Bacteriophage In The Treatment Of Lung Infections In Patients With Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Bacteriophage In The Treatment Of Lung Infections In Patients With Cystic Fibrosis Assignment

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Bacteriophage is a type of virus that has the ability to infect several bacteria’s. The word bacteriophage means the one who eats out bacteria. This unique ability of eating bacteria can prove useful for treating the patients of lung infections and also cystic fibrosis. The bacteria that are responsible for the cause of lung infection can be dealt with by the use of bacteriophage as it will clear out all the bacteria from the lungs. It can be proven as a life altering therapy in recent times.


Evaluation of the use of bacteriophage in the treatment of lung infection

Earlier in the introduction part, the researchers have discussed the short idea about the bacteriophage. Here in this evaluation portion, broad details are essential to understand the biochemical properties and structural alignment of bacteriophage. Basically, a bacteriophage is a virus that can infect the bacteria. It can be referred to as a “bacteria eater” as it can perish the host cell of the bacteria. A bacteriophage is composed of nucleic acids which are further surrounded by a protein made structure. In the case of its functional mechanism, the bacteriophage infects the cellular organization and further prevents the future production of cellular products. The phenomenon which is related to bacteriophage was observed first in the years 1915.

Some basic advantageous aspects of the usage of bacteriophage are bacteriophage works against both treatable and to those bacteria which are antibiotic-resistant. Other advantages of bacteriophage usage are they are non-toxic for the human community; they can increase their amounts while operating in the body of the human and are easily used with antibiotics. Bacteriophages can infect more than one type of bacteria. Hence, it can be widely used in other treatments also apart from lung infections. After many experienced-based practices, doctors and biomedical researchers have introduced the way to use the bacteriophage for the patients who are suffering from lung infection with cystic fibrosis (Chang et al, 2022). In that case, bacteriophages are able to work in two ways such as topical phage delivery and systematic phage delivery.

In a second way, systematic phage delivery the phages are not able to skip the marginal border of the blood cells and alveoli in the lungs cell. Whereas the topical phage delivery process the phages are able to cross the border and can prepare the necessary amounts of chemical components against the bacteria to combat it. Though the systemic phage delivery mechanism is still unlearned to the scientists according to this process bacteria can be stopped to further production of harmful agents in the human body. On the other hand, the topical mechanism can have exact permeability to cross the blood-brain barrier to reach out to the infected regions of the lungs with cystic fibrosis.

In the case of topical phage delivery mechanism, the permeability capacity of the bacteriophage is better as well as has higher growth density in the infected regions in the lung. Whereas in other cases of systemic phage delivery mechanisms, after applying bacteriophage it wounds the mucosal membranes followed by the skin layers has been seen. After that urogenitary tract attacks and finally infects the bacteria from the regions of the lung. For the success rate, the researchers have mentioned the efficacy rate of the usage of bacteriopages in patients who are suffering from chronic pulmonary diseases with cystic fibrosis. Most of the cases the efficacy rate is higher where the inhalation process of bacteriophages is used. Another notable thing is that in the majority of cases staphylococcusbacteriophagesare used to cure the pulmonary diseases in the human body. According to a recent study by Abd El-Aziz et al, (2019) where almost 250 people get treated with bacteriopages and 150 people get treated with only antibiotics for the treatment of lung infections with cystic fibrosis. In that study, the outcome is that nearly 83% of people achieved better treatment as they got bacteriophage related therapy whereas 64% of people get a little bit poor treatment than they got without phage related therapy.

Limitations of the treatment process 

Due to the lack of broad research bacteriophages cannot be used widely in the medical field. This research field should require more potential searching about the advantageous way of using the bacteriopahges in chronic lung infections with cystic fibrosis. Such limitations are sufficiency in the number of phages for treatment procedures, and exact doses of bacteriophage for treating the difficulties in the human body. Other limitations are the time which may be taken by the bacteriophage to start their beneficial mechanisms to combat chronic pulmonary diseases. Sometimes it may be very difficult to find the exact type of bacteriophage for the exact stage and type of infections in the lung. 

