Inequality Health And Poverty Assignment Sample

Analyzing the Intersection of Inequality, Health Disparities, and Poverty: Assignment Study

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Introduction Of Inequality Health And Poverty

This study aims to focus on the identification of thesocial determinants of health. This study is also going to explain the health inequalities in relation to the prevalence of depression among all women in Kerala, India. At the very beginning of this study, the identification of the social determinants will be depicted that can increase mental health inequalities of South Indian women mostly the women of Kerala. After that, the different types of health inequalities mostly mental health inequalities are going to be consulted here. After that, the reasons behind the prevalence of depression among women in Kerala will also be analysed here with proper real-life examples. Later, the strengths and weaknesses of the social determinants that tend to increase health inequalities and depression among women are also going to be evaluated here along with the proper implications of theories. Lastly, a few recommendations will be recommended regarding the proper implications and implementations of health practices and policies to mitigate all the emerging mental health issues among the women of Kerala.

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Social Determinants of Health

The health of common people can be influenced by diverse factors and those factors are generally divided into five broad categories of health determinants includingbehaviour, genetics, environment, medical care and social factors and physical influences. These determinants of health are directly and indirectly interlinked with each other. Among these five major determinants, the social determinants of health have the ability to direct influence the health conditions of common individuals in a country (Hill-Briggs et al. 2021). In this regard, this study has focused on the identification of the social determinants that may leave a direct impact on the physical and mental health of Indian women, specifically the women of Kerala, South India. Hence, it can be noted that theeconomic and social situations of the people can affect the health condition of any person or a group or community of people. The major social determinant of health that can leave a major influence on the mental health of Kerala women is their socioeconomic position. The "Socioeconomic" position may include the amount of money, social power, and monetary resources that people may have (Singu et al. 2020). These all are influenced by socioeconomic and political factors including culture, policies and societal values. The socioeconomic conditions of an individualcan directly be shaped by different factors including occupation, education and income. All of these factors and social determinants can also leave an impact on the health and well-being of the women of Kerala.

Apart from this, the social factors that can directly determine the health condition of an individual are including food security,housing status, clean water public safety, pollution, household income, individual income, social norms and attitudes such as racism, discrimination and many more. The social determinants of the health of an individual are directly dependent and controlled by social circumstances. The social determinants or factors of health are significantly important because these determinants of health are an immediate process to attaining health equity. A country or the people of an area can achieve "health equity" only when one can get the opportunity to gain full health potentiality (Nutbeam and Lloyd, 2021). The lack of proper achievement of social determinants can disadvantage one from achieving this possibility to be in a socially determined circumstance. The major social determinants of health that the women of Kerala have been suffering are including poverty,lack of education, unequal access to health care, stigma, racism and many others that have negative contributing aspects to health inequities in Kerala.

Health Inequalities among Women in Kerala

The World Health Organization (WHO) created the "Commission on Social Determinants of Health" to discourse on social determinants of health. It can be depicted that the "Commission on Social Determinants of Health"employs the three major principles to provide guidelines to its work to eliminate all health inequities for the global as well as local communities of diverse nations throughout the world (Del Pino et al. 2019). The major three principles that are advised to bring health equities are advised to improve the conditions of daily life and manage the inequitable allotment of money, power and resources nationally, locally or globally. The third principle is related to the expansion of knowledge and workforce development as well. One can come to know the fact that diverse social cohesion and negative life events of the women of Kerala have increased mental health issues among the women of Kerala. Most of the women of Kerala have been suffering from the issue of depression. A wide analysis regarding this matter has identified that women from lower castes of Kerala including scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward castes noted a higher majority of poor health both mental and physical rather than the women from higher class society (Homan, 2019). Hence socioeconomic conditions of each woman in society have played a crucial role in the inequalities of socioeconomic conditions. The health inequalities were observed in the health regardless of the women mostly for the lack of proper education and poor women's employment status.

The focus of this study on mortality and reproductive health of the women of Kerala has been criticised for the insufficient practice of considering the health conditions of women in both rich and poor societies of this state of India. As this study has focused on the identification of the social determinants that are mostly become impactful for the poor mental health conditions of the women in Kerala. As per the opinion of Crear-Perry et al. (2021), the major social determinant behind the identified mental health issues among the Kearalian women isiniquitous gender roles and their authority upon the women. The growing mental distress and despair among the women in Kerala have been increasing day by day. Economic status is another reason that has increased depression and anxiety among the women of this society. As per the annual report of the Indian government, Kerala is the state withthe highest levels of literacy and the physical health condition of the women ofKerala is in a better conditionamong the other states of India. Apart from all these positive factors most of the women of this Indian state have been suffering from emerging mental health issues like anxiety, depression and many more.

