Introduction of Health Science Professions Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Health Science Professions Assignment

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There are different forms of psychological concept present in the economy and in the text that defines the overall state of mental abilities and behaviours. However, the concept of psychology is a branch of study that deals with unusual patterns related to human behaviour, thought, emotion, and other mental disorders. Moreover, the concept of psychology regarding abnormality covers a wide area for learning that will help the individual identify the unusual pattern in people's behaviour and thoughts. Abnormality can be caused at any stage of life and to any gender; therefore, it becomes necessary to deal with it by proper evaluation of this topic.

Discussion

Identification and evaluation of the psychological definition of abnormality

The two definitions that are related to abnormality include “Failure to function adequately” (FFA) and “Statistical infrequency”.

Statistical infrequency is related to the study of abnormal human behaviour that is very rarely seen in the economy or society (Aziz et al., 2018). This kind of “statistical infrequencies” is mostly seen in society due to misdiagnosis. Some certain behaviour are statistically common in abnormality. But, these further increase due to several other reasons in society and changes in human behaviours. For example, if any person or individual has a high level of IQ - then they are called abnormal or uncommon behaviour due to their desirable nature. On the other hand, if an individual has a low level of IQ, then the average one also comes under this category. As per the opinion of Chen et al. (2020), people having this kind of abnormality are incorrectly diagnosed and identify the behavioural changes that take place in them.

Failure to function adequatelyrefers to the very situation of abnormality, when an individual cannot cope with daily life and live independently in society (Fusar Poli et al., 2019). In this kind of abnormality, an individual's behaviour causes personal suffering and stress due to not handling the scope of everyday life. However, this kind of situation can become more discomfort or create distress to other people who observe their behaviour. In this kind of situation, a person with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) exhibits excessive rituals that prevent them from performing their other works. Greenberg et al. (2020) mentioned that it becomes necessary for the individual to diagnose these two sections carefully; these will help the individual know the possible changes in their behaviours and observe them. However, these two kinds of abnormalities are quite different from others and have different features and classifications for identification.

Two classification systems for psychological disorders

DSM for diagnosing the psychological disorder

DSM is used for psychological aspects and is produced by a single national professional association. DSM gives professional mental criteria to every individual and is further classified the diseases through a common language. As per the view of Hartenstein et al. (2019), DSM is mainly used in medical treatment for patients who have strictly intended to mental disorder. Further, DSM is related to the manual assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders that therapists treat their patients. DSM did not include any kind of guidelines or information for providing treatment of any disorder to the patients. Rather, DSM mainly focuses on the assisting of determination to accurately diagnose.

ICD for diagnosing the psychological disorder

The ICD is used and produced by a global health agency with a common constitutional public health mission. ICD is a particular assignment of a code used for the individual for reimbursement claims processing. In ICD, several kinds of codes are assigned with the related diseases, symptoms, signs, complaints, social circumstances, and other abnormal findings. As per the opinion of Hollocks et al. (2019), the ICD stands for clinical modification and over 70,000 codes are used in the treatment of the patients. ICD treatment provides in-depth learning about the abnormality related to the patients or individuals. 

The implications of diagnostic classification with validity, practically, reliability and ethical issues

DSM and ICD are different treatment processes that include abnormal people and have different ways to conduct further treatment of their patients. ICD is a globally accepted convention that is used for illness. As per the view of Johnstone (2018), it contains every single code for all illnesses documented in the world. Moreover, ICD is used for treating individuals and applied for health management, epidemiology, and other clinical purposes. Further, ICD is a complete system maintained by World Health Organization, and they account for every detail of disorders, conditions of the patients, and other diseases. ICD is a benchmarking tool for the medical field used by healthcare professionals to easily map medical conditions with generic categories (Karatzias et al., 2019).

On the other hand, DSM is a handbook that provides various criteria for classifying clinical diagnoses related to critical mental disorders. DSM is written in a common language that provides help to the medical professional in making better healthcare decisions. However, As per Lewis et al. (2020), DSM is a very useful handbook that helps the professional document and share patients' diagnoses after their successful evaluation of the treatment. However, DSM is not that popular because it is less recognized and partially accepted worldwide. 

