Introduction Of Assessment Of Theoretical And Practical Approaches To Youth Offending Case Study
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1. A context introduction which signposts the report
Youth offending is associated with teamwork with young people when they get into trouble with the law and get arrested. It is also associated with making the young people stay away from crime. In this context, there is a case study provided in the assessment that demonstrates an idea about Jane Doe, a 15 years and 7-month-old female, found with offences of possessing a knife in a public place and a controlled drug of Class A-heroin. After a proper investigation, it has been identified that Jane kept a knife with herself in order to protect herself from her boyfriend, a member of Laurel and Hardy gang group (SMITH, 2007). It is also identified that the boyfriend of Jane told her to pass the package without letting her know about the substance that is inside the package. Jane was also facing issues at her home if she used to stay home for a longer period of time in terms of getting panic attacks and anxiety. In this regard, Jane took the knife with her so that she could be protected with it and came across trouble. Here, the young offending law and policies come into place to tackle the situation. This assessment deals with the youth offending along with demonstrating the situation mentioned in the case study followed by including the policies and initiatives of law offending in the UK.
2. Governmental policies and initiatives in youth offending
There are different policies and initiatives in youth offending in the UK such as youth crime prevention programmes, helping people in police stations if they are arrested, and helping young people and their families. Community sentences are also there in the UK for the purpose of offending youths (PYCROFT and GOUGH, 2010). Youth offending teams are also there in the UK that are based upon offending the people of the UK in case of facing any trouble with the police or are arrested. These policies are also associated with helping people who are charged with a crime or convicted of a crime. The offending teams are probation officers, police, schools and education authorities. Health, housing, charities, local communities, and children’s services (gov.uk, 2022).
The youth offending system in the UK also comprises processes that are used to convict and prosecute the person under 18 years of age who commit criminal offences. It is also based on preventing harm through exploitation by reducing the number of children in custody and improving the experience of children in custody. The crime and disorder act 1998 is also based upon youth offending (gov.uk, 2022). Youth Justice Service is also there in the UK which is based upon providing justice to the youth through making a youth justice strategic plan. The plan is also based upon preventing the domestic violence and violence against women and girls. However, there are some standards in the UK that are based upon co-operating with the local authorities in order to deal with the offending of youths. This has been associated with the secretary of state, police, providers of probation services, clinical commissioning group and local health board. Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 is also there in the UK that is based upon offending the youths with the help of local authorities (GOLDSON and MUNCIE, 2006). The provisions for the youth offence are associated with consulting with the local authorities for analyzing the youths' background and its related offences so that the preventive actions can be undertaken. In this context, it can be demonstrated that all the policies and initiatives related to the youth offending can be useful enough for the prevention of issues for the youth.
There are other initiatives of youth offending as well that include the awareness program among the youths for the purpose of peer pressure. This program and intervention are undertaken by Fairwick Youth Offending Service in order to deal with the offence committed by the youth. This program is based upon making the youth understand about the consequences of the offences of peer pressure. The counseling is also observed as one of the major treatments that are provided in this intervention program with the help of which almost 35% of the youth have gained benefits in controlling their aggressive behavior (GOLDSON, 2008). However, the anger Management intervention program is also provided by the Fairwick Youth Offending Service in order to make the youth understand how to manage their anger issues so that they can get aware of future negative outcomes as well as deal with the issues.
The intervention program also includes substance misuse awareness with the help of which almost 25% of the youth have gained support and dealt with their issues. It has been observed to be very useful for dealing with youth offending behavior. In this context, it can be demonstrated that the government's policies that are undertaken by the UK based on the youth offending are very useful to deal with the generating issues related to it. Lastly, employment and ability are also enhanced in the UK for the purpose of delaying youth offences.
3. With the dominant theoretical perspectives in your mind, please consider:
a. The formal and informal social factors that may pull Jane in or out her offending behavior
Formal social factors
There are several formal social factors that make Jane out her offending behavior one of which the most important factor is the government policy associated with youth offending. This has been illustrated as the governmental policies are associated with making the youth protective against any offence which they have not committed (Gov.uk, 2022). The judicial sanctions and regulatory policies related to the youth offending can also be useful for the purpose of making Jane aware of the circumstances that she has faced along with demonstrating the collection of evidence. Control through the Governmental policies can also be obtained for Jane in terms of helping in her offending behavior.
