Lean Engineering In UK Automobile Industry And Its Effects On Manufacturing Assignment Sample

Thesis explaining benefits for lean enginering methods to UK automobile industry and hoe six sigma model is implemented.

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Implementation Of Lean Engineering In UK Automobile Industry And Its Effects On Manufacturing

Introduction Of Implementation Of Lean Engineering In UK Automobile Industry And Its Effects On Manufacturing Assignment Sample

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With the help of Six Sigma's framework, high-level management may use quality tools like statistical process controls and the DMAIC approach (Defined, Measured, Analyzed, Improved, Controlled) together [1]. Identifying and removing causes of variation is the ultimate goal. When it comes to lean manufacturing, it's all about identifying and eliminating wasteful tasks and improving quality. When a product or service is of excellent quality, demand for it grows. Many companies have responded to this by implementing Lean or Six Sigma, or even both, due to their proven effectiveness in lowering costs, boosting output, and slashing cycle times. In the automotive business, lean manufacturing promotes efficiency by removing waste; in the electronics industry, Six Sigma promotes effectiveness by enhancing quality and accuracy by eliminating of variances. Because of the success of Lean and Six Sigma in a number of sectors, these approaches have become well-known across the globe. Small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) are drawn to the implementation of Lean or Six Sigma approaches therefore. The European economy relies heavily on small and medium-sized businesses. They makeup 99.8% of the EU's businesses, employ 66% of its workforce, and generate 57% of the EU's overall output.

The UK Industry Association defines a small and medium-sized business (SME) as one with less than 250 workers, yearly revenue of up to 50 million Euros, and a net worth of no more than 43 million euro. Similar to other European small and medium-sized businesses, British SMEs are no different; the only distinction is that French micro businesses are very productive. Small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in the United Kingdom are economically more valuable and provide more jobs than giant corporations provide. Small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) are more prevalent in the United Kingdom than huge corporations are. In order to properly prepare for the deployment of Lean or Six Sigma or both approaches, SMEs in the United Kingdom must be familiar with the major success elements of adopting either Six Sigma or Lean manufacturing.

When a company employs both Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma simultaneously, it may make quick and significant improvements in its operations [2]. When Lean and Six Sigma are combined, a new way of working is created that is more effective than either of the two methodologies when implemented separately. However, if Lean and Six Sigma are not combined or if one methodology is implemented on top of the other, no progress is made in terms of process speed, added value, decreased cycle time, decreased inventory, and so on. However, SMEs may not be able to concurrently employ both techniques.

On the other hand, there is evidence that small and medium-sized businesses have effectively used one of these methods before another. Many writers recommend implementing Lean and Six Sigma at the same time since both approaches compliment one other, however they haven't taken into account an organization's capacity to concurrently execute both methods. Few SMEs have adopted Lean and Six Sigma simultaneously; Lean and Six Sigma integration is common. SMEs have a smaller pool of experts, time, money, and other resources, thus they may not have adopted both Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma at the same time because of this. SME's can't adopt both methodologies at the same time, therefore we're attempting to assist them figure out which is better: Lean or Six Sigma. A company's success depends on its ability to adopt the success elements of Lean or Six Sigma.

Automobile Industry Thesis Structure

Chapter 1 consists of a brief presentation of the problem in question, together with background information regarding the motive behind the analysis of our thesis.

Chapter 2 is the theoretic core of the thesis. The basic principles and concepts behind the practical implications that will be examined in the chapters to follow are established in this section.

Chapter 3 comprises of the methodology of our analysis, together with comments on the availability of data sources as well as reasons for the selection of the specific pattern of analysis.

Chapter 4 is the results and discussion section of the present thesis. The outcome of the literature review conducted coupled with the case study analysis is demonstrated.

Chapter 5 discusses the observation of our analysis.

Chapter 6 concludes our analysis and provides suggestions for further elaboration on the topic of discussion.

1. Brief

Lean and Six-sigma implementation in UK automobile sector

Lean and Six Sigma implementation in small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in the Automobile sector is the focus of this survey. If there are major variations and similarities between the common success criteria of Lean and Six Sigma, and if there is a substantial difference in priority, then the research is looking into it. Furthermore, it is important to note that either Lean or Six Sigma may be implemented in an organisation. The implementations are dependent on the enterprise's capacity to execute the success elements [3]. Researchers also want to know which of the Lean, Six Sigma, or Lean Six Sigma (a mix of Lean and Six Sigma) techniques Automobile-industry SMEs have put into practice the most effectively so far. It is the goal of the research to determine which of the two approaches SMEs in the Automobile sector have used, and if such businesses apply both Lean and Six Sigma concurrently, as well as the reasons for this practice. It also seeks to discover the advantages associated with SMEs in the Automobile sector using the selected technique. It is also examined what tools and methods may be used in SMEs to adopt Lean or Six Sigma. Finally, the success rates of Lean, Six Sigma, or both are examined.

1.1 Lean Manufacturing implementation checkpoints

Literature and case studies on Lean manufacturing, as stated by Womack in 1990, don't seem to follow a set process when it comes to implementing its concepts. As an alternative, engineers and consultants who are in charge of implementing LM at a facility tailor the principles to their specific knowledge and expertise. A lean strategy may be applied to various elements of the value-creating process using a distinct mix of lean tools.

The following is how LM is carried out in a manufacturing process:

  1. Study and improvement are focused on a certain product or class of products. This flow unit represents the value that the consumer ultimately pays for.
  2. The value stream is shown, outlining each stage of the manufacturing process in great detail. The flow rate of units handled in a certain period of time is used to measure the performance of each process. The bottleneck of the whole manufacturing process is the process with the lower flow rate, which produces the real production rate. As each step manages the amount of units that may immediately continue to the next process, inventory accumulations are reduced.
  3. In order to eliminate all forms of waste, each unit is thoroughly organized and optimized. At the same time, efforts are being made to maintain a steady flow of production in order to minimize fluctuations in output; the daily production required to meet this demand is estimated and set as the target quantity by estimating average demand for the product over an extended period of time, such as a year.
  4. The pull principle is then put into action, with manufacturing only taking place in response to genuine client demand. As a result, no material or component is generated in the early stages of the manufacturing process unless it is needed later on.
  5. Finally, an evaluation of the results gained by minimizing waste and coordinating production to avoid inventory building and deviations in the preceding processes provides information and signals for future improvement. The cycle repeats again because of this further improvement. Lean's concept of perfection is based on the constant study of production data, the education of all employees to better understand lean concepts, and the optimization of the production process.

An overview of Lean's journey from thought to implementation [14]

1.2. Aims and Objectives


With lean production's primary aims of minimizing the amount of inventory and offering the best possible quality at the lowest possible cost, it is impossible to accomplish them without additional difficulties. Maintaining lean is the most prevalent problem in lean adoption since lean is a continuous process that needs constant development.