Moreover, some selected types of bacteriophages may trigger the immune system of the human body due to fault doses. In this way, those selected bacteriophages can help to lose the balance of the immunity as it may act as improper action. Some types of bacteriophages do not work well in comparison with the other kinds of phages, which can treat other bacterial infections. In the scenario of antibiotics, some viable bacteria are getting stronger enough to resist the action of bacteriophages. It means there is a huge probability in the case of usage of serial use bacteriophages that can play a role same as anti-microbial resistance. Here the viability of the bacteria is getting higher day by day due to the efficient use of potential bacteriophages for the treatment of lung infection with cystic fibrosis (Ng et al, 2019). Cystic fibrosis is a type of difficulty in which the density of the mucous layer in the lungs increases and further the shape and size of the alveoli get changed. In this disease, the passage of air passing area is getting narrow due to excessive thickening of the alveoli. Further, the oxygen caring capacity is lower in the human body and finally, the human started to suffer from a deficiency of oxygen. Bacteriophages have such toxic activity for the bacteria which is the cause of the cystic fibrosis, can treat with potential activity to decreases their fluency (Cesta et al, 2020). Unfortunately, due to the proper reaction mechanism, the types of bacteriophages cannot be used broadly in lung infection with cystic fibrosis. In the case of cystic fibrosis, lung passages are blocked due to resizing the alveoli. That is why bacteriophages cannot get reached the exact locations of infection in the human lung. Hence, it is difficult for treating lung infection through a treatment process using bacteriophages. This research purposes will focus on the lung infection including the lung cancer process by which can be easily detected the arising symptoms in the human body in earlier stages. Chest X-Ray can be used to understand the visualization of the exact situation of the lung. 

Potential use of Bacteriophage in treatment

The potential bacteria’s that are responsible for the complexities that arise in the lung area are namely “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” and “Staphylococcus aureus”. They are also responsible for the disease of cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis in the lungs can be said to be an inherent disease that affects the mucous membranes of the lungs. The thin and liquid texture of the mucus that was produced by normal lungs becomes somewhat thick and slippery after the lungs are being affected by cystic fibrosis (Al-Ishaq et al. 2020). Due to this, the thick mucus that is be3ing secreted by the lungs gets accumulated in the passageways and tubes of the lungs and digestive system also.

The bacteria’s that are responsible for the causing cystic fibrosis in the lungs become non respondent to the use of various antibiotics. Thus it becomes very much difficult to cure the disease in an easy way (, 2022. They show a high level of resistance towards the usage of the antibiotic drugs that are being commonly used for treating the disease. Due to this reason some other ways have been implemented so that the disease can be treated without the use of antibiotics. The introduction of bacteriophage for the treatment of lung infection for the patients suffering from cystic fibrosis can prove to be very effective in nature (Henry, 2019). Bacteriophages have the ability to kill all the targeted bacterial pathogens that cause the disease of cystic fibrosis.

The bacteriophages have the ability to undergo dual life cycles. They are namely lytic and lysogenic. By using these unique characters the bacteriophage can be helpful for the treatment purpose. For the curative approach the lytic phase of the life cycle of bacteriophage can be made useful. This is done as it is based on the reason that it will be helpful in reducing the risk of the increase in the resistance capacity of the gene transfer (Hesse et al. 2021). The treatment process was first proposed by two microbiologists namely, Frederick W. Twort and Felix d’Herelle” in the year of 1914. Gaining success with use of bacteriophage in the area of lung infection and cystic fibrosis, the use of antibacterial drugs has become reduced to a greater extent.

The phage therapy is considered to be very effective as it reduces the after effects of the bacteria’s that affect the lungs very much. Cystic fibrosis affects the lungs as the lung's pathways become congested. Bacteriophages when inserted in the lungs of the patients eat out the bacteria that are responsible for blocking the pathways of the lungs and also the digestive systems(, 2022).The reduction of the bacteria in the pathways automatically reduces the congestion and accumulation of mucus in the pipes and tubes (Sakalauskaite et al. 2020). The relationship between the bacteriophage, the lungs and the bacteria’s can be made useful for getting the disease easily. The bacteriophage is also responsible for restricting their bacterias present in the lungs from further transmission also. The bacteria’s present in the lungs that are being affected by the cystic fibrosis use a technique called “ESKAPE” so that they can hide and seek from the antibacterial drugs that are being used to treat the disease (Albac et al. 2020). The phage therapy is the most recommended therapy for curing the disease of cystic fibrosis and lung infection as it has no to limited side effects.

Future Prospect of the usage of Bacteriophage in the treatment 

The future of the usage of bacteriophage for the treating lung infection that is caused due to cystic fibrosis is showing very brighter results. The “phage therapy” has many unique characteristics as it has several stunning features as it proves to be easy for disease setting. The occurrence of bacteriophage in nature is abundant. The easily available virus can be collected on a very easy manner so that it can be used for medical purposes (Manohar et al. 2019). The targeted bacteria that are present in the lungs can be washed off by the use of bacteriophage in the lungs.

