Aerospace Vehicle And Design Assignment Sample

Exploring Aerospace Vehicle Design: Comprehensive Assignment Guide

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Introduction OfAerospace Vehicle And Design

This design project's goal is to provide a safe and effective plane fuselage that can reduce flying anxiety, offer sufficient protection for individuals and freight, and also adhere to legal criteria.The project's scope covers the design and study of the main framework for the aircraft along with the completion of the integration of all required technologies and parts, such as hydraulic in nature, wiring, and environmental management systems. It also includes choosing appropriate components and production methods to guarantee that the fuselage exceeds efficiency, safety, and financial requirements.

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The project's goals are to create an aeroplane fuselage that satisfies the following standards:

  • Enough strength and rigidity to endure external forces and takeoff stresses; • Enough room for passengers and luggage
  • Low cost and weight
  • Following through with all applicable security regulations and exigences
  • Lessen the effect on the environment


Weight, strength, aerodynamics, protection, & manufacturing processes are only a few of the considerations and limits for aircraft fuselage design. The following constitute a few important specifications and limitations for the construction of a plane fuselage:

  • The fuselage shouldn't just be able to safeguard passengers as well as cargo in the case of a crash or emergency landing; it must be able to endure the stresses and strains of flight, which include raising itself, drag, and turbulence (Chai et al. 2021).

Design methodology

  • The design of the fuselage has to comply with all applicable safety laws and standards, like those imposed by the FAA, or Federal Aviation Administration, in the United States, while avoiding manufacturing costs and complexity.
  • Environmental considerations like background noise and fuel economy must be made in the design.

Figure 1: Design of Aircraft fuselage structure on SolidWorks

Design of Aircraft fuselage structure on SolidWorks

(Source: Acquired from Solidworks)

  1. Conceptual design

Various ideas for the design may be considered based on the constraints acquired surrounding the earlier stage.

  1. Detailed design

Following the pick of a chosen conceptual design, an expanded version will be produced. At this step, the three-dimensional rendering is further refined, components and systems are combined, and the right materials are chosen.

  1. Analysis and simulation

Various calculations and assessments may be carried out to assess the efficiency of the fuselage construction whilst in the detailed design stage. This could involve CFD (computational fluid dynamics) to analyze aerodynamics, which FEA, or finite element analysis, to assess stress and strain on the frame, and other simulators to assess the functionality of systems and components(Chai et al. 2021).

  1. Testing of the model: After models and the exact design are complete, a real prototype from the main body may be built and put to the test.

Wing design

Size and Position of key Structural Elements: The overall form of the wings depends heavily on how big and where they are of the key structural elements, notably eliminated as ribs. The spars, which carry both the mass in the aircraft itself and the lift that is created during flight, are the most critical load-bearing elements of the wing and are normally positioned along its length. Ribs give the wing its laminar form and are typically placed inclined to the spars(Brevaultet al. 2020

Fuselage design

Aerodynamic Design: An aerodynamicist & an S&C (Stability and Command) scientist frequently collaborate to establish the aerodynamic qualities for the wings, which is essential to the reliability of the aircraft.

Tailplane design

Figure 2: Dimension of Aircraft fuselage structure on SolidWorks

Dimension of Aircraft fuselage structure on SolidWorks

(Source: Acquired from Solidworks)

The form that takes on the wing, the placement of control elements like flaps or ailerons in and the usage of winglets to minimize drag are only a few of the examples of possible technical considerations.

Figure 3: Dimension of Aircraft fuselage structure on SolidWorks

Dimension of Aircraft fuselage structure on SolidWorks

(Source: Acquired from Solid works)

Calculation of Torque Distributions, Folding Moments, thus and Shear Forces: To make certain the wings are able to withstand the loads and strains of a flight, it is imperative that you determine the shear stress, bending moment, etc. torque dispersion (Brevault et al. 2020).

Depending on the anticipated flying stresses and the skeletal features of the wing, these calculations are normally made utilizing structural evaluation software or manually.

Attachments and load paths

Engineers often conduct a series of computations based on the anticipated flight load and the skeletal features of the aircraft to identify the load pathways regarding the engine's propulsion system.

The calculations tend to involve modelling the frame of the plane and simulating the stresses and strains that will be running across during flight using software for computer-aided design, or CAD, or other tools.

Main Structural Components Attached: For the system of propulsion to remain stable and extremely durable, it must be connected to the primary structural elements of the aircraft. It is necessary to evenly distribute the loads and varieties throughout the aircraft's structure, connecting points must be carefully planned (Brevault et al. 2020).


Stress analysis

Bulkheads will transmit loads from the wing tips and dorsal fin attach points while supporting the forward engines plus the forward part of the propeller axle. A pressurized frame skin can vary in thickness via 2 to 4 mm, but thanks to improvements in material science or frame cross-sectional size, its width has been minimized to about 2.5 mm.