Only eliminating wastes and creating a production system responsive to market demands is the goal of lean manufacturing. Due to lean manufacturing's revolutionary ability to reduce costs while increasing efficiency, vehicle original equipment manufacturers have not been excluded from its impressive record of accomplishment of success.


  1. Our study has two main goals. The first goal is to identify and examine the main success criteria for Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing adoption.
  2. As a secondary goal, determining whether of Lean, the firm can best use Six Sigma, or both approaches is a top priority.

1.3 Research Questions

Included in the study's research questions were the following:

  1. Lean 5S phases and components were implemented in providers of manufacturing goods to the UK automobile sector based on what factors?
  2. What are the establishment's critical success factors (CSF) for implementing LPS?
  3. Measures of how well the LPS is performing?
  4. How would you characterize the outcomes of the LPS implementation?
  5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using LPS in the company?

1.4 Existing Approaches to Lean Implementation

Choosing the right lean tools is an important part of implementing lean practices. But there is a risk of concentrating too much on the benefits of the tool and pursuing process perfection, and not enough on ensuring the long-term viability of the lean tool in a given work environment. An organization faces both an opportunity and a danger whenever a new approach is applied. This method is beneficial on one hand, but it also has drawbacks.

 Lean methods or tools [4]

Overview of Lean Management

Lean is a production-improvement method. The Toyota Production System, in particular, is where it all began for the car industry. It focuses mostly on reducing waste in whatever form. By eliminating inefficient actions, the amount of time it takes to produce a product lowers, while the quality of the product rises and the cost of quality falls. As a result of its beginnings in the manufacturing industry, lean has now spread to other aspects of business. There has been a shift in the focus of productivity improvement efforts towards lean management.

Lean Tools

When it comes to implementing lean, the naive implementation option is to choose the technologies to use (kanban, 5S, TPM, SMED, etc.). Figure 1 depicts the wide range of tools at our disposal. Efforts have been made to categorize tools and determine their relevance to certain wastes. Some of the implementation issues are addressed, but context specificity has not yet been attained; that is, it is still not clear which tools are best effective for each case. As a result, practitioners often lack the resources necessary to make well-informed judgments regarding the technologies they should use [5].

Quality, production processes, and methodologies are three types of lean tools that may be used to fulfill the goals of the lean concept. The following high-quality lean tools will help you enhance the quality of the products and services you provide to customers:

  • "Kaizen" means "continuous improvement." There is always room for improving processes, and this should be the guiding principle at work in every business in the nation.
  • It is essential that errors be avoided, corrected, and right procedures are followed while handling equipment and machinery, and this is known as "Total Productive Maintenance" (TPM).
  • Using the Poka-Yoke principle, every member of the production team is given instant authority to act in the case of a production failure. In this way, the worker goes from being a mere actuator to a key player in the manufacturing process.

JIT, a production process tool, aims to increase the efficiency of the manufacturing process. The following are only a few examples:

  • All relevant equipment and materials are collected and arranged in one location so that optimum efficiency may be attained in the manufacture of a single component or product.
  • Smoothing production, also known as Heijunka in Japanese, refers to the process of bringing everyday production levels back to normal. JIT is facilitated by a consistent pace in the manufacturing process, which enhances overall efficiency [15]

Last but not least, method lean tools aid in the optimization of the production plant as a whole. The following are some of them:

  • When we talk about "work standardization," we mean precisely specifying each step of the production process, including the conditions under which each step is performed, in order to better control the end result, increase efficiency, and find errors more quickly.
  • Interchanging equipment quickly, effectively, and with little downtime is the idea behind setup reduction time, which allows the manufacturing process to be more adaptable while producing a wide range of goods.
  • It is important to keep everything in sync across a manufacturing plant, and this may be done via line balancing.

There are many ways in which these three kinds of lean tools might work together to enhance a manufacturing facility or process. Fig. 2 depicts the whole structure of lean, from the use of lean tools to the ultimate goals of lean strategies employed in the process.

 Key elements of Lean [16]

2. Literature Review

An introduction to the improvement procedures that are relevant to this thesis is provided in this chapter. The chapter begins with a brief introduction to Lean. In the next section, author will cover the basics of Six Sigma. Afterward, a brief review of Lean Six Sigma will be presented. As a theoretical foundation for this research, the last section of this chapter will provide an overview of the literature related to the effective application and implementation of Lean Six Sigma and/or Lean Six Sigma in various sectors.


The methodical and never-ending process of finding and eliminating waste and enhancing the flow of a process while including everyone involved in the project [6]. Henry Ford and Taiichi Ohno were the first to bring lean manufacturing to the world. Ford's assembly line established Lean Manufacturing, whereas Ohno's Toyota Production System brought Lean Management Philosophy and Practices (TPS). Though originally developed for the manufacturing industry, Lean may now be applied to a wide range of industries thanks to the use of lean thinking. As the saying goes, "the customer is always right," Lean places a high priority on ensuring that the goods and services that businesses provide to their consumers are of the highest possible quality.

There is a widespread adoption of lean manufacturing and service practices. As a means of ensuring that the final consumer obtains a quality product, these ideas are used. It is a part of lean management to review every step of the product's production. That component of the process that does not create value should be regarded wasted. Seven types of inefficient processes are possible.

Presents a visual depiction of the 7 deadly wastes [7]


Statistical and process improvement definitions of Six Sigma Statistically speaking, Six Sigma measures the variability of a process. An organized, quantitative, five-phase method to continuous improvement and issue resolution is Six Sigma in the context of process improvement. In the 1980s, Motorola introduced six Sigma [8]. Motorola created and made use of a manufacturing process improvement tool. After using Motorola's innovations, Allied Signal further developed Six Sigma by measuring production gains in terms of dollars saved. Prioritizing projects based on savings and applying Six Sigma to the service industry helped General Electric refine its Six Sigma methodology. The cost savings associated with Six Sigma's deployment have made it very popular.

Statistical process measurements are an important part of Six Sigma, which draws on a solid statistical foundation. The bell-shaped normal distribution curve is a visual representation of the six sigma process. Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO) are the unit of measurement used to calculate (DPMO). In order to be considered a defect, a product or service must fail to meet established criteria. Any time a product is created or a service is delivered is an opportunity. A Six Sigma level of performance is regarded as the ideal level of performance. This means that 99.99966 percent of items made by a six-sigma process should be statistically free of faults.

Table 1: Six Sigma Levels [9]

It has been used for over 30 years and has been demonstrated to help process improvement and increase overall organizational performance. An organization's ability to improve its Sigma level has several advantages, but it also involves a number of key measures and is the responsibility of a number of employees. Lowering expenses, increasing efficiency, and developing new and better ideas are all benefits that may be gained by increasing a process's sigma level.

