Biopsychosocial Analysis and Person-Centered Care Planning for an Elderly Client

The content critically examines various theories related to aging and provides insights into supporting older adults through life transitions and promoting positive aging.

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Introduction of A Rural Elder's Daily Life & Support Needs: A Case Study

Ann 81 years an older adult who lives in a rural area with her dog. For the last 15 years, she has been widowed and lives alone. She has a son and daughter-in-law who live about fifty miles away. The woman has a few close friends and three of her granddaughters often come to visit her. The woman is suffering from “Myeloma” and has been fighting it for two years. She has lost her body weight and front teeth during these years. Ann has evolved more unstable in the previous three years though it is considerably stronger nowadays as Ann is in revocation and there is no need to take “bone-strengthening” as well as “anticancer medications”. Another problem with Ann is that she has started to forget things and sometimes forgets what the day of the week is. In this report, Ann's major “biological”, “psychological” and “social” problems are discussed, also, to meet Ann's “biopsychological” needs “person-centred care planning” will be used.

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Critically analyse key biological issues

Main biological issues of the client

People often face various biological issues that can affect their normal livelihood with older age. In the procedure of ageing, the functional ability of the individuals can be decreased. The mobility, system function and cognitive process can be rustic. Based on this case study, Ann, who is being discussed, is 81 years old. She is becoming much frailer with days passing by, her memory is weakening, and she is also becoming forgetful. She forgets the cooker on the burner even after finishing cooking and sometimes she is also turning the TV on overnight. According to her, she also forgets about the current day and date. Moreover, the door is often left open by her, and she sometimes forgets her dog on the street.

Relation of biological issues to the natural ageing process

Based on the incidents, it can be seen that the natural ageing process is related to forgetfulness and loss of bodily strength of the people. Ageing is a slow but inevitable process that can highlight the slowly deteriorating body function in human beings. Slowly people face different biological issues and for that, the mobility of the aged people degenerates (Campisiet al. 2019). The biological process includes the breakdown of the musculoskeletal system along with the nervous system; for that, the sense of the aged person slowly deteriorates. Cell death or apoptosis can be seen during the ageing process and for this reason, the failure of different organs and systems is common in the case of the aged and older persons (Marsmanet al. 2018). The shrinkage of the brain and nerve cells eventually affects the memory of the aged persons, and the brain's ventricles can grow larger. With the loss of memory, functional activities are also affected in the person over 60 years.

Lifestyle factors contribute to the person's physical health issues.

Physical health issues can also affect the lifestyle factors of a person. The normal chores and other work can be a little strenuous for people. Physical activities such as going to work, engaging in exercises, and social and community activities take a lot of work to fulfil. Relationships with near and dear ones are also hard to maintain (Fratiglioniet al. 2020). Along with that, motility can be restricted or compromised for the weaker joints and poorer musculoskeletal construction can also not let the aged persons be engaged in the hard work. The essential daily activities such as eating, drinking or going to the washrooms can be hectic for the fixed or freezing joints that can be set in for arthritis problems.

Biological issues in terms of physiological theories of ageing

Wear and tear theory" can be included as the physiological theory of ageing and according to this theory, the vital parts of the cells and tissues wear out, which can result in ageing. The basal metabolic rate and the oxygen saturation level can also suffer from the ageing of the tissues. Exposure to toxins and radiation and other deteriorative processes can be seen in the case of aged persons (Sattaur, 2021). On the other hand, oxidative stress can also be increased in the case of aged persons, and systematic biological issues can be seen. The stress and illness of the people can also be increased in the case of the aged.

Relation of societal attitudes to ageing and ageism with stereotypes of physical ageing

Ageing is the term related to the gradual increase of individuals' age and the increasing age of the cells and tissues. On the other hand, Ageism is the term related to the social prejudices related to the stereotypes of the ageing process in society irrespective of the culture (Garrido et al. 2022). The physical ageing of people may or may not be restricted from social or physical activities. There can always be a negative depiction of the agreeing in society and the aged persons are considered to be ill health, dependent and lonely. They are also stereotyped to be in poor mental and physical functioning. The negative stereotyping of aged people can be much more depressing than aged people, and they can be more introverted.

Contribution of health literacy and social prescribing to support aged person

Health literacy is the most important perspective for the people around the aged person as the knowledge regarding the change in the bodily function of the aged persons and the issues they face in a biological, physical, social and psychological aspect (Nutbeam and Lloyd, 2021). After knowing the factors, people can help and support the aged persons through their changes.

