Gender & Sexuality Discrimination in UK Sociological Research

This comprehensive analysis delves into the societal problems, legislation, and real-life experiences related to these topics in the UK.

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Introduction of Contemporary Sociological Issues Assignment

The research has going to be considered contemporary sociological issues based on discrimination against gender and sexuality. Considering the issues based on discrimination contemporary issues raised problems, as exploring problems in discriminatory society, brings legislation based on gender and sex equality. Along with that, homosexual, and transgender discrimination is another social issue that creates discrimination based on gender. As per the analysis of sex education importance of the physical consequences of sexuality and gender social construction has evaluated the heterosexual issues. After that, the sex work industry has considered transgender women consequences.

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Discrimination is based on males and females regarding education, marriage, work, and family restriction

Gender discrimination has been considered the major cause of discrimination as some thoughts have inbuilt into the mind to create discrimination. these include men being born to be responsible for their families, women having to be housewives, men having to be strong they didn't cry, women having to serve the family then it is useless to give them higher education and others (Heise et al. 2019). These inbuilt thoughts of contemporary society have created major discrimination between males and females. Gender discrimination causes inequality as education for girls to create equal opportunities has major consequences.

Based on dealing with the conflict of the right to education child marriage is another root cause for it as gender-based violence creates inequality. Around 2.5 million girls in risk for early marriage and 9.7 million girl students has forced out of school in 2020 of a pandemic that creates major discrimination against girls. Gender-based violence due to child labour is engaged to feed families as boys and girls around 152 million children are engaged in child labour due to belonging to poor families (, 2022). The legislation in the UK involves the "Human Rights Act 1998" and the "Equality Act 2010" involved in promoting gender inequality.

As per the analysis, it has been found that the survey in 2017 "National LGBT Survey" in the UK has considered education, safety, and workplace practices to consider discrimination. the pressure creates on the males from their families to settle down to be responsible has created challenges as the males suffer a lot for taking the responsibility for all over the family at a minor age as females are not bound to do that (Goldin, 2021). Along with that, the girl child has to be forced to marry regardless to provide higher education and be independent.

Based on the gender discrimination practices in the workplace women are also discriminated due to their capability as men are more capable compared to them thus it creates discrimination. Dealing with family restriction women has to be self-dependent to survive with their principles (Burk et al. 2018). On the other hand, it also helps to reduce the burden of men to take care of the whole family to sacrifice their willingness.

Heterosexual masculinity psychical consequences of the social construction of gender and sexuality

Heterosexual masculinity has normally hostile based on homosexual persons in general and gay men consider the empirical observation. Consider heterosexual masculinity the culturally constructed identity brings the emergency of gay identity. As per the analysis, to express hostility towards gay people homophobia from heterosexual masculinity brings into consideration the prejudice to explicit gay men and lesbians as homophobia (Small, 2019). Along with that, the intolerance and fear of homosexuality prejudice the psychology against lesbians and gays. Based on the cultural ideology and psychology phenomena it deals with the interpretation of socio-cultural problems that consider the aspects of masculinity.

The interpretation based on individual and societal distinction has considered the ruling aspects. Argued with the integral component that heterosexual masculinity serves the psychological function as homophobia reduces thus heterosexual men will interact with gay men (Iacoviello et al. 2020). Dealing with the long-term strategy of heterosexuality experience the psychological perspective considers the male experience of lesbian or gay. The gender relation focuses on the implications of exploring and empowering the alternative to evaluate the gender equity of the social group's disparate values. Based on particular behaviour masculinity requires the context of collaborative projects to discuss hegemonic masculinity.

Along with that, highlight the intervention of the hierarchy of masculinities for access among men to power. Based on the mechanism of the social construction of gender and sexuality the efforts help to replicate male relatives focusing on emphasising the violence against legitimate gender activists. As per the analysis, the committing violence of hegemonic masculinity has been considered the "Theory of oppression" and “Theory of discrimination" (Drydakis, 2022). Based on these theories prejudice discrimination has to evaluate the mechanism of homophobic men. Based on the heterosexual men's observation the opinion polls in psychological studies evaluate the difficulty to maintain the heterosexual masculine identity.