Six Sigma can only be successfully implemented if the following six stages are followed:

  • Understanding the level of commitment of senior management
  • Having access to the most recent information about consumer requirements
  • The capacity to assess current performance and pinpoint opportunities for improvement via the implementation of a process management system [17]
  • In order to create and optimize processes, you need the right people with the right training.
  • Improve and create processes with the help of regular management oversight.
  • Customers' attention and Six Sigma processes must be communicated across the firm in order to guarantee that they are adopted

Anyone in an organization who is in control of or participates in a process has a role to play in Six Sigma. Everybody should know the Six Sigma tools and procedures used to enhance processes in charge of operating or managing a process.

The Three Must-Haves for Implementing Lean Six Sigma [10]

2.3 Overview of Lean 5S Tool Implementation

There is a visual workspace that is self-explanatory, self-ordering, and able to self-improve via the use of the lean 5S tool Implementing lean approaches would be impossible without first establishing a solid foundation with the 5S method [60]. Continuous improvement, waste reduction measures, and cost-cutting activities may all be facilitated by 5S, a tool that aids firms in raising awareness of these ideas.

Among improvement approaches, 5S is one of the most popular and frequently utilized. There are immediate benefits to implementing a 5S waste eradication programme. A solid lean organization is built on the 5S tool's discipline. Total Quality Management (TQM) can be achieved with 5S, which is a first step in the process [18].

If this is the case, it may help explain why some companies struggle to execute all five stages of the tool due to a limited understanding of the tool's value beyond "housekeeping." The 5S tool established a clean, tidy, organized, and safe workplace that decreases waste across the business.. Successfully adopting the 5S's is essential for other lean manufacturing tools and processes to succeed. To make sure their 5S program is successfully implemented, several companies create a checklist.

Lean 5S tool utilization was examined in connection to contextual variables and performance in this research. There were structural as well as functional aspects to consider. The company's environment, people resources, technology, and quality management were all examined. Productivity, quality, employee happiness, lead times, and innovative designs were some of the aspects of performance that were examined. It was found that 68 percent of the managers of 203 Spanish manufacturing companies were not employing the 5S technique at all, according to the results of a research that questioned the managers. Since the survey was sent to a wide range of industrial businesses, rather than only those in the automobile industry, the 68 percent low utilization rate may be attributed to that fact. Relatively few people in charge of leadership quality responded to the poll (47%), which included plant general and operations managers. As a well-known production tool, 5S is widely used, although there is no empirical proof of its use among Spanish firms. A lower-than-expected rate of 5S implementation in Spanish companies, according to the findings of the research, suggests that companies are hesitant to formalize their use of the tools. The study's findings show that implementing 5S has a favorable correlation with plant size, product type, manufacturing technology, and the presence of high-quality management systems. Quality and productivity have also been shown to improve with the usage of 5S.

Barriers in the Implementation of Lean Manufacturing System in UK Automotive Sector

Few studies have been undertaken to identify the hurdles that inhibit LMS deployment in UK, but the automobile industry's challenges to LMS implementation are no less substantial. The most difficult part of bringing LMS to the UK automobile sector was figuring out what the LM idea was really all about and what its underlying philosophy was. There is a lack of lean awareness across three categories of organizations that they found to be a major roadblock to implementing lean management systems (LMS). A successful LMS deployment necessitates that the ideas and concepts of LMS be utilized thoroughly and holistically in an organization or a firm. An additional focus of the research was the challenges faced by the UK electronics and automobile industries in implementing an LMS [19]. Because of employee opposition to LMS adoption and a reluctance to adopt new techniques because of an LMS implementation, the most significant challenge was backsliding to old ways of functioning.

On the other side, a research done found that middle management reluctance was another major impediment in the deployment of an LMS. Research by the Lean Enterprise Institute found that this intermediate resistance was caused by the lack of information and comprehension of LMS' fundamental concepts [59]. LMS installations in UK are often hampered by a lack of familiarity with the idea among key stakeholders. For this reason, in order to make it simpler for a company to deploy this essential yet innovative system, information about LMS must be made available to the whole workforce in order to build a solid foundation of knowledge.

2.4 Case study of Toyota Motor Company in UK

In the 1980s, Motorola's William Smith, an engineering scientist, was the first to establish the Six Sigma idea. By developing the Six Sigma idea in conjunction with other trailblazing scientists and engineers, Smith was able to reduce variance, increase production, and raise the standard of product. Six Sigma assists in the discovery of a few but crucial aspects that might minimize wastes and faults and at the same time boost predicted outcomes, profitability, customer happiness, and shareholder value. Variability in product or service delivery is another goal [20]. Six Sigma is used to build new processes and to address issues in organizations. The Toyota Motor Company is credited with inventing lean manufacturing. Toyota's goal was to eliminate waste in the production process, raw resources, and delivery delays to the consumer by embracing Lean manufacturing. By boosting efficiency, effectiveness, and quality, Toyota Motor Company aimed to become more competitive in the car business by implementing this strategy. Lean manufacturing aims to eliminate the seven waste categories in an effort to save costs. Overproduction, motion, transportation, waiting, inventory excess, as well as flaws and over-processing, are all part of this process, which affects every facet of the business. Lean manufacturing places a high focus on overall efficiency. The primary goal is to eliminate all waste in order to minimize costs, enhance quality, and meet delivery deadlines.

The following table provides an overview of Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma.

Table 2: Differences between Lean and Six Sigma [11]

Without Six Sigma, the predicted gain in Lean manufacturing is limited. Lean does not enable businesses to choose the correct project, which may result in the system being under-optimized. In addition, these organizations do not leverage Six Sigma tools such as Design of Experiments to improve their processes. In addition, statistical control is not used in Lean production [58]. Six Sigma, on the other hand, does not speed up a process. As a result, companies who have only adopted Six Sigma have seen little progress in cutting down on lead times and have instead seen only modest reductions in WIP. Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma need to be combined in order to detect non-value added waste, enhance processing speed and cycle time, and lead to prompt action. This suggests that the effectiveness of Six Sigma is enhanced when waste is eliminated. Using Lean and Six Sigma together results in the removal of waste because of the Six Sigma's focus on excellence.

Table 3: Importance of both methods to Each Other [12]

Lean Manufacturing is Important to Six Sigma


Six Sigma is Important to Lean Manufacturing


· Lean manufacturing identifies wastes that do not contribute to the overall value of the product.

· TPM, 5S, and other Lean technologies all help in speeding up production in order to reduce cycle times.

· Kaizen, a rapid-action approach, is embraced by Lean [21].

· Six Sigma is made more efficient by removing waste through Lean.

· Six Sigma may be used to reduce inconsistencies.

· The VOC and DMAIC techniques in Six Sigma help identify essential areas of quality.

· Using Six Sigma, a company's culture and infrastructure may be described in great depth.