Critically analyse key psychological issues

Important psychological issues of the client

Psychological changes can also be seen during the ageing process and can be different for different people. The main psychological issue that is faced by the client, Ann is loneliness. She is living alone at the age of 81 and even if family members come often to meet her, the lack of constant support is not achieved by her. On the other hand, after two years of myeloma, weight and teeth loss has been seen in her case and for that, a scenario of irritation can be visualised in the case of Ann. shd could be vulnerable to her physical and mental condition after fighting with a fatal physical condition. In addition, the client can feel the lack of care as constant care and giving company can be the only need at this age. The pain can often be felt for the side effects of the medication and sleep disturbances are also common and irritability can also be visible in the client.

Theories of psychological ageing in explanation of any psychological issues

The conventional theories of ageing were considered psychological theories and changes in behaviours and personality modifications can be seen with the inclusion of the years. The emotions, attitudes, personality adaptation, and social and environmental demands are changed with the growing age (Houghton et al. 2020). The relationships and status are also changed with the theory. In that case, the “Human Needs Theory" can be the perfect fit for the psychological ageing theories. Based on this theory, the physiological needs, safety and security needs, and needs for love and belonging are included which are to be taken care of.

On the other hand, self-actualisation needs and esteem needs are two additional needs that can be increased in aged persons. The aged person always wants their self-respect to be intact even if they are unable to work on their own. On the other hand, they love to stay with their near and dear ones for constant love and support. The self-actualisation needs are decreased for the decreased efficiency of creativity and sense of fulfilment (Trivedi and Mehta, 2019). On the other hand, the love and belonging needs are not fulfilled for the lack of a companion and the loneliness. The connection with people is decreased with age, so they can feel vulnerable and become introverted.

Moreover, safety and security feelings also get sensitive and for that reason, they can become a little sceptical about their hunger, exposure and safety. Theory can become much more irritating than before and their approach towards life can become much more mechanical. These are the changes the older person faces.

Supporting options for the person with their current life transition

The aged persons go through a transition phase during the ageing process and their change can be inevitable yet unexpected to the people. In that case, instant support can be a plausible option that can also affect the psychology and approach of older people. Spending quality time with elderly persons can be a way to support them in their vulnerable situation (, 2021). They can be lonely in this phase and the near relatives can be distant, so they can face drastic turbulence in their minds. In addition, sharing meals with the aged person can be a way to support them in their condition (, 2021). They can have support or company in their lonely times. Engaging in entertaining works with old people can also be supporting them. On the other hand, assisting them in their daily work with their permission can also be beneficial.

Role of personal identity in enhancing positive ageing

Positive ageing is keeping good attitudes towards the ageing process of individuals and the transition phases of life. The positive growth of mindset can be seen in this case; ageing is considered any other phase of life. In this positive ageing personal identity maintenance can be crucial for the acceptance of the ageing process (Age, 2021). In that case, being determined can be a true aspect and the optimistic attitudes necessary for positive ageing. Learning to survive with limitations can also be a beneficial aspect of personal identity that can be maintained to accept the growth of age.

Critically Analyze Key Social Issues

Vital Social Issues

The “World Health Organisation” says that almost a quarter of the population of the world is forecasted to be around sixty years by the year 2050. The outstanding “health” and “social issues” linked with ageing are becoming increasingly vital in the forthcoming years.

There are several vital social issues which are affecting elderly people.

“Loneliness” is a key problem for elderly people. As per the case study, Ann is living alone in her own house (Sjöberg et al., 2021). This is a major problem as sometimes the people who live alone, do not take meals properly so the people lack sufficient nutrition. Health problems are arising sometimes like hearing disabilities additionally to go hidden for more prolonged (Fakoyaet al., 2020). “Self-Negligence” is another problem with elderly people which comes with another problem which is “Lack of Family Support”, as while living independently it is easier to begin disregarding something like individual hygiene, bypassing cleaning and keeping the house, properly balanced meals not eaten and also not abiding by prescription drugs which is a necessity (Donovan and Blazer, 2020). In the above-mentioned case study, Ann could neglect her medicines and meals as she is living alone in a house, which could be a major cause of her weight loss.

Theories of Sociological ageing

Three major theories have been presented in this assignment, which is related to sociological ageing, which includes: the “Disengagement theory”, “Conflict theory”, and “Activity theory”.

