Chemical Engineering Cohort Bioethanol Production Assignment Sample

Design Basis & Engineering Initiatives for Bioethanol Production: A Comprehensive Overview

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Chemical Engineering Cohort Bioethanol Production Assignment

Communication of Design Basis by standard Design Basis form

Engineering design initiatives must carefully consider the Communication of Design Basis. The specifications and needs for a project, such as design parameters, safety considerations, and operational criteria, are outlined in a design basis. The Design Basis makes sure that everyone involved in the project is aware of its goals and limitations. Using a standard Design Basis document is one typical method of communicating the Design Basis. Typically, the form has parts for the identification of the project, the design basis scope, the design criteria, the design loads, the materials, and the safety considerations. The requirements and specifications for the undertaking are detailed in each section.

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Carbon emissions statement

The recycling of carbon is a crucial issue in the production of bioethanol. It depends on variables like the type of feedstock used, the production method, and the energy sources which are used in the production. Bioethanol production depends on the form of sugarcane or corn and can consume fewer greenhouse emissions than other fossil fuel factors (Aghaei et al.2022). That's why plants are used bioethanol production to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere from their growth, which neutralises some CO2 emissions created during the process.

Material and energy balance communicated by PFD(s), stream table(s), equipment list and footprints

Types of equipment needed for bioethanol production

  • Storage tanks to store sugarcane or corn.
  • Tank for storing the slurry materials.
  • Tank for fermentation.
  • Pieces of equipment for distillation.
  • Plant reinforcement techniques and processes.

Work package 1– Liquefaction and Saccharification

The measured sugarcanes or corn are initially transferred to the slurry tanks along with process water, thermostable alpha-amylase, ammonia, and lime to prepare the slurry. When the slurry is finished, the mixture is put through a process called liquefaction, in which starch is clotted using a steam injection heater and hydrolyzed into oligosaccharides commonly known as dextrin’s using thermostable alpha-amylase (Mohanty and Swain, 2019). Saccharification is the goal of glucoamylase's second conversion of the oligosaccharides to glucose. When the pH in the tank is brought down to 4.5 using sulfuric acid, the slurry is held there for five hours. At 61 degrees Celsius, the starch is once more hydrolyzed from dextrins to glucose throughout this phase.

Work package 2– Fermentation

Using yeast, fermentation is the process of turning glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The procedure model simulates it as a batch process using 6 fermentors with a capacity of roughly 1.9 million liters each. A functional volume of 83% is present in the fermentors, and the habitation time is set at 68 hours. As the conversion of glucose to ethanol produces 1200 kJ/kg of ethanol, cooling is ongoing.

Work package 3– Separation

The process of separation includes the ethanol detaching from the fermentation broth, which includes water, residual sugars, and other pollutants. At first, the distillation process affects heating the fermentation broth to evaporate the ethanol, which is then packed into a liquid form. After distillation, a dehydration process is used to extract the extra water from the ethanol. After that, Membrane partition can be carried out using either microfiltration or ultrafiltration.

Work package 4–Purification

The purification process concerns clearing any remaining pollutants from the ethanol to meet the demanded specifications for use as a fuel or for other industrial applications. At first, the ethanol is purified with the help of distillation (Chen et al. 2021). Then, molecular sieve absorption is used to absorb the other pollutants and water from the mixture. At last, the Ion exchange process uses an ion exchange resin to terminate any last ions or pollutants in the ethanol.

Work package 5– Power and Heat Integration

This process helps to increase energy and decrease energy costs. The cogeneration process applies using the waste heat generated during bioethanol presentation to create steam, which is used to power a turbine and develop electricity. Heat recovering extra heat from the fermentation process and employing it to preheat incoming feedstocks or process water.

Work package 6– Heating and Cooling

Bioethanol production generally applied heating and cooling methods to transform biomass into ethanol fuel. In the heating process, the biomass is accumulated and processed to remove sugars.

The removed sugars are then counted in a fermenter, along with yeast or other microorganisms, to start the fermentation process. The heating process is generally accomplished by utilising steam or hot water, which is distributed through the fermenter (Wu et al. 2023). Once the fermentation process is finished, the mixture of ethanol and water is cooled down. The cooling procedure can be done using a heat exchanger or a condenser, where the mixture is cooled by passing through a sequence of tubes or plates. The cooled blend is then sent for the distillation, where it is additionally refined to improve ethanol engagement.

Decision-making, analyses and optimization

The above image visualizes the annual expenditure graph of bioethanol production from corn where the graph is labeled in details with the amount was spent in a year.