2.5 Case study of UK Boeing Company for Implementing 5S & Lean

Research was conducted to determine the link between various lean tools, such as the 5S tool, and the effectiveness of lean deployment in various manufacturing contexts, such as job shops, batch shops, and assembly lines. All three industrial settings were expected to use 5S in a similar way since 5S has been regarded as the first step toward lean deployment. However, the research found that the work shop assembly line group had a statistically different degree of utilization. The research found that the perceived operational performance of the 5S tool was substantial in assembly line settings, but not in job shop or batch work settings.

Lean techniques such as the lean 5S tool and organizational life cycles are explained in this research, which focuses on South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa industrial businesses. Lean 5S was found to be used by both small and large enterprises, although the level of adoption was not evaluated [22]. The 5S tool is among the most often used and highly rated lean tools in both small and large enterprises.

Large and small businesses in the United States and worldwide have used the 5S tool to great effect. Manufacturing activities at Boeing's Wing Responsibility Center have been streamlined with the use of the lean 5S tool, which has resulted in the removal of unnecessary processes, the reduction of employee hours and the elimination of almost all hazardous waste. Employees at the firm were given in-house training on the 5S method, which resulted in enhanced housekeeping as well as reduced water, oil, and energy waste. Extensive communication and reluctance on the part of employees were the two biggest roadblocks encountered. It is common for the 5S tools to be applied as a short-term housekeeping program, with slogans on the walls, paint on the floors, and equipment that is painted white.

Through a causal comparison of his manufacturing work location, the lean 5S tool's efficacy was evaluated. When it comes to productivity, safety and quality, 5S is said to have a positive impact on all of these areas [57]. 5S's purported advantages were also examined, including lower product and maintenance costs, cleaner and more organized work environments for employees as well as less machine downtime. It was found that after using 5S, the workplaces were cleaner and more organized as well as more efficient in terms of utilizing floor space. In spite of this, productivity, safety, quality, and prices all remained unchanged, according to the findings of the research. Though it hasn't been investigated, it's conceivable that the 5S tool hasn't been applied to its fullest extent.

Productivity, quality, and cycle time were measured in three electrical departments of a larger electrical product division during a 10-month period after the installation of lean 5S. 5S training and implementation were part of the study's treatment plan [56]. The findings showed that production had increased, but neither quality nor cycle time had. Because the research began with high quality levels, there was no improvement in quality over the course of the investigation. Using 5S may also lower expenses connected with productivity, quality, and cycle time that contribute to increased profitability, according to the research. In this case, it is probable that none of the five stages of the lean 5S methodology were applied.

2.6 CASE STUDY Nissan Motors UK

Real-world empirical examination of a topic is referred to as case research. Unlike surveys and models, case studies provide greater latitude for creative interpretation and interpretation. Studies might be qualitative, quantitative, or a combination of the three. Triangulation of data gathering techniques may improve validity. Because of their versatility and ability to accept a wide range of complexity, case studies in Operations Management research are critical tools. Focuses on the dynamics of individual situations [23]. Case studies give for a more comprehensive view of complicated phenomena and real-life settings because of the necessity to explain and comprehend them. When it comes to developing new theories in operations management, case study research is a valuable tool. Both manufacturing and office personnel will be asked to complete the Nissan Sunderland Plant Job Diagnostic Survey. This means that the survey's influencing techniques must be ones that these employees are aware of. There are other practices that, if incorporated, are more likely to elicit an emotional reaction or create access issues.

Just in the United Kingdom, the automotive sector generated £69.5 billion, employed almost 800 thousand people, manufactured 1.6 million vehicles in 15 factories, and injected £15.5 billion into the country's economy in 2015. In spite of its prominence as the UK's largest vehicle manufacturing facility, little study has been conducted on the facility and its production method, the Nissan Production Way. Existing study focuses on just a few aspects rather than a whole picture. It continues to draw in new investors even as the fear of a strong pound, an economic downturn, and the ongoing need to decrease expenses loom. Nissan spent an additional $137 million in 2015 to ramp up manufacturing of the Juke and add a new press line. The factory has already received almost £3.3 billion in funding [24]. New vehicle models are a constant threat to the viability of the Nissan Sunderland facility. The Nissan Sunderland Plant's future investment will be affected by the UK's withdrawal from the EU, yet it has so far survived, secured new vehicle models, and ultimately been successful. Considering the factory's Lean (The Nissan Production Way) implementation and its reputation as Europe's most productive plant and the UK's largest car-producing facility, the Nissan Sunderland Plant is a great subject for investigation.

2.7 Success Factors for Lean & Six Sigma

Previous literature reviews have revealed the keys to success. A wide range of factors influences Lean and Six Sigma implementation [13]. This is the first article to compare the elements contributing to the effectiveness of Lean and Six Sigma implementation. We compare them because they have certain characteristics with respect to their ability to produce results. Consequently, Researchers looking at whether or not there are differences or parallels in the success variables between Lean and Six Sigma. The following is a list of Lean and Six Sigma success factors.

Involvement and commitment from senior management is critical to Six Sigma's success. Six Sigma concepts should thus be taught and learned by the whole management team of a firm. On the other hand, senior management should be involved in the implementation of Lean manufacturing.

Variability in both internal and external resources may have an impact on Lean manufacturing processes. Suppliers play a critical role in Lean manufacturing processes. As a result, firms must actively push their suppliers to improve their Lean capabilities. Using the pull approach only makes sense if a firm can consistently produce the proper number of items and deliver them to customers on schedule. For effective Lean manufacturing, there must be an unified goal between manufacturers and suppliers, which will result in reduced waste and expense. Six Sigma's success is also influenced by an organization's culture. This means that both workers and management must adopt the proper mindset and be fully aware of the need of reducing variance in order for Lean to be implemented to its full potential. To be successful with Six Sigma, it is critical to evaluate the organization's infrastructure.

There is a lot of emphasis on statistical training as part of an organization's infrastructure. The belt system necessitates that companies using Six Sigma teach their employees in the four levels of certification: champion, master black belt, black belt, and green belt. Lean, on the other hand, does not use belts. The most important success element in Lean manufacturing is leadership. Leaders who have gone through effective leadership development programs are better able to teach other employees about Lean manufacturing's criteria and fundamental ideas. Kaizen teams are not part of the Six Sigma approach in the Lean method [25]. There should be a Kaizen team inside a company that aims to enhance Lean initiatives as quickly as possible. It is critical for businesses to implement the Kaizen technique because it allows them to better satisfy their customers, workers, and suppliers by increasing the quality of their goods and services. It is critical to link Six Sigma to corporate strategy. It is important to explain how Six Sigma operations are related to other processes and activities of the firm since the business strategy includes stakeholders like customers, workers, and others. The third most important component in the success of Six Sigma is its connection to corporate strategy. There are several ways to incorporate Lean manufacturing into a company strategy. Six Sigma has a distinct edge over Lean when it comes to connecting methods to customers based on customer needs, since it can gather data from the Voice of the Customer. Value is decided by the customer in Lean manufacturing. All the procedures and actions that are necessary to get the product to the client should be specified by the company. When adopting Six Sigma, it is critical to teach both managers and staff so that everyone involved has a solid grasp of the methodology's foundations, methodologies, and tools. Implementing Six Sigma calls for a wide range of training levels, from the coveted "champion" to the "master black" to the "black" to the "green" belt. The other side, knowing tools and methods within Lean SME's should make it a priority to guarantee that the tools and techniques of Lean manufacturing are fully understood in order to accomplish a thriving Lean implementation. Leadership is the most important success element in implementing Lean in small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs). Leaders must provide training on the principles of the organization.