Informal social factors
Informal social factors are also associated with several factors in criminal justice such as the generation of individual and group reaction regarding the case of Jane for her youth offending. It can also be associated with conformity to the law and norms that include community pressure regarding Jane and her offence (Gov.uk, 2022). Collective response as a citizen patrol group will also play an important role in terms of pulling Jane out her offending behavior. This is illustrated as the perspective of people in a society about any offence also plays an important role in terms of dealing with its negative consequences.
b. Her school has considered excluding Jane from school. Existing literature suggests that this may exacerbate her offending behavior. Identify academic research and analyze factors contributing to why young people experience the school to prison line.
There are different factors due to which the young people experience the school to prison line. This is illustrated as the students can feel that they are treated unequally from their schools due their action. It is identified from the research that the school to prison pipeline refers to the process due to which youth experience punishment in school and increasingly enmeshed that help them to realize about the offence and their behaviours. This has been observed to be very helpful for the purpose of enhancing within the criminal justice system. It is identified from a certain report from the Department of Education's 2018 office of civil rights, which demonstrates that approximately 2.7 million students experienced at least one out of school suspension during the year of 2015 and 2016 (Routledge.com, 2022). The life event promoting criminal justice and offence includes engaged parenthood. This is also associated with providing experience in people from the school to prison line. However, the life events promoting criminal systems and academic achievements are also associated with dealing with criminal justice involvement. The school to prison line also occurs due to this proportionate number of students in terms of dropping out of the school and enter the criminal justice system. However, in order to feel ashamed, the school to prison pipeline is situated that also refers to the practices from learning. Pushing students out of a school in order to juvenile is also associated with it.
It is also based upon making the student feel about the misbehavior that they have undergone. In this context, all the associated authorities try to make the students realize the same. In this context, 68% personal work with incarceration. School suspension can contribute to Anti-Social outcome among adolescents that can result in getting aware of the cruciality of the offence that has been made by the youth . In this context, according to study 480 students out of 1000 have enhanced their behavior after getting caught for the suspension from school (Publishing.service.gov.uk, 2022).
4. From the ‘Guideline’ list below, please consider:
a. Which programmes (both reparation and intervention) may be suitable in Jane’s case? Why so?
Reparation programs associated with restorative justice can be useful for the purpose of Jane's case in terms of dealing with the situation that has been faced by her. This has illustrated as a preparation program can be useful to repair the injury that has been caused by the current situation for Jane. Reparation was looking backward to the wrong and looking forward to repair and reconciliation (Publishing.service.gov.uk, 2022). Reparation programs can include the unpaid works such as decorating, painting, graffiti removal and picking. This can result in dealing with the youth offenders. This has been illustrated as the actions that have been mentioned related to the decoration painting and picking can be useful to provide the young often a chance to get involved with the work and release about their offences. It is also identified that the aim of preparation programs is associated with repairing the harm and making the amendment for the offence. This is associated with providing a chance to the young offenders in terms of making them realize about the offence. Assurance of Non-Repetition reparation program can also be provided to the Jane by taking a sign of a paper based upon not repetition of the action that have been performed by her (gov.uk, 2022). This can be useful to provide her a chance to understand her mistake and get in touch with those friends who can help her to deal with her stress. Rehabilitation programs are also based upon providing guidance to deal with the stress and verbally aggressive toward her peers.
There are different intervention programs developed by the government of the UK for the purpose of dealing with young offenders. This is illustrated as classroom and behavior management programs are there with the help of which calmness is developed among the students that help them to understand the situation as well as reduce their aggressive nature. In this context, this intervention program can also be useful for Jane's case for the purpose of making her understand regarding the aggressive behavior of herself. It is also identified that the intervention program of social competence promotion curricula can also be used for the purpose of making Jane understand regarding the offence that she has made as well as deal with the situation whenever she feels aggressive (Differencebetween.net, 2022). This can be helpful for the purpose of consoling the offence in Jane along with notifying her of the negative consequences after she repeats the same. This can also be useful for the purpose of making her realize about the situation and its consequences. The criminal justice system is also observed to be including functional family therapy with the help of which the youth can be provided with a proper guidance regarding the offences. This can also be useful to deal with the issues faced by the youth.
Gardening project at ‘Fairwick Public Park’ and Carpentry project led by ‘Fairwick Council’ is also a preparation based upon dealing with the Youth offenders. This reparation program can be undertaken for Jane in order to deal with the concerned situation (Researchgate.net, 2022).