A number of factors need to be considered when deciding whether to make bioethanol from cereal, including the price and availability of corn, the amount of electricity and emissions of greenhouse gases produced during production, and any potential price effects on food. Because of its high starch amount and widespread availability, corn is a common feedstock for the creation of bioethanol. However, using corn to make bioethanol has the potential to raise food costs as well as have detrimental effects on the environment, such as higher consumption of water and soil erosion. Making decisions regarding the use of corn for the

Equipment Specification

A fermenting tank, distilling column, an evaporator and drying equipment are frequently included in the machinery specification for bioethanol synthesis from corn. The scope of the production operation and the unique requirements of the operation will determine the shape and capacity of the equipment. Other tools like pumps, mixers, and exchangers for heat could also be needed. To ensure safe and effective functioning, the equipment must be built and developed in accordance with a number of standards and regulations. In order to resist the severe and corrosive surroundings of the bioethanol manufacturing process, construction materials need to be carefully chosen. To ensure peak performance and avoid downtime, maintenance of equipment and periodic inspections are crucial.

Process Control, Process Safety & LoPA

Process control is keeping an eye on and managing each step of the bioethanol manufacturing process to make sure it runs well. Process control is essential for making sure that the process stays within the predetermined bounds and that any deviation is quickly identified and addressed. Many methods, such as advanced process control, feedback control, and feedback control, can be used to control a process (APC). Process safety entails locating and controlling risks and hazards related to the manufacturing of bioethanol. In the process of making bioethanol, there are risks such as fire, explosion, hazardous discharges, and chemical reactions (Romaní et al. 2023). The industrial safety system has several safeguards to lessen the possibility of events and lessen their effects. Emergency preparedness strategies, safety management programmers, and safety integrity systems are all examples of process safety measures (SIS). LOPA is a methodical strategy used to pinpoint and assess how well safety barriers work to avoid or lessen mishaps during the bioethanol process of production. As part of LOPA, prospective risks are identified, the likelihood and effects of occurrences are calculated, and protection measures that can stop or lessen these incidents are identified. Engineering controls, administrative controls, and protective gear for employees are examples of safety barriers (PPE).

Decisions documented and design summarised by PID

The P&ID describes the different steps in the production of bioethanol from corn. It demonstrates the methods used to receive, clean, and grind the maize for the mash. To create bioethanol, the mush is next heated, fermented, and distilled. Additionally, it demonstrates the management of by-products like carbon dioxide and distiller grains. It displays the different mechanisms involved in the creation of bioethanol, including pumps, tanks, heat exchangers, fermenters, and distillation columns. The P&ID details each piece of equipment's capacity, size, and style as well as how they are connected. It displays the different equipment, including sensors, transmitting devices, controllers, and alarms, used in the production of bioethanol. Each instrument's sort and location are described, along with how they are connected.

Hazards and Operability (HAZOP)

The vapours of combustible ethanol can catch fire if they come into contact with an ignition source. Therefore, suitable for explosion and fire prevention and mitigation measures, such as ventilation systems, flame detectors, and equipment that is explosion-proof, must be in place at bioethanol production facilities (Yesmin et al. 2020). It's possible that some toxic substances will be created or used during the manufacturing of bioethanol. Substances used in the process, like sulfuric acid, for instance, can endanger workers if they are not managed properly. Employees must receive training on how to handle and use these chemicals safely, and appropriate personal protective gear must be available.

Log of minutes of meetings

This stage of the study contains information about the meeting held in the bioethanol production from corn. The Date, time, and location of the meeting are mentioned in the log as well as names of attendees and absentees are also discussed. Approval of previous meeting minutes and agenda items and discussion points along with decisions made and action items assigned are mentioned in details in this log.


  • Aghaei, S., Alavijeh, M.K., Shafiei, M. and Karimi, K., 2022. A comprehensive review on bioethanol production from corn stover: Worldwide potential, environmental importance, and perspectives. Biomass and Bioenergy, 161, p.106447.
  • Chen, X., Yuan, X., Chen, S., Yu, J., Zhai, R., Xu, Z. and Jin, M., 2021. Densifying Lignocellulosic biomass with alkaline Chemicals (DLC) pretreatment unlocks highly fermentable sugars for bioethanol production from corn stover. Green Chemistry, 23(13), pp.4828-4839.
  • Mohanty, S.K. and Swain, M.R., 2019. Bioethanol production from corn and wheat: food, fuel, and future. In Bioethanol production from food crops (pp. 45-59). Academic Press.
  • Romaní, G. Del Río, P., Gullón, P., Rebelo, F.R., A., Garrote, G. and Gullón, B., 2020. A whole-slurry fermentation approach to high-solid loading for bioethanol production from corn stover. Agronomy, 10(11), p.1790.
  • Wu, Y., Wen, J., Wang, K., Su, C., Chen, C., Cui, Z., CAI, D., Cheng, S., Cao, H. and Qin, P., 2023. Understanding the dynamics of the saccharomyces cerevisiae and scheffersomyces stipitis abundance in co-culturing process for bioethanol production from corn stover. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 14(1), pp.43-55.
  • Yesmin, M.N., Azad, M.A.K., Kamruzzaman, M. and Uddin, M.N., 2020. Bioethanol Production from Corn, Pumpkin and Carrot of Bangladesh as Renewable Source using Yeast. Acta Chemica Malaysia, 4(2), pp.45-54.
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