Lean and Six Sigma implementations are more likely to succeed if consultants are involved in the process. An organization's implementation may benefit from the assistance of consultants. Six Sigma adoption is more likely to succeed if staff are rewarded for their hard work. Motivation is one of the most important variables in the success of Lean manufacturing adoption. In order to prepare personnel for Six Sigma adoption, effective communication is crucial.

In order to properly adopt Lean, there must be a lot of communication. A happy future state map should be built to boost project assessment or monitoring in order to identify the benefits of Lean manufacturing [55]. Periodic evaluation of Six Sigma adoption is critical. With the help of Six Sigma, businesses may choose the best projects to work on, as well as gauge their teams' development and grasp of Six Sigma concepts and methods.

The success of Lean manufacturing relies heavily on people's ability to solve problems, communicate effectively, and work well in groups. As a comparison of success variables between Lean and Six Sigma is desired. For Six Sigma, we include "human talents and competence." In terms of success criteria, Six Sigma approaches have emphasized project management skills more than Lean methodologies. We include "project management expertise" as a success factor for Lean adoption in order to see whether there are any major differences between these two methodologies.

2.8 Overview of Lean Tool in UK Automotive sectors

  1. Just-In-Time (JIT)

It's a lean manufacturing tool built on the foundation of well-executed events required to create a finished product. According to Karlsson and the findings of this research, each event and procedure must be handled correctly, in the proper need to generate products, and at the correct time. It is the guiding premise of JIT that every process receives one component at a time, precisely when it needs it [26]. The writers of this article point out the need of lowering lot sizes, reducing buffer sizes, and minimizing order lead times as key components of JIT.

In Taiwan, JIT had been implemented in a small-scale sector. First, the employees were trained and then the 5s tool (Seiri (Sorting; Seito; Set in Order; Seize; Seize; Standardization; and Shitsuke) was adopted to increase workplace security, product quality, and corporate productivity. Equipment and machine preventative maintenance was taught to workers. An old-fashioned "push" method was replaced with a "pull" approach (based on real demand) in order to ensure that items were produced at the correct time and in the correct amount. JIT implementation challenges encountered by small and medium-sized businesses have been analyzed. The SME's lack of negotiating power with the outside world was the biggest impediment to adopting JIT.

  1. Kaizen

In the Japanese phrase Kaizen, continuous improvement is referred to as "the constant involvement of everyone," regardless of their position in the organization. Kaizen is the process of identifying, identifying, and eliminating waste (muda) in industrial processes. The continuous improvement or kaizen strategy may be further molded from the JIT technique.

The three pillars of the kaizen method are cleanliness, uniformity, and waste reduction. Kaizen is defined as "continuous improvement by integrating everyone in the organization in a process of change for the better [27]. There is an issue with 'component mismatching' in vehicle assembly lines, and this research has found a way to fix it. Using the kaizen technique, issues are eliminated one step at a time by collecting data, analyzing underlying causes, discovering and selecting the best solution from several alternatives, implementing it, and documenting the process properly..

There were several advantages to adopting kaizen, such as the removal of wastes like product defects and rework, as well as a significant reduction in costs.

  1. Value Stream Mapping (VSM)

Graphical tool VSM helps to illuminate and analyze the work-flow, as well as to identify the actions that contribute to a product's ultimate quality. VSM employs a wide range of lean principles and methodologies. The present condition of a product's value stream was examined in this research as part of VSM [28]. After the redesign, a better future state of the product's value stream is established, with an emphasis on waste reduction, lead time reduction, and material flow optimization. When comparing VSM to other similar techniques, it is observed that just one map is needed to depict the flow of both material and knowledge.

Non-value-added activities such as waiting, queuing, moving, and other time wasters may be reduced by process analysis, according to this research.

The author has successfully implemented VSM in a bread manufacturing firm and has seen a positive impact. Unnecessary inventory was decreased by 18%, as were defects, and the number of moves was cut by 37%.

A value stream map of the present state of affairs was created, and it was discovered that several operations were superfluous and could be omitted. The results of this research show how the effective adoption of VSM helped a manufacturing organization. Work was cut by 89.47 percent, the completed products inventory was lowered by 17.65 percent, the product lead time was decreased by 83.14 percent, and the output per operator was enhanced by 42.86 percent as a result of process inventory reduction.

A paint shop of a manufacturing business was used as a test case for lean manufacturing.

During the investigation, a number of procedures were discovered that were not contributing to the paint shop's work. According to the most recent mapping, there were 72.85% of non-value-adding activities. During the drying process, a bottleneck was discovered that was causing the cycle time to go up [54].

Furthermore, it was shown that using warm water for drying improved results. An automobile assembly line has been analyzed and restructured in this study. Analyzing the present state map revealed 155-second machining bottlenecks and 78-second assembly bottlenecks. The existing configuration revealed that the ram assembly and cylinder greasing operations were separated into different stations. To solve this issue, a single modular trolley was installed and the arrangement was reworked.

  1. Kanban

Kanban is a straightforward technique for moving items down a manufacturing line, based on cards. There should be no warehousing of components in the manufacturing area, which is a fundamental need of the kanban system if parts are delivered only when needed. Using VSM and the kanban system, lean manufacturing was implemented on an assembly line. An analysis of the present condition of the component's manufacturing was carried out in order to determine the cycle times of the different processes involved [29]. It had been made evident that the assembly line process was hampered by the use of a push method on production lines. When the push method was replaced with a pull system, a kanban system was created. This research created a simulation model to demonstrate the effects of applying a kanban system before and after. There were two key shortcomings that had been identified throughout the analysis: a large quantity of work in process inventory and a poor value added time. When it came to improving product flow, the kanban system was important.

  1. Waste elimination

The goal of lean manufacturing is to eliminate all waste in the production process. Anything that does not improve the product is considered a waste from the customer's perspective. Using lean techniques and methodologies, these wastes may be discovered and reduced/eliminated [30]. The lean mindset has been effectively adopted in a north Indian corporation because of this research. Small- and medium-sized businesses were the first sectors to benefit from lean manufacturing techniques. Analyzing product flows was accomplished using flow process charts. The findings of this research shed light on the many types of waste that are allegedly present in production processes.