The analysis of heterosexual men's negative reactions has been effective for cultural construction to deal with the conformity of social standards. Homophobic attitudes have been considered maladaptive aspects to deal with the standards and practices of social construction (Gerber et al. 2021). Discrimination based on gender and sexuality expresses the cultural construction as homophobia requires learning based on heterosexuals to consider sexual behaviour and practices.

Culture and the sociology of sexuality

The social constructs change over time and between cultures based on evaluating the result of this theory implication "Statistical theory of racism and sexism" helps to evaluate the responsibility of "The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC)". Dealing with this public service organization the discrimination based on analyzing the UK sociology of sexuality brings into consideration of economic metaphor (, 2020). As per the analysis it has been found that the cultural assumption based on the exploration of non-sexual transmitted norms brings the analysis of humanities-based queer theory. Along with that, the power of cultural assumptions such as age, mortality and money reproduce the challenges based on sexual personhood.

The assumption about sexuality evaluates the emotions and sense of social interaction to construct the norms of homosexuality and heterosexuality. Consider the practices of homosexuals. The same gender attraction and having sex are homosexual on the other hand heterosexuality brings the concept to the narrative position. Focusing on European colonies British colonial states that it is illegal in "41 and 53 commonwealth nations" has brought into consideration the aspects of sexuality (Clark and Vissandjée, 2019). Based on these statements heterosexuality considers heteronormativity to deal with the practices of social and cultural consideration. Along with that, the evaluation of queer, transgender, gay, lesbian, asexual, bisexual, and intersex considers heteronormativity function.

The analysis of human history and the sociology of sexuality brings into the major focus on cross-cultural perspective as then practices to relate non-binary sexuality with the cultural practices bring into consideration of minority and colonized groups. Based on analysing the broader society to navigate transphobia the community connection brings diversity in sexuality (Fuller et al. 2018). The social norms focus on intimate relationships based on gender disparity. Thus, the sexual relationship has considered the psychological aspect to evaluate the sexual behaviour implication of logical argumentation to consider the cultural offerings for sexual responsibility and consent.

Discrimination based on sexual orientation

Sexual orientation-based discrimination has also the primary cause as the orientation of sexuality considers three prospects with own sex such as gay or lesbian, with opposite sex such as heterosexual people. Sexual orientation based on bisexuality is both the same and opposite sex the sexual orientation has persisted this kind of person has a bisexual personality (Burk et al. 2018). The theory of "Integrative theory of intergroup conflict" has analyzed illegal practices based on sexual orientation and direct discrimination is based on the association of abuse and harassment to prove it. Along with that, hostile sexual orientation is a major example is present for direct discrimination.

As the insurance company asked for an HIV test before giving the benefit of it hence the application form shows that he is gay. An example of a landlord that asks the agent to give the flat to someone if they are lesbian or gay due to the direct sexual orientation approach consider the practices. Indirect discrimination has focused on sexual orientation to deal with policy for civil partners as genuine discrimination victimised the employment tribunal for effective discrimination for having protection in sexual orientation discrimination (, 2021). As per the analysis, it has been found that LGBT in Britain has considered the discrimination process as 21% of people experience sexual orientation.

Due to the gender identity dealing with Trans people 41% experienced the gender identity in the same period of sexual orientation as the number of lesbian, gay and bisexual people has risen by 78%. Based on the above data 10% of LGBT people have experienced transphobic, homophobic, and biphobic to experience discrimination in daily life (, 2021). Approaching Asian and minority ethnic LGBT people access social services discrimination based on gender identity and sexual orientation has been found. The evaluation of sexual orientation practices has focused on gender identity and respondents' initiative to evaluate inequality and discrimination.

