Impact of Cheese Consumption on Cardiovascular Health: A Comprehensive Review

Exploring the Relationship Between Cheese Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease

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Literature Review Planning Questions

Introduction Of Impact of Cheese Consumption on Cardiovascular Health

Effects of cheese consumption on adults on a long term cardiovascular risk disease is the major disorders which are prevalent now a days. Cheese is considered the main source of protein and calcium and it contains a high amount of saturated fat and salt. Too much consumption of cheese leads to the growth of cardiovascular diseases and high cholesterol with high amount of blood pressure. Since it contains a high amount of salt it can trigger high blood pressure.

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Consumption of high fatty food can enhance heart risk like CVD, coronary heart diseases, cardiac failure and many other heart related issues. In addition, cheese is containing saturated fatty acids and this type of fatty acid clot into the heart arteries and decrease the size of the arteries that may cause difficulties in blood flow. Because of the reason this is accelerate the risk of heart attack. According to the study, Processed American cheese and Cheddar cheese accelerate the heart disease.

Literature review

Factor 1

Components present in cheese which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease

Cheese is highly associated with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases because it contains a high amount of saturated fatty acids and indirectly affects blood cholesterol. The cheese contains milk, coagulant and bacterial cultures. A coagulant is added to help with the formation of solids to take out from liquids (Astrup et al. 2019). These contain high amounts of protein and calcium and thus lead to cause high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Soft cheeses and "blue-veined cheeses" are contaminated with listeria which is highly causing negative effects on cardiovascular disease. People who consume cheese get 100 calories per ounce which is risky for cardiovascular diseases.

risk of heart disease

Figure 1: risk of heart disease

(Source: Capra et al. 2021)

As per the mentioned picture, there are some risks factors that accelerate heart disease such as urbanization, globalization, some genetic factors, interaction between gene and environment. Additionally, there are some environmental factors like u8se of tobacco, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet consumption, use of alcohol and drug and many more. There are some intermediate factors like elevated blood pressure level, overweight, abnormal blood lipids, prediabetes and obesity. Apart from this, different disease mostly can cause stroke and acute CVD that are different non communicable diseases, diabetes, “chronic o0bstruction pulmonary disease”, “cancer” and many more (Ayon et al. 2019). High sodium content causes "chronic comorbidities" that include hypertension and thus leads to heart failure. Dairy fat contains a high amount of saturated fatty acids that lead to the growth of "low-density lipoprotein"(LDL), and cholesterol and thus it leads to the growth of cardiovascular disorders (Capra et al. 2021). There is a strong relationship in between dairy foods and thus leading to the CVD.

Factor 2

The age group that highly gets affected by cardiovascular diseases by the consumption of cheese

Especially middle-aged people are getting affected by cardiovascular diseases (CVD) due to the high consumption of cheeses (Chirsanova et al. 2020). Cardiovascular diseases mainly affect people who are above 50. High and regular consumption of cheeses leads to the formation of cholesterol and high blood pressure for the patient. Men are likely to get affected by CVD. Adults aged 65 and higher are at more risk to suffer from heart diseases and blood vessel disorders or both. Ageing causes changes in heart diseases which can increase the person's risk of developing heart disease. Especially the person of any age overweight are vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases. The high content of sodium can lead to high blood pressure and thus tends to cause more chances of stroke.

Age group that highly gets affected by cardiovascular diseases

Figure 2: Age group that highly gets affected by cardiovascular diseases by the consumption of cheese

(Source: Companys et al. 2021)

As per the picture, after 45 years of age people are suffer from CVD and other heart diseases that may can cause death. Apart from this, due to unhealthy eating habits of the people this is can be seen in the age of 20 to 30 years of individuals (Companys et al. 2021). Recently the young individuals eat several fast foods which are contain shredded cheese and this may accelerate the arterial disorders. This shredded cheese also found in cheese pakora, pizza, burger and many items. Additionally, mozzarella cheese also enhances the imbalance in the veins and artery’s function.

