Mb924 � Managing Across Cultures Assignment Sample

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Introduction Of Company Managing Across Cultures Organizational Environment Assignment

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Culture has a different definition in an organizational environment. The culture of the company defines a company's position in the consumer market, as the coordination of employees' work reflects the business stability and growth of an organization. International management practices lie in that international businesses in which managers have to manage various practices such as communication, strategy, negotiation, etc. The management practices are directly related to the culture of a business, as culture reflects all practices in a company(Wang, and Varma, 2020). The management practices lie in the culture of a business and affect the performance of a company in the market. The company also has to face its competitors, so the company has various models to manage the competitors such as the Farmer-Richman model, Rosalie Tung Model, Child Model, and Geert Hofstede Model. The comparative models help a company to develop a strategy against the competitors of an organization in national or international borders, and make a good position in the competitor's market (Simola, 2019).

The report discussed major conceptual approaches to culture in an organization in which two approaches are mentioned the cross-culture management approach and the typological approach. The difference between the two approaches is also highlighted in the study. The interrelation between management practice and the culture of a company is also considered in the report in which two management practices are extracting their relations with organizational culture. The working style and behavior of employees in the company create good as well as bad cultural environments in an organization. The culture of a company changes according to the new entrance of employees into the business. The changes in a culture of a company develop according to the conceptual approaches of organizational culture (Saidrasulova, 2022). To deeply understand the conceptual approaches to culture, the two approaches are mentioned below.

A Critically review of two major conceptual approaches to culture evaluating the difference and complementariness between them.

Conceptual approaches are included to define the content of a topic which is taught by the use of pervasive and big ideas. The conceptual approaches term refers to the use of contents in the view of discovering the principles and laws to generalize a specific subject. The critical examination of conceptual approaches to the culture of an organization leads to determining the differences and diversity in the working culture of a company (Krajcsák, 2018). To outline a conceptual approach to culture, the two main approaches are discussed along with the complementary and differences between both them.

Cross-culture management approach: cross-culture management is a managerial function of a company in which the employees are coordinated and controlled along with their distinct cultural backgrounds. The company's manager ensures that an organization performs well in the internal and external business environment through the harmonious interrelation between individuals in a company. This approach helps to detect the barriers across the company by communicating with everyone in an organization (Ahmad, et. al.2019). The link between manager and their employees is only developed by good communication, so for the smooth running of business managers have to dissolve all communication barriers with the help of a cross-culture management approach. Another significance of the approach is the managers of a company understand the external forces and manage those forces with the help of their managing ability and cross-culture management approach. External forces impose a direct impact on the company's performance in the market and influence the work of a company. To overcome and fight external forces, a company can adopt a cross-culture management approach if an organization is dealing with different cultural areas.

Typological approach: it is a scientific approach or knowledge in which the growth and structure of a company's culture is dismemberment and grouping of the objects with their systems through generalizing model. For the existence of the culture in an organization, the typology approach of culture is a characteristic that is in the form of qualitative content. As a scientific approach or method, the typological approach helps to find out the similarity and differences between the objects(Schöttke, et. al. 2020). The approach helps to identify scientifically the problems and their solutions to enable communication on and across the projects of a company. Through a typological approach, the company's manager tries to create that type of culture among the team members in which TEK problems cannot raise and workers do their duty with the updated technology in an organization. The managers of a company coordinate the team members to utilize all the resources in an optimum way in the business. If the company is operating the business in the global market relating to culture then the typological approach is very important for an organization. As the company has to highly manage the normal culture as well as the technology culture, the typological approach helps to balance both cultural environments in the business.

Differences and complementary between the two conceptual approaches

All conceptual approaches to culture have some major and minor differences between them. Here the difference between the two approaches is discussed which is mentioned in the above-highlighted topic.

The cross-culture management approach is a managerial function while the typological approach is a scientific method or approach. The cross-culture management approach pays attention to changes in the individual behavior and culture in the organization. On the other hand, the typological approach pays attention to the technological changes in an organization with the changes that occur in the culture of the company(Ito, et. al.2020). The implementation of the changes in the cross-culture management approach is done by the managers to manage the employee's nature towards the company. But the typological approach to culture refers to the implementation of changes by the managers of the company to bring updated technological culture to a business.

The typological approach is adopted by the business when the company is facing TEK threats in the company. Whereas the cross-culture management approach is adopted by the business when the company is facing communication barriers among the employees of a company. The cross-culture management approach removes the communication barriers between the managers and employees of the company for convenience in taking orders and performing duties well in an organization. While the typological approach removes the technological barriers in the company which affects the company's culture globally. 