  1. Efficiency gains in manufacturing

Making value flow at customer demand (JIT) and eliminating waste in processes are two of the goals of lean manufacturing. Waste is broken down into seven distinct categories: Supply Chain Management Waiting and over processing, as well as defective products. They all have a direct effect on performance, quality, and expenses; clients do not want to pay for these activities. Many studies and research have shown that we only contribute value approximately 5% of the time during operations; the rest of the time is wasted. The goal of lean manufacturing is to eliminate 95 percent of the wasted time and effort.

Many scholars have argued that lean improves the competitiveness of organizations. More than two-thirds of the organizations surveyed said they had gained a strategic edge by improving their connections with customers, tightening quality controls, and improving their position in the market [31]. A 90 percent decrease in inventory, a 90 percent decrease in quality-related costs, a 90 percent reduction in production lead time, and a 50 percent boost in worker output are all predicted by this research for typical mass manufacturers. According to this report, lean manufacturing may help firms reduce costs by 15 to 70 percent, reduce waste by 40 percent, increase productivity by 15 to 40 percent, and reduce space and inventory needs by 60 percent. Lean manufacturing may cut product transit time by 90%, inventory by 82%, and product lead-time by 11%, according to a research published in the Journal of Operations Management.

By using lean manufacturing techniques in the proper way, a company may reap a number of benefits. While many sectors have benefited greatly from lean manufacturing, numerous more benefits are not as well known. Although these advantages aren't directly linked to lean manufacturing success stories, their indirect impact is undeniable and should not be ignored. Lean manufacturing strategies increase the quality of production. They also make the workplace a safer environment for all employees [53]. When it comes to working procedures and techniques, there is no room for mistake at all. The 5S and store management strategies that have been effectively adopted in the business allow for easy tracking of everything. Every aspect of production in the plant is overseen via a computer monitor. Cultural shifts. A cultural transformation has started in the workplace as a result of the use of lean manufacturing techniques.. Improved communication between employees has given them a stronger feeling of agency in their work.


Determine the effect that Six Sigma implementation has on company performance. We decided to undertake our own study since there has only been a minimal amount of previous investigation on this topic. This study relied on the help of 84 Six Sigma companies. In order to guarantee the legitimacy of the findings, a wide range of businesses from various industries and backgrounds were considered for inclusion. This study made use of the event study approach. Over a ten-year period, the firms were assessed [32]. To arrive at the ten-year period, we used three years of data before implementing Six Sigma, along with six years of data after the year of implementation. The effect of implementing Six Sigma was measured using operating income/total resources, total revenue, net margin of employees, sales/assets, and marketing of employees. In addition to the overall industry's performance and the portfolios of chosen control businesses, these metrics were compared to other benchmarks. After everything was said and done, the results showed that implementing Six Sigma had a favorable effect on business performance. Six Sigma’s acceptance and execution had the greatest of an influence on staff deployment and productivity. Lean Six Sigma deployment has no detrimental influence on company performance, according to a recent research.

3. Methodology of Automobile SMEs UK

Studying how UK Automobile SMEs are implementing Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma has as its objective identifying the factors that lead to success. A survey is used to collect data in this study. This study focused on small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in the electronic industry while collecting data. Two people must approve all surveys: our manager of continual improvement and our manager of production [33]. This suggests that survey questionnaires will be sent to quality experts, who will then be requested to fill them out with their ideas and views. To find out whether Six Sigma or Lean can be successfully implemented in electrical SMEs, a survey was done, as per these findings. The survey is divided into many sections. Personal data is the first sort of data to fall into this category (Job title and industry type). The second portion gives a little background for the first one. Step three is a review of how things are currently working out (its scope, available resources, and degree of success). A third factor to consider is the project's benefits (Improvement in quality, reduction in cost, reduction in turnover rate, and improvement in profit). One of the last people to bring up the importance of Lean and Six Sigma success criteria was myself.

There are a variety of factors considered, including the company's age, the number of employees, its ISO certification, and the kind of training it provides. Both the amount of time that Lean and Six Sigma have been in use, and whether or not they were implemented at the same time, have been analyzed. The poll will look at Lean and Six Sigma, as well as other related business practices. Surveyors are looking at how well Lean and Six Sigma are being implemented, as well as the elements that contribute to their success [52]. Lean and Six Sigma both have similar success criteria, thus researchers are trying to determine whether there are significant differences in the applicability of those criteria. A research now underway will provide information on how small and medium-sized enterprises in the UK's Automobile industry may implement Six Sigma and Lean principles.

3.1 Research Methods

It was the goal of this research to discover the important elements influencing the application of the lean 5S tool among OEM suppliers in the UK automotive sector, and to establish whether these factors differ with demographic data. Members of the American Society for Quality who hold senior positions in UK-based OEM automotive suppliers were surveyed in order to determine the variables [34]. Survey research entails asking a large number of individual’s questions and compiling the results of their responses. The greatest hurdle in survey research is the creation of a high-quality instrument. Taking an online survey provides a number of benefits, including: The anonymity of the participants and the immediate entry of the data in the electronic file promote the sharing of their experiences.

Data preparation and analysis, as well as descriptive and inferential statistics, were part of the research. For example, Leedy and Ormrod (2010) said that descriptive statistics may be used to investigate a possible association between many phenomena or to discover certain properties of the observed phenomena. Researchers may make better decisions about their data by using inferential statistics. Therefore, descriptive and inferential statistics are used in this research.

3.2 Population and Sample

A sample, according to the authors of this research, is a subset of a broader population. Members of the American Society for Quality (ASQ) Sections with leadership responsibilities in UK-based Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 manufacturing suppliers to the UK automotive sector make up the study's population. The participants are mostly from the London-area states. Non-probability convenience sampling was used in this investigation [35]. Convenience sampling makes use of conveniently accessible resources, such as people or other units. Those who took part in this study were ASQ members with leadership roles in Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 manufacturing suppliers to the UK automotive sector who were also active members of the American Society for Quality (ASQ) in the states of London. Samples were chosen based on their proximity to automobile assembly sites in the United Kingdom. There are 1043 prospective participants in this study.

3.3 Instrument Development

A survey instrument was created in order to collect data for analysis. A survey tool is cost-effective, quick to gather data, and gives insight into a huge number of people via a representative sample. Research questions were addressed via the survey tool's questions, which were constructed in a way that gave answers [36]. An instrument's development process has four steps: the identification of concepts, creation of items, validation testing, and reliability testing.

Concept Identification

The first stage in creating an instrument is figuring out what it will measure. A research instrument was developed to assess how well known drivers and inhibitors of the 5S tool's implementation have influenced its progress, as well as how certain demographic variables correlate with different stages in its implementation [51]. This instrument was based on a review of the literature in Chapter 2.

Item Construction

An instrument that accurately represents the subject matter being assessed is the next stage in instrument development. It was designed in accordance with the Five S's and related issues that were produced in Chapter 2 as a result of the extensive literature study. The tool employed a Likert-type scale. The Likert-type scale offers numerical replies, and respondents are asked to evaluate depending on their degree of agreement or significance. The Likert-type scale's coding was created to measure the amount of agreement each responder had with a given item. First, a Strongly Disagree, followed by two disagrees and three no opinions. Then comes an agreement and a strong agreement. The survey instrument had fifteen parts. The 5S tool's stages are represented by statements in the elements.