The emerging paradoxes in sociable development between the high physical health indicators and the troubling growth in female mental problems, depression, anxiety, the tendency of suicide and many other manifesting extreme mental distress. Most women become patients of depression compared to men and all other socio-economic groups. In this aspect, the "State Board of Medical Research" has conducted a survey and outlined the fact that in Kearala70,000 women in rural and 30,000 women in urban areas have been identified as patients of anxiety, mental distress and depression (Del Pino et al. 2019). The Kearalian women have been identified to be suffered from these types of mental problems since the mid-70s and from the beginning of the 90s, the range of the rapid growth of women's mental illness has increased in an enormous way. The number of female patients in private doctor's centres or at Government mental health centres has increased far more than the number of male patients. As per the report of 2022, 0.2 % of the population and among all females and males in both rural and urban areas number of females highly affected by these types of mental disorders more than males (Homan, 2019). Most of the women who are suffering from this type of issue belong to the age group of 15 to 50.The majority rate is higher for widowed women and that is 0.9 %. The number of divorced population is 3.4 % (Crear-Perry et al. 2021).In this regard as per the survey, it has been identified that no severe types of mental disorders like schizophrenia have been identified among the Kearalian women rather they have become patients of phobias, depression and anxiety.

The prevalence of depression among women in Kerala

"The burden of common mental disorders" or CMDs generally includes depression, despair, anxiety, fear, nervousness and many other stress-related disorders. The annual survey report of Kerala, the rate of depression has risen in India in the last few years. Mostly the women in rural areas in Kerala have been identified as one of the high-risk groups who are suffering from depression with respect to CMDs due to their compromised status of living. According to a recent survey, 6% of women in Kerala are suffering from mental depression (Wang et al. 2021). Depression is a major mental health problem that most Keralian women have been suffering from. Apart from Depression, the other mental health issues that the women of Kerala have been suffering are included anxiety,schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, a mental disease for more consumption of alcohol and many more.

Apart from that, in 2021 mostly after the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, a survey has been conducted by the "Kerala State Mental Health Authority" and the "National Health Mission" (Siqueira-Campos et al. 2019). They found out the fact that among 8 women, 1 adult woman required psychiatric intervention. The survey is mostly conducted in both Panchayet and Municipal areas of five distinct districts of Kerala includingIdukki, Kollam, Palakkad,Kasaragod andWayanad. The entire survey has found out the most common mental disorder among the women of Kerala is depression. Hence, more or less 9% of males and females are suffering from the mental health issue of depression. Apart from that,0.29 % of the people of Kerala are suffering from schizophrenia and0.27 % from bipolar disorder (Tsakiridis et al. 2019). After that1.46 % of women of rich families are suffered from alcohol consumption-related mental illness. The Kerala state government has taken diverse initiatives for those women and as a result, 75 per cent of women got proper counseling and mental health treatment while on the contrary 25% of women from poor socio-economic backgrounds become unable to afford proper treatment for their major mental health issue of depression.

Apart from all these, a survey has conducted by "The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)" in 2016 and provided the shocking news thatone person in seven persons is suffered from mental disorders in India this survey also evolved that45.7 million people suffering from depression and anxiety disorders (, 2022). The "Universal Health Coverage Agenda" depicted the idea thatthe majority of mental disorders and depression is high among adults in the southern states of India, mostly in Kerala. The "Global Burden Disease" report of 2016 also brought the shocking news that among southern Indian states in Kerala, the rate of suicide and violence is at the top among all other southern states of India. The rate of depression, mental disorders and the rate of suicide tendency has increased mostly among women of different ages. The suicide rate among the age group of 5 to 14 is 1.4%, while the rate is 24.4% among the age group of 15 to 39 (Trudel-Fitzgerald et al. 2019). The survey has identified the fact that most of the married women have become patients of depression and the tendency of suicide has increased among the married women. This may have occurred due to the reasons for diverse social determinants including the lack of money, domestic violence, restrictive independence of women and many more.