Gender-based discrimination and implications for legal decision making

Gender inequality has been found in the UK as per the statistical report has observed that the UK ranked 22nd in the "Global gender gap index". Based on the information from the European countries in 2022 the UK deals with the third female prime minister "Liz Truss" to consider the position in 2016 and 2019 (, 2021). Along with that, the UK's first prime minister is also a female to create discrimination to entitle a man to consider the bias due to the highest position and execution power in gender discrimination. The analysis of executing power has evaluated the legislation to consider that 220 female members of parliaments have been elected in 2019 the other hand 104 on that belonged to the labour party.

As it has been found that, men are bound to do that without thinking them they have to take care of their families thus, it creates discrimination based on male and female capabilities. Dealing with this major discrimination based on gender initiates females and creates discrimination against males thus the proportion of female MPs has increased in the percentage (, 2021). As per the analysis it had found that the pay gap based on gender is 8% of FTSE 100 companies and 3.6% of FTSE 250 companies have female CEOs in 2021 this report shows bias as the executive directors low share of men in top positions.

The major gender pay gap evaluates the UK worker's percentage to focus on gender inequality. After some decades the UK focuses on gender equality to agree with the statement of household responsibilities 55% of men achieve equality against feminism of 29% liable. Consider the "Equality Act 2010" the legal decision-making towards discrimination has focused (, 2022). The evaluation of gender-based discrimination in the UK has also considered the legal decisions making process to consider the equality practices to eliminate gender and sexuality bias.

Discrimination based on homosexual

The history of LGBT rights has considered sexual orientation to evaluate the discrimination due to changes in legislation from the 1950s to 2021the changes in law evaluate homosexual offences. Based on the report of the department committee on homosexual offences and prostitution the behaviour is considered a criminal offence in 1957 (Baumann et al. 2019). As per the analysis, homosexuality has not legitimate and is regarded as a disease to satisfy the mental health condition. Along with that, "The North Western Homosexual Law Reform Committee (NWHLRC)" focused on promoting social equality in 1964. The campaign for homosexual equality considered the awareness regarding homosexual practices effective for the management process.

In 1992 the WHO classified homosexuality as a mental illness due to stepping forward with LGBTQ+ the controversial detrimental treatments to cure the sexuality behaviours. The thereof "Social theory and social structure" has evaluated the effectiveness of same-sex relationships as lower to 18 it has provided equal treatment to heterosexual age with consent (, 2021). The ban on promoting homosexuality was overturned in schools in 2003 as the act of "The Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013" was implemented based on foreign law and recognized as a social structure. In 2021 queen Elizabeth states the UK planned to ban conversion for altering sexual orientation for preventing restriction based on sexual orientation.

The analysis of different LGBT community perspectives considers the history based on sexual minorities to deal with Europe and the UK to deal with the circumstances of reasonable discrimination. Focusing on the workplace, employment discrimination, education, accommodation, registered clubs, and qualifying bodies the discrimination regarding homosexuality has persisted (Baumann et al. 2019). As per the analysis, it has been found that to access medical services discrimination experience in wider scope to deal with functionality for supporting the psychological aspects. The evaluation of the findings has considered the discrimination legislation to solve the practices as in the UK the homosexual orientation is valid and not any objection for the king of LGBT practices.

Transgender Discrimination

The discrimination against transgender has to be focused on as the UNISON national in the UK deals with the equality act. As the grievance procedures are applicable to undertake activities such as "Excluded, humiliated, subjected to unwanted comments, and ignored" practices. Dealing with the consideration of employment tribunal’s legal protection has to be provided to the transgender as the parliamentary report considers the criticisms based on transgender equality (Bolin et al. 2021). On the other hand, the healthcare and justice system government initiative regarding the equality laws of human rights. They refused care in GP UUK has focused as the report analyzes based on a survey in 2021 as 45% of transgender need healthcare practices.