A Conceptual Model of Lean Manufacturing System in UK Automobile Sector

Based on the review of multiple literatures that are available, several gaps were identified in the field of Lean; its influencing factors versus its application or implementation, its performance measurement- in engineering, financial and other dimensions and the lack of the development of a structured framework available for LMS implementations [37]. Thus, the conceptual model for the study of the full-blown implementation of LMS in UK automotive industry is proposed. Further study on identifying the relevant influencing factors and LMS dimensions via development of hypothesis testing will be needed in achieving the aims of the study. Figure 1 shows the conceptual model of full-blown implementation of LMS in the automotive industry.

Schematic Diagram of the Implementation of a Complete Lean Manufacturing System [38]

Data Collection

The electronic survey was distributed by Survey Monkey, which was utilized to generate and deliver the survey. When the sample size is big, conducting a survey online provides a number of cost benefits. Active members of the American Society for Quality (ASQ) listed on LinkedIn sites near automobile assembly facilities in the UK were contacted by electronic mail and asked to participate in the poll. Participants in this study came from those states that are the most dependent on automotive manufacturing for the UK's GDP and those have a large proportion of their population working in the automotive industry, thanks to a selection of UK Society for Quality members in London [39].

According to a recent poll, London represents the automotive manufacturing suppliers of the United Kingdom, which are the biggest employers in all but 10 of the country's fifty states. The survey participant’s identities were not linked to their replies, making it completely anonymous. There was an introduction and a link to Survey Monkey included in the survey.

One week after the original electronic mail message was sent, follow-up electronic mail messages were sent to remind the prospective participants. There were two and three weeks of follow-ups, followed by a notification of the survey's completion after four weeks. The proportion of time leaders spend working with teams is seen in the graph below. There are three peaks in the distribution: 30%, 50%, and 80%.

 Histogram of Time Spent Working with Teams [40]

4. Results of the company's mission of value and continual progress

Evaluating Risk within the Lean Strategic Principles

As part of a government-industry-university relationship, one of the authors (AP) worked half-time for the company for six months. This helped us understand the setting in which we conducted our research. The researcher then analyzed the effect and simplicity of application of each of the strategic principle instruments for this firm's situation. To be sure, all of the concepts in this first set are vital to lean performance and sustainability, but it is important to recognize the difficulties or difficulty degree that is encountered [41]. This is due to the fact that their company is based on custom orders with several steps and steps of procedure. For these variables, this may be shown in their Likelihood-Impact chart.

In Figure 5, defining value and involving all employees in company-wide continuous improvement are somewhat tough but have a significant effect. Determining what customers want and what they do not want is the first step in determining what needs to be improved. High impact may be achieved by a well-executed communication approach that conveys a clear message to all employees about the company's mission of value and continual progress. There is evidence to show that cultural excellence and not process flow tools are where a make-to-order company like SI would have the most success [51].

Because of this, value stream and flow are only somewhat important in the SI scenario. These, on the other hand, would have a significant influence in a continuous manufacturing environment. In SI's situation, pulling is very tough and would need certain adaptations as shown in the chart. SI may be required to employ order pull to pull paperwork, but material push to the process for flow. Even temporary or isolated flow lines might be installed in the event of increased output.

Key lean principles and higher-order processes are examined for their effect and difficulty (probability) of success and sustainability in terms of their impact and difficulty [42]

Assessment of Research Question

RQ-3: What are the LPS performance measures?

The organization used a variety of metrics to evaluate the success of its Lean Production System deployment. Figure 7 depicts the usefulness of each of the categories, with waste reduction at the top with a score of 40%, customer satisfaction at 17%, competitive advantage at 13%, and higher throughput at 10%.

 KAMC LPS performance Measures [43]

RQ-4: What are the strengths and benefits of LPS implementation in the firm?

It was found that waste reduction, which was mentioned 27 times by the respondents in a study of lean production system implementation, was the most significant advantage they gained from LPS implementation in the company. The LPS installation, as indicated in Figure 8, also resulted in a decrease in cycle time.

 The strengths and benefits of LPS implementation [44]

RQ-5: How would you classify the company’s LPS implementation results?

As indicated in Figure 8, 52 percent or 47 of the respondents assessed the auto-parts manufacturing company's lean implementation outcomes as excellent, while 21 percent or 19 rated the results as very good. The implementation outcomes, on the other hand, were regarded as great by 10 of the respondents, medium by 11 and bad by three.

 Classification of the company’s lean implementation results [45]

5. Discussion Automobile Industries UK

It is in this chapter that results from both literature-based case studies and the questionnaire-based case study are discussed and linked to the theoretical framework established in the previous chapters. An overview of the varied features noticed amongst different sectors or even segments within a single sector of the UK Automobile Industries may be gained from the information gathered from the published journals [46].

In each of these cases, a route to LM implementation can be seen, allowing for the testing of the hypotheses presented. Finally, the results from a case study of Facility, help to organize and strengthen this theory-based hypothesis.

There are several reasons why lean manufacturing (LM) is used in the automotive industry, and one of them is to increase productivity while also improving the completely manufacturing process.

Because of the inflexibility of equipment and other typical process characteristics, such as being dependent on time and temperature for quality, high demand fluctuations, environmental restrictions, and other factors, the literature-based case study analyses support previous theoretic findings that lean can be implemented successfully in the automotive industry.

5.1 Outcomes: Management into lean implementation decisions

In this study, lean ideas and methodologies are used to execute lean implementation, organizational transformation, and risk management. Risk management and lean transformation have never been linked in a systematic way, and our research into the literature on the topic identified no examples of this. Practitioners, according to the results of the study, have not integrated risk management and lean implementation [47]. A number of new ideas are presented in this work. Methodologically, the first shows how to include risk management into lean implementation decisions. This approach makes the negative consequences (the risk's threat component) more clearly and, as a result, more treatable. Using this strategy, the two management methods are integrated to a great degree. For this, we used a comparison of lean management with ISO standard risk management to come up with a shared framework.

The third thing that this research done is test a way for implementing lean in organizations other than high-volume manufacturers. An SME that specializes in high-variety, low-volume manufacturing is where the approach was created. The late adoption of lean shows that this sort of organization has previously had difficulty implementing it. Method and case study reveal implications and solutions that may be applicable to other kinds of organizations as well. The case study demonstrated that it is feasible to forecast which lean approaches are most significant in the context of the organization. For all organizations, but especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), prioritizing organizational effort is critical.

5.2 LM practices adopted

Considering the LM methods used in each of the case studies in Chapter 2, it's important to remember that the primary goal in the majority of these situations was to reduce waste and boost productivity. Since each manufacturing process had its own unique set of tools, it was interesting to see that, according to chapter 2, not all tools were used in all cases. This is consistent with the theoretical framework provided forth in chapter 2.

