cannot go the school and education is not completed properly also late school going influences HIV factors. It discussed the country's population and the demographical impact on the country's economic condition. The developing county is mainly suffering from the poor education system and unhealthy lifestyle, which badly influences community health and HIV factors. Improper education is also influenced the country's health and economic condition.

5.3 Overall discussion

This research is discussed the HIV impact in children's lives and the developing country suffering from the HIV virus. It is explaining the mortality rate in the country and the HIV-infected person rate in African countries, such as Uganda, Nigeria andEswatini. This research methodology is based on qualitative methods; it describes the country's total population infected and the child mortality rate and ratio.It badly impacts the country's mortality rate and it also badly impacts the child education systems. The infected child does not go to school and their education life hampers the reason for the HIV virus infection. Poor healthcare systems, bad education systems, and poverty influence HIV in various factors, children are transmitted through the mother to children, mainly the HIV spread through blood transmission, needle transmission, unprotected sexual intercourse and sexual abuse. It affects the county's society and health condition, the bad and poor health condition are easily increased the country's mortality rate and ratio. Mainly influences the children's emotions and behavioral and mental health. It also affects the child's growth and development. Early marriage and poor education quality influence HIV factors. HIV infection badly impacts the child's internal and external health condition, its hampers growth and development and the Children's overall lifestyle. The current study shows that mother-to-child transmission is hampering the African economical stability and demographic condition. Research describes the HIV impacts of increasing and decreasing rates, the immune defenses mortality rate increase the contamination and infection problems in developing countries.

5.4 Limitation of chosen methods

This research is based on the HIV impact on children and developing countries life style, its research limitation is mention that HIV impact badly influences the country's economical stability. The country's child mortality rate is increased but the mother-to-child transmission rate is low this impact is also present in the country's demographical situation. The research lack of the previous study is not properly gaining knowledge about the HIV impact on the African country population. Insufficient data and information create sample bias, and it does not give the proper ratio and rate in the child mortality rate. It creates some issues if not given the proper data about the impact of the country's demography and the children and the mother's life.

Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations

6.1 Conclusions

Analysed the overall discussions it can be stated that the impacts of HIV/AIDS have been creating a negative effect on the improvements of future growths of the children, enhanced the ultimate ranges of risk opportunities, and delayed the process. "Failure to thrive,intermittent diarrhoea, swollen abdomen,Pneumonia andOral thrush" has been considered as the main symptoms that have been growing up through the children’s effectively.For instance, the improvements of countries have been enhancing the ultimate rates of disease changes that have not been considered as an effective side for the development of growing structures related to fever, diarrhoea, rash muscle aches and painful mouth sores effectively.

6.2 Linking with objective

  • Objective1:

The first objective has provided a brief explanation of the sections in chapter 2 kinds of the literature review and chapters 4 and 5 in the findings sections. In these sub-sections of 2.2 and 4.2 creating a brief segmentation of the three kinds of countries, the discussions have been effectively going on.

  • Objective 2:

The second objectives have been briefly interpreted in chapters 4, 2 and 5 respectively in the sub-sections 2.1, and 4.3 respectively. Evaluating the above-depicted analysis it can be interpreted that it has received the supervision of homes and poorer care that may suffer and have not been accessing the availability of the healthcare sectors (Ishizaka et al. 2022).

  • Objective 3:

The third objective has been creating interlinked sub-sections of 2.3 and 4.2 sections of the chapter related to findings, literature review and discussions onwards. Therefore, it can be interpreted that the engagement of harmful use in drugs and alcohols, bacterial vaginosis, and sexual behaviours has enhanced the rates of risk factors.

  • Objective 4:

The fourth objective has been effectively discussed in chapters 2,5, and 4 respectively in points 2.1, 2.2, 4.1, and 4.2 respectively. Analysing the above-mentioned discussions it has been addressed that the societal barriers related to discrimination and public policy such as absenteeism from health insurance and inadequacy have increased the rates of risk factors.

  • Objective 5:

The fifth objective has been also making interlinked in chapters 4, 2 and 5in the sub-sections of 2.3, 4.3 effectively. Thus, it can be analysed that the federal government have been improving and implementing the planning structures and holding about the HIV prevention programs by disseminating educational sources and adopting the prevention strategies in a sustainable manner (Maheu?Giroux et al. 2022).

6.3 Future scope

The future scope of this entire research can be providing ideas about the multiple ranges of issues and the mitigation strategies regarding the effects of HIV/AIDS. Thus, the different kinds of researchers in these respective contexts can be taking insights by focusing on the issues that have created a negative impact on the children due to the enhancements of the disease rates of the developing countries related to Africa, Uganda and Eswatini. Thus, the students and the researchers can also be conducted further research work on the respective limitations of accurate research thereby coming up with more accurate strategic attributes.

Collecting valuable information based on the research that can be used for successfully considering the research works and for developments of the further research, works analysing the survey and interpreting the questionnaires and interview sessions the discussions have also been sustainably going on. It can be maintained data authenticity based on research works and generate the ultimate ranges of possibility by making a positive range of effects in a sustainable manner.


Taking the necessary action plan the chances of data authenticity can also be effectively maintained and that can create positive results for the development of research works.

  • Improvements in HIV Screening

As opined by Branson (2019), CDC has been effectively considered among the ages of 13-64 people in the healthcare sectors and analysed the ultimate ranges of risk factors, can be precise. In this regard, "Antibody Tests and NAT tests" have been playing a vital role in improving the cultures of FDA systems and defeating diseases between 23-90 days and 10-33 days respectively. The self-test, lab test and providing the efficiency and the appropriate ranges of collection of sample models have been also following up the testing results of the healthcare sectors and explored positive effects.

However, "Antigen Tests" have been looking for both kinds of HIV antigens and producing individuals' immune systems that have exposed the viruses related to HIV, that have renowned as p24 have produced the antibody effectively among taking the timing related to 18-45 days in a systematic manner. Thus, it can be recommended that taking the help of the"Antibody Tests,Antibody Tests and NAT tests" the rates of treatment measurement procedures can also be effectively improved.

  • Using the culture related to "Antiretroviral therapy (ART)"

The usages of "Antiretroviral therapy (ART)"have played a vital role in the identification of risk factors and making an effective range of decision-making processes for resolved issues. As opined by Pellowski et al. (2019), the treatments have been effectively conducted by decreasing the rates of spreading chances of HIV and the usage of anti-HIV drugs. Therefore, the standard ranges of treatments have been creating combinations of the drugs that have renowned as "Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)" have suppressed HIV Replications. Thus, it can be suggested that the rates of undetectable viral and rates of maintenance can be accurately founded in specific ways that have reduced the viral load of the human being's body.



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Appendix 1:

Appendix 2: Mother-to-child HIV transmission has affected the African countries

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