Factor 3

Cardiovascular disease prevalence due to the intake of cheese at an earlier age.

From the study, it was found that 0.9% of adults aged 18-44 years to 5.9% are having a high rate of cardiovascular diseases. About 45-64 and 18.2% among them are above 65 years. From the study it was observed that 17.9 million people died from CVD in the year 2019, representing 32% of all global death. Three-quarters are from low -middle-income countries (Feeney et al. 2021). Due to the high consumption of junk which contains cheese are highly vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases. Consumption of unhealthy, street food items increases blood glucose and increases blood lipids. These ultimately have negative consequences on the arterial blockage. Blockage in the arterial blood flow cause mild to massive heart cardiac arrest. It is estimated that 17.9 million people are suffered from cardiovascular diseases (Vogel et al. 2021). CVD includes "coronary heart diseases", "cerebrovascular diseases", "and rheumatic heart diseases". Coronary heart disease kills about 3, 82820 people in the year 2020. About 20.1 million adults age 20 and older are having cardiovascular diseases about 7.2%.

Consumption of cheese increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart failure and other coronary heart diseases. From the study, it was observed that 32.4% of the males and 34.6 % of the females consumed cheese regularly and 9.2% are having cardiovascular disorders, while others are alright (Mattioli et al. 2020). Regular cheese consumption gives rise to the onset of Ischemic heart disease (IHD). The number of deaths from IHD reached 9.14 million and the number of disability-adjusted life years reached about 182.03 million in the year 2019. It has become a serious issue in the whole world. High dairy consumption creates a neutral association with cardiovascular disease and with that mortality rates. It's better to consume tofu-based cheese for consuming rather than other cheese. Cheddar cheese are having 28 grams of calories in 1 ounce. It is also found that the consumption of good cheeses is regarded as lowering cardiovascular disease (Santurino et al. 2020). A healthy intake of cheeses can lead to the reduction of cardiovascular disorders. Every food item has to be consumed at a limited level high consumption always leads to various types of disorders. Three portions of cheese are recommended to consume i.e. 42 grams per day for maintenance of health. Thus low intake of cheese items is recommended to consume for health benefits and thus it has to be strictly maintained.

Factor 4

The ways how cheese triggers the cardiovascular disease

Dairy fat is characterized by the high content of saturated fatty acids that are known to raise the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and thereby increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fat content of the cheese causes a risk of coronary heart disease, stroke or other types of cardiovascular diseases. Since cheeses contain saturated fat and choline that creates a high chance of plaque formation in the arteries and ultimately that causes heart disease. Cheese is that item which triggers type 2 diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease and hypertension and ischemic heart disease.

how cheese triggers the cardiovascular disease

Figure 3: ways how cheese triggers the cardiovascular disease

(Source: Paszczyk et al. 2020)

The picture mentioned here the way in which cheese trigger the CVD risk. According to the picture, SNP help to predict an individual’s response to some drugs, toxins and this may identify the risk of develop some diseases. So, with consume some medicines that may affect the heart and increase the risk of CVD (Paszczyk et al. 2020). The formation of cholesterol and triglycerides are caused by the high consumption of cheeses and other types of heart diseases. The more impact that cheese gives the increase in body weight and the high body weight is the base for lipids formation in the arteries and veins and ultimately leads to cardiovascular disorders (McStay et al. 2020). Various surgery is now available like angioplasty, pacemakers and others to keep the heart's normal functioning of the heart. Other than heart diseases, processed cheese is not good for consumption rather cheese production in the house are more preferable. The butter content in cheese is also not preferred for consumption because the butter which the manufacturer uses is not good for health.