Validity

DSM technique of treating people provides accurate and valid results about the abnormality (Chen et al., 2020). Further, DSM criteria are considered more reliable in a statistical context. On the other hand, ICD is considered less reliable and independent.

Practically

Practically, DSM is used mainly in every section of the economy, whereas ICD systems are less practical and do not follow particular about the patients (Fusar Poli et al., 2019).

Reliability

The DSM treatment is more reliable and significant because it provides more accurate and in-depth results (Greenberg et al., 2020). On the other hand, ICD systems are less reliable because they do not accept the diagnostic criteria without independent validation.

Ethical issues

DSM treatment facilities are more ethnic, as they are more genuine and have been going on since immemorial and maintain accuracy and their legacy (Hartenstein et al., 2019). On the other hand, the ICD treatment system is not that influential and does not follow the ethnic procedures for treating their patients.

Description of diagnostic criteria for one psychological disorder

The DSM diagnostic criteria have been gaining recently due to the physical and easy nature of the treatment. However, as mentioned by Ross et al. (2018), DSM bears the real value for the healthcare unit as it drives the awareness of multiple advantages and reduces the limitless practices. Moreover, DSM practices will provide accuracy in details with the patients after their treatment. Further, DSM practices stimulate further research that advances the truncated system, which provides credibility to non-existent diagnosis. However, DSM signifies specificity in its description and is more accurate in obtaining results. As observed by Volkert et al. (2018) further, the introduced DSM operational criteria provide more reliability. This will further help the medical professionals to obtain statistical context about the patients.

Additionally, DSM is an official classification that has been adopted by different other countries and gaining its advantages over other treatment policies. As per Aziz et al. (2018), however, DSM treatment used by the professionals represents various code sets that will help the medical team differentiate among other mental disorders. More criteria distinctly include details about every mental condition related to the patients.

Analysis and description of statistical evidences about psychological disorders concerning

a) Age

It can be seen that about 50% of abnormalities are established by age 14 and more than 75% by age 24. Moreover, it can be said that about 20% of adolescents experiences abnormalities in a particular year in the UK (Google.com, 2021). Further, young adults aged from 18-25 years have the highest rate of abnormality, which is (9.7%) as compared to adults aged 26-49 years (6.9%), and aged 50 are near (3.4%).

b) Gender

It was seen that girls have a worse average of mental health than boys in reading with the abnormalities. It was seen that women reported more mental health problems than men (Google.com, 2021). Women ages between 16 to 24 years are become more victims of abnormalities and get (26%) rise. Whereas, the ratio of the en according to women is quite less and recorded as (9%). It shows that women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with anxiety as a response to men.

c) Ethnicity

There is no certain ethnicity among people suffering from abnormalities. However, it was seen 1 in 4 people will suffer from a mental disorder. It was seen that (3.6%) of 10-14 years old and (4.6%) of 15-19 years old are more suffered from abnormalities (Google.com, 2021). Moreover, depression is the main reason that further creates abnormalities. About (1.1%) of adolescents aged from 10-14 years and (2.8%) of 15-19 years old suffered from abnormalities.

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the overall topic that there are various stages and concepts regarding mental abnormality. Some of the systems are present in the economy that will help the patients deal with their problems. Further, DSM and ICD are the two treatments that will help healthcare professionals to deal with their abnormalities. Both these two treatment facilities have their own capabilities and working processes that will help the medical department deal with these kinds of abnormalities. Further, it can be seen that this kind of abnormality can be genetic or social in nature. 

References

Aziz, I., Palsson, O.S., Törnblom, H., Sperber, A.D., Whitehead, W.E. and Simrén, M., 2018. The prevalence and impact of overlapping Rome IV-diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorders on somatization, quality of life, and healthcare utilization: a cross-sectional general population study in three countries. Official journal of the American College of Gastroenterology| ACG113(1), pp.86-96.

Chen, S., Jones, P.B., Underwood, B.R., Moore, A., Bullmore, E.T., Banerjee, S., Osimo, E.F., Deakin, J.B., Hatfield, C.F., Thompson, F.J. and Artingstall, J.D., 2020. The early impact of COVID-19 on mental health and community physical health services and their patients’ mortality in Cambridgeshire and Peterborough, UK. Journal of psychiatric research131, pp.244-254.