Both approaches play a major role in the cultural changes of an organization. Cross culture management approach affects the culture of interrelation between the managers and employees of a company. Whereas the typological approach affects the technology culture of the globally operating business in which the employees find it hard to use the TEK of business which leads to conflicts in the company. By using both approaches, an organization solves the problems related to the communication barriers and TEK problems for participating in the high growth and development of a company. By balancing both the cross-culture management approach and typological approach, the company can touch the heights of Growth Mountains in the consumer and competitive market.

Critical discussion upon the interrelationship between culture and management practice with two management practices

To perform well in the consumer market the company has to manage all practices along with the culture of the business. All company has their different corporate culture in which the company executes or implement their business. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture, and management practice in an organization, two management practices are discussed below (AYDIN, 2018).

Culture and strategy: Strategy is a pre-planned activity in a company to define the pathway from which a company can achieve its goals, objectives, and aims. Without any clear strategy, a company may suffer huge losses and will vanish from the market in the upcoming years (Danari, 2020). Strategy is one of the management practices that should be simple, clear, rational, and logical. On the other side, a culture of a company defines a different definition of the company (Shavitt, and Barnes, 2020). In corporate life, culture is related to humans. It depends on the mood, emotion, and vulnerability that is complex and ever-changing in human beings. In the search for a relationship between the strategy and culture of an organization, many points are examined to show the results. Sometimes there is a positive relationship between both strategy and culture but sometimes both face each other reversely (Schmiedel, et. al.2019). The strategy serves direction and focuses on increasing the profit of the company and reach to the goals of an organization. Whereas every strategy of a company lives or dies in its culture, as it is an organic habitat and emotions of the humans who are working in an organization. Another relation can be seen, as a culture of a company provides a strategic advantage when the strategy is made for expansion and diversification of a business. While strategy, is very important for a clear vision of differentiation in an organization. The third relation between the culture and strategy of a company is, strategy opens the roadmap for a company to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors. On the other hand, culture determines a clear competitive advantage in a business. The balance between the strategy and culture of a business is very important to get the best results for a company. Strategy is like a headline on a company's cover page or story, but culture has to be clearly understood to each individuals working in the company to express their company's story which includes values, expectations, vision, and mission.

Culture of a company determines the engagement, execution, and desires of an organization and the strategy is all about the intention and purpose of achieving cultural desires. In an organization, both practice and culture play their role differently but at some point, both are different from each other. Culture motivates all employees and increases their spirit to show them the direction that how will be the strategic game played in an organization. While the strategy makes all rules and regulations for playing a strategic game in a company. For a better understanding of the engagement and health of a company, the culture should be monitored timely. Strategy is made only once a year but the culture of a company defines the execution and implementation of that strategy in the everyday life of a business. Strategy is made on paper by managers of the company with high use of their mental ability, skills, and ideas. The workers and employees work upon the cultures which continuously follow up with strategic achievements of the company.

Culture and CSR : Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to the business model from which the company can focus upon efforts to operate a business without degrading or harming the society and environment. CSR is a broad concept, the term defines a responsibility of a company towards the society and environment in which the company is providing its services(Barnett, et. al. 2020). Corporate social responsibility has four types such as environmental responsibility, ethical responsibility, philanthropic responsibility, and financial responsibility. To fulfill corporate social responsibility, the company conducts various programs and events. An organization operates a business within beliefs; assumptions practiced values and group norms which is known as the culture of the company. The corporate social responsibility (CSR) and culture of a company interrelate with each other, as the culture of a company changes according to the fluctuations in a CSR policy of an organization. Corporate social responsibility integrates socially and ethically responsible to all the employees of a company at every level of authority and responsibility whether external or internal. These CSR responsibilities lead to changes in the nature and work areas of company employees, the work changes refer to a culture change in an organization.

The company faces several problems like cultural changes and cultural differences between the employees as every person hasa different purpose and way to live life. The cultural changes among employees create problems in operating the business, but corporate social responsibility encourages employees to think in the same way to perform their tasks. To balance the corporate social responsibility policy and culture of a business, the company has to adopt a distinct view of all cultures or can make new culture according to employee’s nature towards the organization.

A good CSR policy also motivates the employees or workers of a company to work hard for the company's growth and development. The company's CSR policy mentions the benefits for their workers and employees the culture of the company is well maintained(Wan, et. al.2020). As all employee wants extra benefits from the company, they give their best performance and control emotions which badly affect the culture of a company. CSR is a responsibility of a company and its employees towards the society, and environment in which the company's services are running ( Kucharska, et.al 2019). On the other side, a culture of a company reflects the performance and results of CSR responsibilities that the business is going on.