Factor 5

Ways to overcome the harmful effect of cheese to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)

Cheese increases the risk of CVDs among adults irrespective of age and gender. According to Bansal & Mishra, (2020) table salt or sodium chloride (NaCl) influences the risk of hypertension. Cheese contains some amount of salt which affected the blood flow and the risk of heart disease. Therefore the stud suggested that people should adopt preventive measures to overcome the risk of CVDs that causes due to excessive cheese consumption. The reduction of the consumption of common salt helps in decreasing the risk factors. Apart from that, it is necessary to reduce the amount of cheese in the diet. It would help to reduce fat storage in the body and blood vessels. A balanced diet can help keep the body healthy, fit, and disease free. As per the doctor's opinion, regular exercise, jogging, running, brisk walking, swimming, and other physical activities can help to reduce fat storage in the body. Along with that, it also reduces the risk of heart disease caused by different factors including cheese consumption. Physical inactivity followed by excessive cheese consumption which is a fat nutrient causes the storage of unwanted fat in the human body (Tian & Meng, 2019). Thus, physical activity, a healthy lifestyle, and a proper diet can help to overcome these issues as the stored fat reduces through these factors.

As pert the picture, there are some ways to prevent this CVD and the risk of the heart disease. The individuals should stop smoking, implement a healthy diet in their life style, they should decrease intake of salt and sugar in everyday diet (Giosuè et al.2022). The people should exercise regularly and they should be aware about the CVD and the cause of the disease, effect and some preventive way. The person with CVD should make some restriction on the diet and modify their lifestyle according to the advice of the doctor. They should include more fiber and water in their diet and should consume some good fat to reduce fat in the arteries.

On the other hand, Gomez-Delgado et al. (2021) argued that CVDs are one of the vital causes of mortality that results from cardiometabolic risk factors. The literature reflects that a balanced and healthy diet is more important than physical activity. It is observed that a lack of awareness about physical activity among people increases the risks of CVDs. However, controlling diet, especially the elimination of fatty food including cheese can help to give a healthy lifestyle. Cheese contains fat and salt as well which are both influential factors of CVDs. Thus, parents should increase their awareness to stop their children from intake excessive cheese. Different health awareness programs help to reduce the risk factors of CVDs (Sharifi-Rad et al. 2020).

Conclusion

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem among adults which is related to the disease of the heart or blood vessels. As per the information, Cheese is a protein rich and calcium-rich food and long-term consumption of cheese can accelerate the risk of CVDs. There is a non-linear inverse association exists between the risk of CVDs and cheese consumption. Thus, long-term cheese consumption can lead to stroke, thrombosis, and so on due to fat deposition inside the artery. The individual can prevent the heart disease and disorder by implement a good adequate diet in their eating habit and reduce the intake of cheese and other fast foods.

References

Journals

Astrup, A., Geiker, N. R. W., & Magkos, F. (2019). Effects of full-fat and fermented dairy products on cardiometabolic disease: food is more than the sum of its parts. Advances in Nutrition, 10(5), 924S-930S.Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/advances/article-pdf/10/5/924S/30096230/nmz069.pdf

Ayon, S.I., Islam, M.M. and Hossain, M.R., 2022. Coronary artery heart disease prediction: a comparative study of computational intelligence techniques. IETE Journal of Research, 68(4), pp.2488-2507.Retrieved from: https://www.kuet.ac.bd/webportal/ppmv2/uploads/1580192798Coronary%20Artery%20Heart%20Disease%20Prediction%20A%20Comparative%20Study%20of%20Computational%20Intelligence%20Techniques.pdf

Bansal, V., & Mishra, S. K. (2020). Reduced?sodium cheeses: Implications of reducing sodium chloride on cheese quality and safety. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 19(2), 733-758. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Venus-Bansal/publication/338704720_Reduced-sodium_cheeses_Implications_of_reducing_sodium_chloride_on_cheese_quality_and_safety/links/5e8c15814585150839c6497b/Reduced-sodium-cheeses-Implications-of-reducing-sodium-chloride-on-cheese-quality-and-safety.pdf

Capra, M. E., Pederiva, C., Viggiano, C., De Santis, R., Banderali, G., & Biasucci, G. (2021). Nutritional Approach to Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in Childhood. Nutrients, 13(7), 2359. Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/7/2359/pdf