Based on that, 55% of non-binary experiences focus on avoiding medical help as a Trans experience, along with that, the evidence-based on UK transphobia has been undergone by doctors thus LGBTQ rights help to protect them to track human rights for growing anti-transgender sentiments. As per the analysis, hate speech and crime create major discrimination based on the practices to seek treatment. The bias takes plan against transgender affects humanity (, 2021). Based on this report the NHS and high court ruling lifted the patients for undertaking legal actions as gender identity development services face the practices of discrimination in 99% among transgender to create bias.

Another major discrimination found based on employment is transphobia rife among employers in the UK to hire a transgender worker., dealing with the practices prejudice UK employers have unsure for recruiting the transgender worker as 43% of them consider the retail sector to employ transgender in the different departments (, 2022). as per the analysis it has found that the discrimination persists hereafter providing legal approval to work in the professional field as a transgender by the government the employers has not to accept the truth as 74% of employer doesn't want transgender a co-worker to ignore the law of "Equality act 2010". Providing effective and equal opportunities to transgender employer create different bias process.

The "ACAS and the Women & Equalities Select Committee" evaluate gender identity and consider laws against discrimination practices to support transgender for promotion in the workplace and provide equal opportunities.

Transgender women and the sex work industry

Transgender people face major discrimination in different aspects thus due to these practices the failure has supported based women in the sex work industry. As to dealing with viable career options the only option left without discrimination is to consider sex work as a source of income (Cleland, 2018). The people of transgender are influenced by discrimination practices and participate in sex work for analysing women's manifests. Evaluating the criminal justice system and the rights of transgender through promoting healthy behaviour and better quality of life thus the transgender women's voice and perspective leads to rake decisions.

Along with that, transgender participants has shared their perspectives and experience as a result of verbal abuse, physical abuse, being denied a job application, being fired from the workplace, problems with authorities and the police have forced to involve in sex work activities (, 2021). The frequent abuse creates vulnerable practices along with HIV infection transgender women are 34% more at risk for acquiring HIV syndrome. Based on harassment, violence, and other practices the social rejection from the communities demotivates them and feels depressed with their lives. Along with that, gender identity leads to involvement in the sex worker process thus the treatment of HIV has to be provided.

As they are involved in sex work hence to stay healthy treatment has to be provided for better healthcare facilities. With a bag of condoms and a stack of business cards, the transgender women walked on street corners to advocate for sex workers the practices have resulted in discrimination practices. Due to no other options left transgender has to escalate the sex working business as it creates severe health issues the result of a survey found 41.8% reported lifetime sex work leads to occupational injury and depression (, 2021). The HIV risk and violence in young Trans women are met after that, the pandemic of covid-19 the sex workers' community adapt virtual sex work for surviving the business and engaging in multiple interventions for delivering sex work and following social isolation.


The overall study concludes that contemporary social issues based on discrimination against gender and sexuality has focused on different aspects of behaviours. Dealing with the UK discrimination practices of male and female discrimination regarding education, marriage, work, and family restriction has been evaluated. The “Equality act 2010” has applicable in the UK to deal with equal opportunities for every human being however based on LGBTQ practices heterosexual and homosexual behaviours create consequences based on constructing the practices of gender and sexuality. Along with that, the culture and sociology of sexuality have considered different norms to evaluate sexual orientation prejudgment practices. Based on these analyses gender-based discrimination has also focused to evaluate the implications of legal decision-making.

As per the analysts it has been found that discrimination based on homosexuality and transgender has evaluated the implication of laws. In 2022 queen Elizabeth cleared that this kind of practice has not been undertaken as a criminal offence. "The North Western Homosexual Law Reform Committee (NWHLRC)"legislation helps to evaluate transgender discrimination and forcefully the people to adopt sex working due to discrimination in healthcare, work, social communities, and other vulnerable practices. Thus, the overall research has found that discrimination based on gender and sexuality has persisted in society based on male, female, and transgender, homosexual, heterosexual and other major prospects.


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