 For the case study on the skills in analysis and management across cultures of a company, McDonald's is considered a case company. McDonald's is a restaurant chain in various countries where the company is trying to provide the best services in the fast food offering on the globe(Rovira, and Auger, 2021). As the case company offers its services in many countries, it has to ensure the culture of the company should be matched with thecountry. McDonald managed its restaurant culture across many countries by making different strategies for the different country's restaurants(Ukessays, 2015). The company also provides fast served quality and healthy product and adopt the local culture of the country. To manage the culture in a company, McDonald's maintains a standard, comfortable and healthy environment in an organization.

Both the management practice and culture of an organization are made in a company but performed by different authorities and persons in a company. The corporate social responsibility policy is made by the top managers of a company whereas the culture of a company is an internal motivation of working partners in a business. The culture decides in what way the CSR responsibility will be taken in an organization, in positive, negative, painful, and enjoyable ways. The responsibility of CSR is imposed or distributed among the employees of a company, while the culture of an organization determines how the responsibilities are executed. It depends on the employees of the company whether they are enjoying the CSR responsibilities or not, but it is compulsory to carry out corporate social responsibility in the company culture. The balance of a CSR and culture helps the company to touch growth and development points in the market. 

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is concluded that every company has to manage its internal culture to match the external culture of an organization. The best balance of culture, as well as all management practices, will lead the company to gain a competitive advantage over the competitors. Effective skills are required to find a solution to problems raised in the company's environment along with management of the culture in an organization. It is recommended that the company should opt the suitable approaches to a culture based on analyzing an organizational culture. Before adopting any approach or comparative model the company has encouraging employees of the company, all managers should study deeply about all the methods and models to gain a competitive advantage and large consumer base.

References

Ahmad, M., Rehman, A. and Ali, A., 2019. Cross Culture Management Challenges: A Critical Review. Asian Basic and Applied Research Journal, pp.32-38.

AYDIN, B., 2018. The role of organizational culture on leadership styles. MANAS Sosyal Ara?t?rmalar Dergisi, 7(1), pp.267-280.

Barnett, M.L., Henriques, I. and Husted, B.W., 2020. Beyond good intentions: Designing CSR initiatives for greater social impact. Journal of Management46(6), pp.937-964.

Danari, R., 2020. AN ANALYSIS OF MEANING NEGOTIATION STRATEGY BETWEEN LECTURE-STUDENTS IN ENGLISH ONLINE CLASSES DURING PANDEMIC COVID-19. JEEP (Journal of English Education Program)7(2).

Ito, E., Kono, S. and Walker, G.J., 2020. Development of cross-culturally informed leisure-time physical activity constraint and constraint negotiation typologies: The case of Japanese and Euro-Canadian adults. Leisure Sciences42(5-6), pp.411-429.

Krajcsák, Z., 2018. Relationships between employee commitment and organizational cultures: a theoretical framework. International Journal of Organizational Analysis.

Kucharska, W. and Kowalczyk, R., 2019. How to achieve sustainability?—Employee's point of view on company's culture and CSR practice. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 26(2), pp.453-467.

Rovira, À. and Auger, C., 2021. Beyond McDonald: updated perspectives on MRI diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics21(8), pp.895-911.

Saidrasulova, S.N., 2022. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF CULTURE. Oriental renaissance: Innovative, educational, natural and social sciences2(Special Issue 20), pp.671-675.

Schmiedel, T., Müller, O. and VomBrocke, J., 2019. Topic modeling as a strategy of inquiry in organizational research: A tutorial with an application example on organizational culture. Organizational Research Methods22(4), pp.941-968.

Schöttke, H., Bartram, M. and Wiedl, K.H., 2020. Psychometric implications of learning potential assessment: A typological approach. In Learning potential assessment (pp. 153-173). Taylor & Francis.

Shavitt, S. and Barnes, A.J., 2020. Culture and the consumer journey. Journal of Retailing96(1), pp.40-54.

Simola, J., 2019. Comparative research of cybersecurity information sharing models. Information & Security43(2), pp.175-195.

Ukessays, 2015. Managing Across Cultures Case Study On McDonalds and Its Culture. [Oline]. Available through :<https://www.ukessays.com/essays/marketing/managing-across-cultures-case-study-on-mcdonalds-marketing-essay.php>.

Wan, P., Chen, X. and Ke, Y., 2020. Does corporate integrity culture matter to corporate social responsibility? Evidence from China. Journal of Cleaner Production259, p.120877.

Wang, C.H. and Varma, A., 2020. International management strategies and expatriate practices of Taiwanese multinational corporations: a contingency perspective. Asian Business & Management, pp.1-25.

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