b. Which public services may work in collaboration with Fairwick Youth Offending Service to provide support for the service and Jane
The Youth Justice Board for England and Wales is associated with providing the prevention of youth offenders by reducing the number of children in custody by improving their experience. It is also associated with improving the transition outcome for the children by making them understand about the consequences of the offences that they can make. This can be used for collaborating with Fairwick Youth Offending Service to provide support for the service and Jane (Researchgate.net, 2022). However, youth offending services are also provided in the UK that are made up of different numbers of professionals from different agencies who work together to prevent children and young people from committing offences. In this context, it is also based upon improving the experience of children by educating them. There are different prevention programs in the UK such as social welfare and development that are based upon the youth offenders in terms of collaborating with different services to provide support to the concerned offenders. In this context, it can also collaborate with Fairwick Youth Offending Service to provide support for the service and Jane. The research has also illustrated that the youth justice system is also there in the UK with the help of which almost 75% of cases are resolved. However, Anger management is also an intervention program that can be useful for providing guidance to Jane and making her understand (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2022). Peer Pressure Awareness is also based on providing awareness regarding the pressure of peer-to-peer pressure. Substance Misuse Support and Awareness are also based on providing guidance to the youth regarding offences that can also help Jane towards dealing with her offence and making understand about the situations.
5. Critically analyze how youth offending impacts public services
Youth offending is also observed to be negatively impacting the development and socialization. However, the level of self-esteem also gets degraded among the public services due to offending behavior of the youth. Youth offending negatively impacts the public services in terms of creating a threat among the public. Youth offending also leads towards negatively impacting the criminal department in terms of creating a threat of youth offence (gov.uk, 2022). This has been illustrated as youth offences also happen in the criminal and investigation department of the UK as well which will become very difficult to deal with. Youth offending is also observed to negatively impact the functionality of the local authority and social services in terms of creating obstacle to move forward. Public services are made up of enthusiastic youths in order to deal with the social issues and other problems in the society. In this regard, the youth offence lead towards facing lack of youth involved in the public services that degrades the functionality of it in the society. It is also identified that youth offending action also negatively impacts the youth offending team in terms of creating threat for them. However, public service gets reduced due to the offending nature of the youth. The research has also illustrated that public service has to deal with inadequate support from school due to youth offending (Digitalcommons.humboldt.edu, 2022).
The financial issues in the country also arise due to youth offending. This is illustrated as the public service intend to address the need of community where the youth offending is considered as the top most priority that reduces the financial development of the public service system. However, the economic growth of the country has become stagnant due to working with youth offending. This is illustrated as the youth are the next generation of the country who need to be very active in the education, research and development so that the economic growth of the country can get enhanced. However, due to increased offence among the youth, it becomes difficult to achieve the targeted economic growth. This also degraded the lowering of country development (Digitalcommons.humboldt.edu, 2022).
6. A rational conclusion influenced by your findings
Youth offending is associated with the age of 10 to 17 making any criminal offence. The offending of youth is increasing in the UK. This is illustrated as the youth offending was 8% in 2018 that has increased to 24% in 2022. However, there are some cases in which the youth do not want to commit any offence but they get into trouble due to some own mistakes such as the current case study. The case study also demonstrates the discussion about Jane who has a very aggressive behavior towards the male members in her college and classroom. She also gets trouble from peer pressure that has also led her towards facing verbally aggressive behavior towards peers. In this context, Jane was instructed by her boyfriend in order to transfer a package which she was hesitant about as she does know about the material inside the package. In this regard, she decides to take a knife with her after which she gets caught and gets arrested by the police. After a proper investigation the whole scenario comes out related to the offence and its consequences.
It is identified that youth offending is dealt with different policies and initiatives by the government of the UK. This is illustrated as the government policies related to prevention programs as well as interventions are there in the UK for youth offenders. It is also related to the use of governmental policies of the UK in order to deal with offences by youth. It is identified that intervention programs are also based upon dealing with youth offending that has helped 25% of the youth of the UK. It can also be demonstrated that formal social factors are there in the UK that can be useful for the purpose of dealing with the offending behavior of Jane. Informal social factors can also be useful for the purpose of pulling Jane out of her offending behavior. After the searching of the literature in exacerbating offences, it is identified that the criminal justice system is also based upon providing support to the youth offending behavior. The reparation and intervention programs can also be useful for the purpose of Jane's case in terms of making her understand regarding the case as well as her offences.
Differencebetween.net, (2022), Difference Between Formal and Informal Social Control, available at: http://www.differencebetween.net/science/psychology/difference-between-formal-and-informal-social-control/ [Accessed on: 11.09.22]
Digitalcommons.humboldt.edu, (2022), SCHOOL-TO-PRISON PIPELINE: THE FACTORS THAT CAUSE IT, AND HOW WE CAN PREVENT IT, available at: https://digitalcommons.humboldt.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1124&context,=etd [Accessed on: 11.09.22]
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Publishing.service.gov.uk, (2022), Standards for children in the youth justice system 2019, available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/957697/Standards_for_children_in_youth_justice_services_2019.doc.pdf [Accessed on: 11.09.22]
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