Applications of Microarray Technology in Bioinformatics Assignment Sample

The Interdisciplinary Promise of Microarray Technology in Systems Biology

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Introduction Of Bioinformatics Essay Coursework Preparation Assignment

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Bioinformative along with systems biology learning events is maximally interdisciplinary, mixing knowledge from departments like genetics, mathematics, molecular biology, statistics, and computer science. The microarray is the element utilized to identify the characteristics of genes in the count of a thousand in a similar time. It detects DNA from proper contains separately a gene mutation such as BRCA1 along with BRCA2. These are “microscope slides” which are signalled with small spots that count thousands in a particular position, with every spot having the DNA sequence or the gene which is acknowledged. Microarray is a vital factor in the diagnosis process and therapy of human disease which is used for the identification of genes of the disease and the disease agent. It can also detect the abnormality of chromosomes, analyse the mutation, global acknowledgment. Microarrays can influence biological research which is of vital significance. Microarrays also play important role in various other fields of biology.


Importance of microarrays in human disease

Characteristics on the basis of microarray identification assay in the human genome sequence help scientists with new and impactful equipment for acknowledging disease in molecular and in molecular biology and have important significance in various diagnosis which is impossible to be identified by conventional tools. Microarrays also influence the assessment of whole transcriptomes when changes in the state of biology arise, delivering a new perspective on gene functioning and regulation of disease network enhancement and circulation. The gene appearance directly transforms in stimuli reaction or to the outcome of the function of molecules in the exact type of cell or the tissue and also as alteration of the disease in particular cells along with tissue arise. The gene appearance microarrays are defined with the experiment of the culture of ex vivo in the leukaemia cell of the patient to acknowledge the drug reaction (Huang, et al. 2018). This data identified the gene sequence that is relevant to therapy reactions and particularly assumed the responsibility of the applied drug from the point of view of the patient. The perspective of medical and regulation, assessment and medical accuracy, and utility of diagnosis are significant as opposed to the in vitro therapeutic value experiment process calculated. Although the maximally precise connection between genotype and phenotype for imperfect CYP2D6 for various reasons such as unidentified inhibition impact of drug can help the activity of the enzyme, a sample of particular substrate variation for proper drug level having decreased activity, though the allelic variant in minimum level and undiscovered variants of allelic that can identify an as huge population that are tested internationally. The technology of microarrays has delivered the possibility to start profitable profiling of molecules along with genes of “human breast cancer” (Huang, et al. 2019). Though “oestrogen receptor” or ER has done a vital action in explaining the composition of breast cancer molecules, on the basis of the array it is discovered that the illness is much more heterogeneous compared to assume by the conventional histopathological processes.

Microarray has been useful in routine biological research

The technology of microarrays is an important element in the analysis of the simulation of thousands of expressions of genes in tissue, cells, or particular organs. The sequence of DNA data encrypts RNA for particular genes that is printed on the chips of microarrays which allows the calculation of every RNA abundance in biological research. In the utilization of clustering, network assessment of genes, and bioinformatics, this process is influencing to permit the determination of mechanism regulators which are conducted with the development in the function of the “bovine mammary gland” in the time of involution, late pregnancy, lactation, along with prepubertal improvement (Mathian, et al. 2019). A genome-enabled system such as gene silencing, proteomics, and RNA sequencing enhance every phase of mammary improvement and will deliver upgraded perspective and chances for developing the growth of mammary, milk production capability, and traits of milk. Microarrays system can utilize to determine the international changes in the expression of transcription of many genes in a particular experiment. Though the gene expression variance in the sample must be assured with maximally particular processes like quantitative time reaction of polymerase chain (Mathian, et al. 2020). The light-directed synthesis” system functions on the basis of digital micro mirror-based as well as photolithography have the power to reach the required structure. This enables the decrease in the cost along with in volume of hybridization with the following decrease in the count of needed samples for the biological sample.

Application of microarrays in biological function

On the basis of molecules of various illnesses, genetic aberrations have been standardly identified by CGH. The definition of the CGH method on the basis of microarray has been evaluated in the phase of resolution. Pancreatic cancer is a malignancy illness developing from the association of various genetic along with epigenetic issues in the concerned cells. DNA arrays help the chances to observe the response level of mRNA transcription at the same time in a particular assay, creating suitable types of equipment to test the network of the complex transcriptional transformation which is conducted with the changes of malignant pancreas cancer biology”, defining on the basis of more improvement of the suitable diagnosis process and maximally impactful treatment modalities (Ghosh et al. 2019). In addition, microarrays can be applied directly as maximally suitable diagnosis types of equipment in the medical field, restricting the release of maximum detailed along with variated diagnostic data from the sample of biopsy compared to the particular marker of the molecule or the traditional treatment process. DNA microarrays give various scopes in biology to associate a huge number of quantitative tests. This capability has created changes in quality in the definition of the hypothesis which can be evaluated (Feng, et al. 2018). This helps in the changes of the dominant phase of utilization, transcriptional changes level of relevant genes in the particular genome, having importance in a specific tissue or particular type of cells, that can be counted in the state of the disease, in the time of improvement, and also in reaction to experimental goal disturbance, like gene disturbance and the treatment using the drug.