The efficiency in the phage therapy can be proved to be very effective in the future. The use of antibiotics is creating many problems in the path of treating the patients with cystic fibrosis disease which is associated with lung infection also. The use of phage therapy can prove to be effective as it has no side effects (, 2022). The targeted virus can be inhaled in the lung airway easily that will in return clear out the bacteria from the lung pathways. Using this method in the future for treating the patients with lung infection and cystic fibrosis can prove to be very effective.


The use of bacteriophage can prove to be life altering for treating the patients of lung infection due to cystic fibrosis. The newly emerging technique can be used to treat many people in the future with the same problems. The ability to kill the bacteria’s that are responsible for the disease is the unique ability of the bacteriophage to treat the disease.

 The patients who are treated with the phage therapy are giving out striking results that can be proved to be very effective in producing more unique techniques in this area. The drug resistant capability of the lungs reduces and also the infection of the lungs reduces to a very low level. This treatment can prove to be very effective by giving out many positive results.




Al-Ishaq, R.K., Skariah, S. and Büsselberg, D., 2020. Bacteriophage treatment: critical evaluation of its application on world health organization priority pathogens. Viruses13(1), p.51.

Henry, B.A.H., 2019. A case series of emergency investigational new drug applications for bacteriophages treating recalcitrant multi-drug resistant bacterial infections: confirmed safety and a signal of efficacy. Journal of Intensive and Critical Care5(2), p.11.


Abd El-Aziz, A.M., Elgaml, A. and Ali, Y.M., 2019. Bacteriophage therapy increases complement-mediated lysis of bacteria and enhances bacterial clearance after acute lung infection with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 219(9), pp.1439-1447. 

Cesta, N., Di Luca, M., Corbellino, M., Tavio, M., Galli, M. and Andreoni, M., 2020. Bacteriophage therapy: An overview and the position of Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases. Infez Med, 28(3), pp.322-331.

Chang, R.Y.K., Chow, M.Y., Wang, Y., Liu, C., Hong, Q., Morales, S., McLachlan, A.J., Kutter, E., Li, J. and Chan, H.K., 2022. The effects of different doses of inhaled bacteriophage therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infections in mice. Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Hesse, S., Malachowa, N., Porter, A.R., Freedman, B., Kobayashi, S.D., Gardner, D.J., Scott, D.P., Adhya, S. and DeLeo, F.R., 2021. Bacteriophage treatment rescues mice infected with multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258. Mbio12(1), pp.e00034-21.

Sakalauskaite, S., Kuliesiene, N., Galalyte, D., Tuckute, S., Urbonavicius, M., Varnagiris, S., Daugelavicius, R. and Lelis, M., 2020. Potential and Risk of the Visible Light Assisted Photocatalytical Treatment of PRD1 and T4 Bacteriophage Mixtures. Environmental & Climate Technologies24(2).

Online Articles

Albac, S., Medina, M., Labrousse, D., Hayez, D., Bonnot, D., Anzala, N., Laurent, F., Ferry, T., Dublanchet, A., Chavanet, P. and Fevre, C., 2020. Efficacy of bacteriophages in a Staphylococcus aureus nondiabetic or diabetic foot infection murine model. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy64(2), pp.e01870-19.

Manohar, P., Tamhankar, A.J., Lundborg, C.S. and Nachimuthu, R., 2019. Therapeutic characterization and efficacy of bacteriophage cocktails infecting Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter species. Frontiers in microbiology10, p.574.

Websites (2022) About: The future of cystic fibrosis care: a global perspective. Available at: [Accessed on: 7th May, 2022]

Online article

Ng, R.N., Tai, A.S., Chang, B.J., Stick, S.M. and Kicic, A., 2021. Overcoming challenges to make bacteriophage therapy standard clinical treatment practice for cystic fibrosis. Frontiers in microbiology, 11, p.3389.

Wienhold, S.M., Brack, M.C., Nouailles, G., Krishnamoorthy, G., Korf, I.H., Seitz, C., Wienecke, S., Dietert, K., Gurtner, C., Kershaw, O. and Gruber, A.D., 2021. Preclinical Assessment of Bacteriophage Therapy against Experimental Acinetobacter baumannii Lung Infection. Viruses, 14(1), p.33.

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