Fusar?Poli, P., Solmi, M., Brondino, N., Davies, C., Chae, C., Politi, P., Borgwardt, S., Lawrie, S.M., Parnas, J. and McGuire, P., 2019. Transdiagnostic psychiatry: a systematic review. World Psychiatry18(2), pp.192-207.

Google.com, 2021, Statistical evidence of age regarding abnormalities [online], Available at: https://www.google.com/search?q=statistical+evidence+regading+mental+abnormalities+in+diferent+age+groups+in+UK&oq=statistical+evidence+regading+mental+abnormalities+in+diferent+age+groups+in+UK&aqs=chrome..69i57.26901j0j15&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8 [Accessed on: 10/03/2022]

Google.com, 2021, Statistical evidence of ethnicity regarding abnormalities [online], Available at: https://www.google.com/search?q=statistical+evidence+regading+mental+abnormalities+in+Ethnicityr+in+UK&sxsrf=APq-WBscCFhfAPmNuIzNKF9PIPvegDaMPQ%3A1646909925386&ei=5dkpYq-aF67Sz7sPzcGJQA&ved=0ahUKEwjvoNHIsbv2AhUu6XMBHc1gAggQ4dUDCA4&uact=5&oq=statistical+evidence+regading+mental+abnormalities+in+Ethnicityr+in+UK&gs_lcp=Cgdnd3Mtd2l6EAM6BwgAEEcQsANKBAhBGABKBAhGGABQ4wNYmyNgtCtoAXABeACAAeMBiAG5BpIBBTAuMS4zmAEAoAEBoAECyAEIwAEB&sclient=gws-wiz [Accessed on: 10/03/2022]

Google.com, 2021, Statistical evidence of gender regarding abnormalities [online], Available at: https://www.google.com/search?q=statistical+evidence+regading+mental+abnormalities+in+diferent+gender+in+UK&sxsrf=APq-WBuJfnIldYyyXWAIgCzJO-RyqR-YDw%3A1646909333905&ei=ldcpYt3iNvib4t4P2L2s-Ag&ved=0ahUKEwidgcyur7v2AhX4jdgFHdgeC48Q4dUDCA4&uact=5&oq=statistical+evidence+regading+mental+abnormalities+in+diferent+gender+in+UK&gs_lcp=Cgdnd3Mtd2l6EAM6BwgjELADECc6BwgAEEcQsANKBAhBGABKBAhGGABQmwRYmg9gix5oAXABeACAAfABiAH7C5IBAzItN5gBAKABAcgBCcABAQ&sclient=gws-wiz [Accessed on: 10/03/2022]

Greenberg, N., Docherty, M., Gnanapragasam, S. and Wessely, S., 2020. Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during covid-19 pandemic. bmj368.

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Hollocks, M.J., Lerh, J.W., Magiati, I., Meiser-Stedman, R. and Brugha, T.S., 2019. Anxiety and depression in adults with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological medicine49(4), pp.559-572.

Johnstone, L., 2018. Psychological formulation as an alternative to psychiatric diagnosis. Journal of Humanistic Psychology58(1), pp.30-46.

Karatzias, T., Hyland, P., Bradley, A., Cloitre, M., Roberts, N.P., Bisson, J.I. and Shevlin, M., 2019. Risk factors and comorbidity of ICD?11 PTSD and complex PTSD: Findings from a trauma?exposed population based sample of adults in the United Kingdom. Depression and anxiety36(9), pp.887-894.

Lewis, C., Roberts, N.P., Gibson, S. and Bisson, J.I., 2020. Dropout from psychological therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology11(1), p.1709709.

Ross, J., Murphy, D. and Armour, C., 2018. A network analysis of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder and functional impairment in UK treatment-seeking veterans. Journal of Anxiety Disorders57, pp.7-15.

Volkert, J., Gablonski, T.C. and Rabung, S., 2018. Prevalence of personality disorders in the general adult population in Western countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry213(6), pp.709-715.

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