“Disengagement theory” describes the process of enabling younger people to assume the important roles the younger people should follow, as a society should be engaged always with its elderly people to liberate them from people’s prior functions and should take the roles more correctly to the mental and physical deterioration (Latimer, 2018). This approach is believed a “positivistic illustration” of the ageing procedure. according to the case study, Ann’s son and daughter-in-law should be engaged with Ann most of the time to follow the roles and responsibilities of Ann appropriately. “Conflict theory” refers to elderly people experiencing age-oriented preconceptions and prejudice. Imbalances among elderly people live along with the bars of “gender”, “race or ethnicity”, and “social class”. This hypothesis falls under the additional common “disagreement” or “conflict theory” of the community (Abrutyn and Mueller, 2018). This theory can arise in Ann's case as she is living all alone and leading her life on her wish so that conflicts can arise in order to abide by the younger people's rules. “Activity theory” describes elderly individuals satisfying each other and the community if the people persist to be involved (Donovan and Blazer, 2020). The favourable perceptions of the ageing procedure are important for people’s capacity to stay diligent. This approach is regarded as an “interactionist motivation” of the ageing strategy.

Age-inclusive communities and differing cultural stands improve positive ageing

Positive ageing can be improved by various “Age-inclusive communities” and by various “cultural stands”. Understanding factors regarding ageing is the outcome of many diverse elements, meandering from the “micro-level” to the “macro level”, and also from “physical to sociable” (Wood et al., 2022). Researchers have found that people with better favourable self-perspectivity about ageing, estimated from early midlife, and people who lived more than 7.5 years longer even now in midlife in comparison to the people who have less positivity regarding self-conception of ageing (Ryser and Franchini, 2022). Encouraging positive perspectives on ageing could therefore complete approaches that seek to foster healthful ageing, as it is an increased focus in numerous nations.

Justify the use of person-centered care planning as an approach to meet biopsychosocial needs

Person-Centred Care Planning to meet Biopsychosocial Needs

The representations “patient?centred” and “person?centred” are frequently used identically in order to enhance elderly people’s health benefits. In this research “biopsychosocial needs” can be reflected by a “person?centred” care plan. The key features of “biopsychosocial needs” can be implemented in elderly people via several means. “Relationship” involvement in the care planning cycle is supported by the rate of the connection between the individual utilising the assistance and the sociable care-skilled people who employ assistance have highlighted the asset that the elderly people achieve from connections established on empathy, warmth, trustworthiness and regard (Tew et al., 2021). The care staff need to talk with elderly people respectfully so that the elderly people can discuss each problem in brief. “Communication” is another effective approach to carefully examine what each person is attempting to convey, instead of constructing empty guesses by researching their previous wishes and finding out about their values (Smeetset al., 2020). In the case of Ann, these care plans could be helpful to lead her life positively. The family and relatives should be involved in the care plan too, as Ann lives alone, and sometimes Ann lacks people she needed someone to talk to, so involving the family could lead Ann to make a positive approach towards Ann's life. As well as, Ann should be involved in an ageing club and a laughing club so that Ann can interact with her similarly aged people, this could be a better way to convert her thoughts and difficulties.

The major principles of the approach

The key principle of “Person-Centred Care Planning” is to respect the elderly people as it’s crucial to know the elderly person and identify the person’s unique qualities. The experiences and goals of the people should have to understand to create a durable care plan. Confidentiality should be maintained while following the care plan to build faith and to create a constructive connection with the senior individuals. “Care act 2014”, should be followed while making the care plan for elderly people, there are six major principles involved in the care act, such as “Protection”, “Prevention”, “empowerment”, “partnership”, “Proportionality”, and “Accountability” (Legislation, 2022). These six regulations of the “Care Act 2014” facilitate a “person-centred care approach”. This method encourages caregivers to customize the care at the time of need for elderly people. The “House of care model” should be followed while making the care plan for elderly people. This model represented a real and established practice which permits the healthcare professional to embrace support and care for elderly people. NHS Long Term Plan” 2019 also should be incorporated into the “person-centred care approach”. This plan has been devised in collaboration with healthcare staff, patients along with families. This plan will enhance consequences for significant ailments, like “stroke”, “heart disease”, “respiratory disease”, “cancer” and “dementia”. According to the case study, Ann is facing “dementia” so this care plan would be effective for Ann.


It can be concluded from the above discussion that, Ann’s several physical and mental issues could be rectified by using an effective “person-centred care approach”.Noteworthy steps with regard to a health strategy are more reactive to patients' priorities, necessities, and values which will need considerably more awareness to realising about the importance from the elderly people’s perspective. Existing “person-centred” even a lot of primacy on utilising the proper contact strategies.



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