Potencies and Drawbacks ofsocial determinants that impacted health inequalities and Depression

There are diverse potencies and drawbacks of the social determinants that may increase the issue of depression among the Keralian women of India. First of all the "gender-based violence" of society has become the most pathetic type of social determinants including violence, domestic violence or sexual abuse and many more (Yang and Ma, 2020). The derived data gained from the report of"The Indian Council of Medical Research" has depicted the fact thatmental distress and depression issues mostly from a gender perspective are highly emerging in Kerala and among the women of this state rather than the other Indian state in the last few decades (, 2022). In this regard, the CEO of the "Counseling Centre in Thiruvananthapuram" has announced that they have been receiving more than 400 calls from many Keralian women within a month (Ungar and Theron, 2020). In high-class society, marital and family problems have become major issues behind the development of depression among women of this particular state. Most of the women after marriage become depressed because of therestrictions on their mobility and bothphysical and verbaldomestic violence. These types of depression and anxiety have increased the oath ofbroken marriages and divorce. As a result, these types of social determinants have increased the tendency of suicide among married women.

Psychiatric in the Trichur district, a doctor asserts that the most common cause of psychological suffering among women who have attained higher levels of education is a lack of employment opportunities and the roles they are expected to assume after marriage. A renowned psychiatrist in the Trichur district of Kerala claims that the most typical cause of psychological or mental health suffering is among women who have achieved higher levels of education and then suffer from the lack of employment opportunities (Stuijfzand et al. 2020). Depression is also increasing for the roles they are predicted to suppose after marriage. These types of mental health disorders increased psychological disorders and Kerala has become the state of the patients with serious mental health problems. Apart from the mental health issues within the higher class or society of Kerala, a few women from the degraded class of the society have been also suffering from issues of depression. Thus, the social determinants that are leaving an impact on the mental health of the backward class and society of Kerala are including health inequalities, lower life expectancy, domestic violence, higher rates of child mortality, lack of source of income, burden of disease and many others (Trudel-Fitzgerald et al. 2019). Thus the disadvantaged populations mostly the women of this society in Kearala are in a pathetic situation.

Recommendations for health policy and theoretical practice

Use of Healthcare theories

In this regard, diverse models and theories of health inequality including "Psychodynamic theory", "Behavioral theory", "Cognitive theory", "Social theory" and "Humanistic theory" may save the lives of women who are suffering from the issue regarding depression (Khan and Loh, 2022). Behavioural theory can be the best theory in this regard. The strategies of this theory are based on the importance to understand human behaviour and how it can affect behavioural change. After that, the "Social Psychological theory" may bring changes within the behaviour, attitudes and perceptions of both males and females of the society and that can bring social improvements (Tortorella et al. 2021). The proper implementation of the strategies of the healthcare theories can mitigate the issues of depression among women in Kerala.

Implementation of healthcare policies

It can be depicted the fact that the "Mental Health Act of 1987" and "India’s Mental Health Act, of 2017" are the two major healthcare policies that may easily provide safeguarding the rights of people with mental illness (Sharma and Kommu, 2019). Most of the NGOs and the Indian Government must have to follow the "Mental Health Policy in 2003" that has been revised in 2013. This healthcare policy focused on proper healthcare and equal treatment without any social discrimination. Apart from all these, the "National Mental Health Programme (1996)" has demonstrated invention in policy development as well as implementation process by Indian Government. This health program depicted proper care of all Indian people with mental health needs.


It can be concluded that this study is all about theidentification of the social determinants of health and the impact of those social determinants on the women in Kerala who are suffering from diverse mental health issues. This study has identified that 9% of women in this country are suffering from depression and health inequalities. In relation to the prevalence of depression among all women in Kerala, India diverse social determinants have been identified. Among all the social determinants, the "socioeconomic conditions" of an individual are the major reason behind the emergence of depression. Apart from that, the social determinants have been directly shaped by different factors including occupation, education and income. Furthermore, the health inequalities among the women of Kerala and the reasons behind the inequalities have been identified here. It has been noted that women from lower castes of Kerala including scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward castes reported a higher majority of poor health both mental and physical rather than the women from higher class society. However, the major reasons behind the prevalence of depression in Kerala have also been evaluated along with the strengths and weaknesses of social determinants that have increased the issue of depression. Last a few recommendations have been recommended to bring changes to the identified mental health issues in Kerala.


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