Whatever the process industry subsector or product produced, the most often used LM methods were TPM and 5S [48]. When it comes to capital-intensive sectors such as manufacturing, TPM is a reasonable addition to ensure that all personnel participating in key phases of the production process are aware of their responsibility to ensure correct handling and preventative measures are in place. Because the process sector is so multistage, it seems that 5S is an essential instrument for improving performance and boosting quality at all stages of production.

Several of the facilities studied in the case studies used SMED, Visual Control, Standardization, JIT, Kanban, and VSM. This is in line with theory, since Lean strategies such as Stopping the Line, Cellular Manufacturing, and the Focused Factory either needed considerable customisation in the production process or weren't viable for the listed process industries.

5.3 Summary of Findings

The poll covered ten demographic characteristics, nine components, and fifteen aspects of the lean 5S phases for manufacturing executives employed by suppliers that deliver produced goods to the UK automotive sector. These respondents, who represented three tiers or levels of suppliers from four states, provided usable replies [49].

According to research question 1, what variables did respondents believe affected adoption of lean 5S phases and elements among suppliers of manufactured automotive goods to the UK? An examination of the answers demonstrated a statistically significant association between each of the nine parameters in the research and each of the fifteen 5S components at a.001 level for all of the replies. Nine variables exhibit statistically significant correlations to every element grouping that represents each step of the 5S process, as well. There was a.001 level of statistical significance found in the answers for each of the fifteen components. The research also found a statistically significant association between each of the 5S phases at a.001 level.

It can be concluded, then, that the respondents saw all nine aspects, components, and phases as having an impact on the adoption of the lean 5S stages. The second research question sought to determine whether there is any connection between the demographic variables chosen and the perceived factors, as well as the demographic variables chosen and the lean 5S stages among suppliers of produced goods to the UK automobile sector [50]. Some demographic characteristics were found to have statistically significant associations with both the factors and the 5S phases after an examination of the data supplied by the respondents.

6. Conclusion of automotive industry Uk

The purpose of this thesis is to look into and determine how lean manufacturing has been implemented in the UK automotive industry. In order to gauge the research's significance, researcher has relied on previously published scientific works.

Overall, this study gave a thorough introduction to the Lean paradigm, with a focus on how it may be implemented in the process sector. It was the purpose of this article to explain the significance and difficulty of LM implementation in the process industries and the problems and expectations that result from this endeavour. Several study hypotheses were created in order to examine the installation and overall effect of LM on process industries throughout this process. The hypothesis testing approach was divided into two parts: a literature survey of case studies and an analysis of case studies based on structured questionnaires. Results from case studies and a thorough analysis of findings from the case studies are used to support the hypotheses in the last section. When implementing lean, a facility's intrinsic production process features are critical, as are the wide variety of expectations and advantages that might be seen when the most appropriate LM methods are successfully used. Additionally, the need for a long-term commitment to LM adoption is highlighted.

Non-management employees on the shop floor who get more than four hours of training impact eight of the nine variables. Additionally, the management's commitment to 5S success is influenced by the quality of this level of training. While training and implementing the 5S process for non-management staff tends to boost management's comprehension of the program and its advantages, In order to execute the stated 5S implementation plan, the aspects of communication in the plant and personal accountability will be influenced. Non-management staff receiving more than four hours of training is directly linked to the effectiveness of the 5S phases. To sum it up, training impacts the commencement of early stages as well as the critical phases of 4S standardization and 5S maintenance. Training non-managers in the 5S tool is important to the effectiveness of 5S deployment, according to the research. Non-management employees who have received proper training in 5S are more likely to successfully adopt and sustain all of the lean 5S stages. Organizational function is represented by the quality, manufacturing, and operations disciplines in this research. The quality groups' perceptions of the variables and phases vary significantly from those of manufacturing and operations. According to the results of this study, managers in manufacturing and operations believe that 5S success will be achieved by their teams whereas those in quality believe otherwise. Those working in the quality department don't think their businesses' internal communication is extremely robust, while those in the operations department do.

6.1 Recommendations

Initial findings from this study's research model suggested that ten key elements were essential to the successful adoption of LMS in the UK automotive parts industry. A full-blown LMS installation is made possible in large part by management's dedication to lean manufacturing. In the UK context, past studies have shown that management support and commitment to a successful implementation of certain LMS characteristics have a substantial positive correlation. Manufacturers that are dedicated to LMS should be able to reduce costs and improve resource utilization in order to provide the groundwork for long-term LMS success.

Findings show that workers' empowerment against a full-blown LMS adoption across UK automotive component makers has a substantial positive correlation. A full-blown LMS installation requires an upgrade from the existing condition, as it states that UK automotive component makers should be able to gain greater organizational advantages by having more employee empowerment towards lean manufacturing. In the UK automotive component manufacturers, a high degree of employee engagement in LMS-related activities did not transfer into a higher level of LMS adoption. This contradicts the conclusions of the vast majority of past research, which indicated that participation in LMS implementation had a large beneficial impact.

As a result, it has been suggested that workers' lack of agency is to blame. Despite the necessity of employee engagement, it seems that UK automotive component makers did not enable workers a enough allocation of allowed authority to participate effectively in a variety of lean manufacturing tasks. For successful implementation of LMS in UK automotive component manufacturing, training and cooperation are two intra-organizational level variables that are critical. Consequently, personnel throughout the business must be trained and engaged in team activities, utilizing computer and IT tools, maintenance, statistical management of the process, use of quality tools and lastly basic materials handling and control in order to adopt LMS in its whole.

Structural Equation Modeling studies show that LMS is not affected by typical human resource management practices. Prior research has shown a favorable correlation between human resource management and LMS installation in Japan and the UK automotive sector. This study seems to contradict this correlation. In this research, it was shown that there is little correlation between supplier relationship management and a full-fledged LMS. According to earlier research, supply chain process integration and good management of supplier relationships contribute significantly to leanness and should subsequently increase company performance among supply partners. It is well acknowledged in the literature on lean manufacturing that supply chain management is critical to the successful implementation of LMS, especially in the automobile sector.

6.2 Limitations and Implications for Further Work

The case study was cross-sectional in nature rather than longitudinal in scope, and it only focused on one company. As a result, the external validity is inevitably limited. Research could see if the expected lean approaches really worked and how decision-making priorities changed because of applying them to a company or numerous companies. In addition, the analyst's understanding of the firm's context and of lean methodologies is restricted. In our advice to practitioners, this research has expressly stated that necessity. How much lean knowledge do practitioners truly have? Ignorance may be the primary cause of lean implementations that fail, which might potentially restrict our strategy. It would be interesting to conduct a wide-ranging poll to see whether lack of lean understanding is a contributing factor to poor implementation.


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