A major success and breakthrough

In the DNA sequencing assumption, the microarray is the early process that permits the biological researcher to a huge number of digital data complexes (Du, et al. 2019). After applying the use of microarrays technology it becomes noticeable in consequence for various others which are to be capable to create a given experiment of microarray a brief definition of the microarray, the experimental sample, the tradition, and the analysis of the information process required to be accessible. It is similarly impactful that reaching the main raw information which is processed would permit other analysis cases, and a combination of information analysis that the main data processor is not suitable for. Acknowledging these problems of consistent science and information exchange, the scientist of “the Microarray Gene Expression Data Society” produced the “Minimum Information about a Microarray Experiment” levels for the definition of microarray technologies and for microarray data exchange (Paredes, et al. 2021). These breakthroughs help in the production public information base for data of microarray and succeeding level attempts in other fields.

Challenges and difficulties

The major challenge in the technology is normalizing the information, which focuses on the deduct the variation from the sample that are arisen is the aspect of the process of managing microarrays that may create the biological variation in the setup of the experiment (Paredes, et al. 2021). Other concerned challenges are the determination of sample variation genes and transformation of noise standard in the experimental sample and a process to develop pollution or impairment on the surface of the microarrays setup. The resulting issue of affymetrix from various calculations of expression standard for a particular gene, wrong conduction of probe signal of hybridization, and also the impacts of definite probe characteristics on processing the information. The most identified difficulties of microarrays technology involve the excessive cost for a single test, a huge count of probe design on the basis of low-specificity sequence, and a shortage of restriction on the analysed pool transcription till maximally utilized action of microarrays (Li and Feizi 2018). Other issues in the technology are minimum accuracy, low specificity, and low precision, and the setup of the process is highly sensitive to differentiation in temperature of hybridization.


In this essay, the researcher briefly discusses the function of microarrays in bioinformatics research. The researcher defines microarray technology which is an important technique of biological experiments and disease therapy. This technology includes combining thousands of arrays of nucleic acid of million counts to a surface that is solid, known as a chip. This chip is washed with isolated DNA or RNA from the sample used in the experiment. The researchers also explain the process of using technology in identifying diseases such as breast cancer in different stages and in the observation of the response of drugs applied in the diagnosis of the disease. The impact on the biological routine experiment is also defined in the research. The researcher identifies various positive impacts of the microarray technology in different experiment that helps scientist in prioritizing this technology over other traditional process used in medical science. The researcher acknowledged the difficulties that are faced by the scientists while using the technology.

Reference list


Du, H., Yu, H., Ma, T., Yang, F., Jia, L., Zhang, C., Zhang, J., Niu, L., Yang, J., Zhang, Z. and Zhang, K., 2019. Analysis of glycosphingolipid glycans by lectin microarrays. Analytical chemistry, 91(16), pp.10663-10671.

Feng, W., Ueda, E. and Levkin, P.A., 2018. Droplet Microarrays: From Surface Patterning to High?Throughput Applications. Advanced materials, 30(20), p.1706111.

Ghosh, M., Begum, S., Sarkar, R., Chakraborty, D. and Maulik, U., 2019. Recursive memetic algorithm for gene selection in microarray data. Expert Systems with Applications, 116, pp.172-185.

Huang, Z.K., Yao, F.Y., Xu, J.Q., Deng, Z., Su, R.G., Peng, Y.P., Luo, Q. and Li, J.M., 2018. Microarray expression profile of circular RNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from active tuberculosis patients. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, 45(3), pp.1230-1240.

Jang, W., Kim, Y., Han, E., Park, J., Chae, H., Kwon, A., Choi, H., Kim, J., Son, J.O., Lee, S.J. and Hong, B.Y., 2019. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and multiple congenital anomalies: a prospective multicenter study in Korea. Annals of laboratory medicine, 39(3), pp.299-310.

Li, Z. and Feizi, T., 2018. The neoglycolipid (NGL) technology?based microarrays and future prospects. FEBS letters, 592(23), pp.3976-3991.

Mathian, A., Mouries?Martin, S., Dorgham, K., Devilliers, H., Barnabei, L., Ben Salah, E., Cohen?Aubart, F., Garrido Castillo, L., Haroche, J., Hie, M. and Pineton de Chambrun, M., 2019. Monitoring disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus with Single?Molecule array digital Enzyme?Linked immunosorbent assay quantification of serum Interferon?α. Arthritis & rheumatology, 71(5), pp.756-765.

Mathian, A., Mouries?Martin, S., Dorgham, K., Devilliers, H., Barnabei, L., Ben Salah, E., Cohen?Aubart, F., Garrido Castillo, L., Haroche, J., Hie, M. and Pineton de Chambrun, M., 2019. Monitoring disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus with Single?Molecule array digital Enzyme?Linked immunosorbent assay quantification of serum Interferon?α. Arthritis & rheumatology, 71(5), pp.756-765.

Paredes, A.J., McKenna, P.E., Ramöller, I.K., Naser, Y.A., Volpe?Zanutto, F., Li, M., Abbate, M.T.A., Zhao, L., Zhang, C., Abu?Ershaid, J.M. and Dai, X., 2021. Microarray patches: poking a hole in the challenges faced when delivering poorly soluble drugs. Advanced Functional Materials, 31(1), p.2005792.

Paredes, A.J., Ramöller, I.K., McKenna, P.E., Abbate, M.T., Volpe-Zanutto, F., Vora, L.K., Kilbourne-Brook, M., Jarrahian, C., Moffatt, K., Zhang, C. and Tekko, I.A., 2021. Microarray patches: breaking down the barriers to contraceptive care and HIV prevention for women across the globe. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 173, pp.331-348.


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