Chirsanova, A., Boaghe, E., Capcanari, T., Suhodol, M. N., Deseatnicova, O., Boi?tean, A., ... & Sturza, R. (2020). Consumer behavior related to salt intake in the Republic of Moldova. Journal of social sciences, 4(3), 101-110.Retrieved from: https://ibn.idsi.md/sites/default/files/imag_file/JSS-4-2020-pp_101-110.pdf

Companys, J., Pedret, A., Valls, R. M., Sola, R., & Pascual, V. (2021). Fermented dairy foods rich in probiotics and cardiometabolic risk factors: A narrative review from prospective cohort studies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 61(12), 1966-1975. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10408398.2020.1768045?needAccess=true&role=button

Feeney, E. L., Lamichhane, P., & Sheehan, J. J. (2021). The cheese matrix: understanding the impact of cheese structure on aspects of cardiovascular health–a food science and a human nutrition perspective. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 74(4), 656-670. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1471-0307.12755

Giosuè, A., Calabrese, I., Vitale, M., Riccardi, G., & Vaccaro, O. (2022). Consumption of dairy foods and cardiovascular disease: A systematic review. Nutrients, 14(4), 831. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/4/831/pdf

Gomez-Delgado, F., Katsiki, N., Lopez-Miranda, J., & Perez-Martinez, P. (2021). Dietary habits, lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease: From individual foods to dietary patterns. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 61(10), 1651-1669. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2020.1764487

Mattioli, A. V., Sciomer, S., Cocchi, C., Maffei, S., & Gallina, S. (2020). Quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak: Changes in diet and physical activity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 30(9), 1409-1417. Retrieved from: https://iris.unimore.it/bitstream/11380/1203457/1/pre%20proof%20NMCD%202020.pdf

McStay, R. N. (2020). Cheese intake and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome: with particular reference to Gamalost intake and its effect on blood pressure. Retrieved from : https://nmbu.brage.unit.no/nmbu-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2687097/2015_23_Rita%20Nilsen%20McStay.pdf?sequence=1

Paszczyk, B., & ?uczy?ska, J. (2020). The comparison of fatty acid composition and lipid quality indices in hard cow, sheep, and goat cheeses. Foods, 9(11), 1667. Retrieved from : https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/9/11/1667/pdf

Santurino, C., López-Plaza, B., Fontecha, J., Calvo, M. V., Bermejo, L. M., Gómez-Andrés, D., & Gómez-Candela, C. (2020). Consumption of goat cheese naturally rich in omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid improves the cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers of overweight and obese subjects: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrients, 12(5), 1315. Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/5/1315/pdf

Santurino, C., López-Plaza, B., Fontecha, J., Calvo, M. V., Bermejo, L. M., Gómez-Andrés, D., & Gómez-Candela, C. (2020). Consumption of goat cheese naturally rich in omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid improves the cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers of overweight and obese subjects: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrients, 12(5), 1315. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/E1C09389C8DF564B472AB9ABF2812466/S0007114521001422a.pdf/consumption_of_dairy_products_and_cvd_risk_results_from_the_french_prospective_cohort_nutrinetsante.pdf

Sharifi-Rad, J., Rodrigues, C. F., Sharopov, F., Docea, A. O., Can Karaca, A., Sharifi-Rad, M., ... & Calina, D. (2020). Diet, lifestyle and cardiovascular diseases: linking pathophysiology to cardioprotective effects of natural bioactive compounds. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(7), 2326. Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/677836

Tian, D., & Meng, J. (2019). Exercise for prevention and relief of cardiovascular disease: prognoses, mechanisms, and approaches. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2019/3756750/

Vogel, B., Acevedo, M., Appelman, Y., Merz, C. N. B., Chieffo, A., Figtree, G. A., ... & Mehran, R. (2021). The Lancet women and cardiovascular disease Commission: reducing the global burden by 2030. The Lancet, 397(10292), 2385-2438. Retrieved from : https://us2.ai/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Lancet-Women-and-CVD-Commission.pdf

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