Wings and fuselages for aeroplanes must undergo a rigorous stress study as part of the planning process. To make sure that the plane is capable of withstanding the stresses and strains of flight, the investigation involves computing the primary shear force, transforming moment, and twisting places of residence across the operational envelope of the planes, including aerobatics(Dahilet al. 2021).

Here are some illustrations of estimates for the flaps and fuselage of an airplane under stress:

Estimating the force of wing shear: The lift created by the wing typically culminates from the wing shear force, which is the force operating perpendicular to the longitude of the wing. A wing's shear strength is calculated using the following formula:


Shear Force equals Lift times Tan(A)

Where: Lift equals the lift produced by the wing Angle of wing incidence is equal to

For instance, the wing bending force would be as follows if the lift produced by the wing was 50,000 N and its angle concerning incidence was 5 degrees.

Shear Force equals 50,000 times tan (5) to 4,363 N.

Calculating the Fuselage Bending Moment: The forces performing perpendicular to the fuselage's longitudinal axis produce a moment of tension known as the fuselage bending moment. The fuselage's bending moment can be estimated using the following formula:

Force x Distance corresponds to Bending Moment

Where: Force is the pressure exerted on the fuselage. Distance is the separation between the force's application point and a specific location that is relevant across the fuselage.

if the distance between the point of application and the bear witness of interest is 2 meters and the force impacting on the inside of the fuselage is 10,000 N, the moment of flexion would be:

10,000 times two equals 20,000 Nm of bending moment.

Component Typical Dimensions Typical Material
Spar Length: Varies Aluminium alloy
Height: Varies
Thickness: Varies
Rib Length: Varies Aluminium alloy
Height: Varies
Thickness: Varies
Stringer Length: Varies Aluminium alloy
Height: Varies
Thickness: Varies
Longeron Length: Varies Aluminium alloy
Height: Varies

Table 1: Components

(Source: Delf created)

Calculating wing torque: The engine or propeller are often to blame for the wing torque, which refers to the rotating force occurring on the wing. The following equation is used to determine wing torque:

Engine horsepower x distance equals torque

Where: Engine Thrust is the engine's produced thrust. Engine-to-wing root distance is measured in terms of distance (Spearrin and Bendana, 2019).

For instance, the wing strain would be as follows if the motor's thrust was 20,000 N and the gap that separated the engine and the roots of the wings was 3 m

Torque = 20 000 times.

A single loss of a drive, battery, or propeller must not prevent the aircraft from continuing to fly effectively and safely land. In addition, the plane must be constructed to be fault-tolerant. At the intended speed utilized for aerobatics, the airplane must remain positively stable within yaw & can be completely balanced in rolling and tilt.

Skin thickness

The wing's skin thickness is determined by the wing's laminar shape, surface area, substance, and expected loads. The skin's gauge could differ between each wing's top layer. The skin thickness for ordinary metal wings might vary from just one to two millimetres, while that of a synthetic wing can range between two and four millimetres.

Design optimization

A crucial part of the construction process is design optimization, which entails enhancing the aircraft's performance and efficiency while lowering its weight and cost. Utilizing a variety of methods and instruments, the optimization address includes analyzing and modifying the design in order to achieve predetermined objectives (Dahal et al. 2021).

The fuselage shape provides great impact, particularly on the aerodynamics of the entire aircraft thus the various ideal fuselage must contribute lifting forces and possess the least drag forces considering of the stable effect for the entire aircraft. The structure is made light but must have sufficient potential to withstand every impacted force and perform various manoeuvrability-type operations (Spearrin and Bendana, 2019).

aerodynamically unreliable along any one of the axes. In addition, the aircraft must be highly manoeuvrable, have the appropriate control and stability for managing aerobatic travelling, and also have suitable communication and navigation equipment.

  • Vertical tailplane & fin: The vertical tailplane and fin's skin thickness are comparable to that of the wings. For an annular tailplane and fin made of metal, the skin thickness generally ranges from 1.0 and 2.0 mm, however for a composite development, it can be around 2.0 and 4.0 mm.
  • Fuselage: The thickness of the aircraft skin varies according to the structure and it is designed in the solid works platform respectively.


Computer-aided design (CAD): With CAD software, a 3D model of the plane is created, and its efficiency is simulated in a variety of situations. This enables developers to pinpoint elements of the design and may be enhanced in order to accomplish particular objectives. Finite elements analysis (FEA): FEA is a form of simulation used to forecast how a design will behave under various loading scenarios. By performing FEA simulations on various different analyses of fuselage-based aircraft structures. Gathering requirements is the needs and limitations for the layout, as well as any additional information that is pertinent regarding the aeroplane and its intended application, are gathered and analyzed during the initial phase. This may take into factoring factors like the required frame size and weight, a desired flying range, the cargo including passenger capacity, and the legal limitations.


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  • Dahal, C., Dura, H.B. and Poudel, L., 2021. Design and analysis of propeller for high-altitude search and rescue unmanned aerial vehicle. International Journal of Aerospace Engineering, 2021, pp.1-13.
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