Literature Review on Privacy Issues in social media Assignment Sample

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Literature Review on Privacy Issues in social media Assignment 

Using Social Networking Sites for Information Exchange and Revealing

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As stated by Beigi and Liu (2018) For online communications, social media are indeed a source of communication between both the data owner (data producer) and the viewers (end users) (OSN). A social network is a graph that depicts the relationships between individuals, groups, and the activities they engage in on a regular basis. There are vertices in the graph, and the links between them are the edges of the graph, which are nodes. An online social network (OSN) is a platform that enable users to connect with others who share their interests, hobbies, and/or real-world connections (Trepte, 2021). There is a plethora of social-networking options accessible in today's internet world. Over a billion individuals use Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and GoogleC, all of which demonstrate how interconnected we have become as a species. It is possible that the abundance of information published on social networks includes the following personal details about a user: current home and hometown addresses; instant messenger usernames; email addresses; favourite teams; hobbies; favourite athletes; favourite television shows; favourite music; games; language groups; religious and political views; inspirations; favourite quotations; service users' past; educational background; etc. Status updates or Tweets may also be used by the user to give revisions, such as an idea, an action, or a link to a video (Beigi, 2018). As a result of all this information, many parties will be able to glean about the user.

There have been several instances in which social networks have been accused of violating the privacy of its members. Facebook and other social networking sites are most often used for social interaction but privacy settings vary widely amongst the various sites (Nyoni and Velempini, 2018). Media platforms Such as facebook, Twitter, and others encourage users to create profiles with actual identities. The website' settings determine who seems to have access to confidential information. As long as the necessary security settings are in place, it's OK to share a few personal details. However, it's worth investigating how much attention the younger generation pays to this issue. As stated by Chen and Cheung (2018) Young social media users have a desire to share as much data as possible with as many people as possible, according to a recent study. Even more intriguing is the fact that the vast majority of users leave their privacy settings untouched. However, limiting public access to certain sensitive information is always recommended for reasons of security, since it is impossible to predict when and where a threat could arise. According to Saura, Ribeiro-Soriano, and Palacios-Marqués (2021) When it comes to luring people into hacking traps, it is really simple. It's also necessary to detect new information by clicking on links on other sites. In many cases, victims of account hacking create a new profile and communicate with their friends to 'un-friend' their hijacked prior account. Even celebrities' Twitter accounts have been hijacked. Because online social networking is so large and unrestricted in comparison to in-person networking, it needs extra care and forethought.

It is common for young individuals to be victims of identity theft, hacking, and other online scandals.

Theft of Personal Information

The 15- to 25-year-old demographic dominates social networking platforms such as Facebook. Social networking sites' privacy settings are mostly ignored by youngsters, according to an informal survey conducted by the Pew Internet and American Life Project (Irshad and Soomro, 2018). The younger generation's favourite hobby is updating their social media accounts. An SNS user's friends noticed an unusual number of postings from her account, which turned out to be the work of a hacker posing as her. Because of the subsequent shame, some individuals are compelled to deactivate their accounts as a result of identity theft. It's possible that the genuine person is unaware that a false profile is being updated and presenting things that are distasteful. Li et al., (2019) states young people are more likely to also have their personal information stolen or hacked than older users. Some people are addicted to social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter, and they define socialising as nothing more than a virtual exchange of messages. The results of a survey of select high school, college, and university students regarding their usage of social networking sites (SNS) show that these users feel comfortable sharing personal information and photos (DeLiema, Burnes, and Langton, 2021). Because they assume that only close friends can view their updates, they don't pay much attention to the privacy settings, and they're not aware of how strangers may get access to their sensitive information. The practise of adding strangers and forming networks is not prevalent. As a result, reviewing the privacy settings and being a little more cautious when adding pals may help.

Comments Controversies 

Getting 'likes' and comments on Facebook updates and pictures is commonplace for Facebook users of all levels of experience. Another example is a teenage "Nongovernmental Organization" (NGO) worker who documented a charity event conducted by his organisation. Posting photos and gaining feedback was completely acceptable (Kalvet, Tiits, and Ubakivi-Hadachi, 2018). There were reports of individuals starting conversations in the comments section, and this led to a flood of personal information about the events being made public. In addition to earning 'Likes' on all of the photographs, comments began coming in as well. This NGO worker got into difficulties because of statements he made that divulged private information about the organisation he worked for. The issue arose as a result of a conversation that began as a series of remarks (DeLiema, Burnes, and Langton, 2021). However, he was deemed reckless for his actions, which had a severe influence on his career. Since this open social platform allows for a chain of remarks that may continue in any direction, it is important to consider thoroughly before posting anything on it.


SNS is where many teens and twenty-somethings spend the majority of their free time. In social networks like Facebook, it's not uncommon to add people you don't know. During a conversation session with an unknown "friend" on Facebook, one adolescent user had no idea what was about to happen (Choi and Sung, 2018). Her naivete about strangers culminates to the hacking of her Facebook account. The friend she was conversing with emailed her a link and instructed her to click on it immediately in order to see the beautiful movie that was waiting for her. The little girl did so, and the page that opened looked precisely like Facebook's login page when it was opened. Rather of being hosted on Facebook, the duplicate page was hosted elsewhere. It requested that the adolescent user check in to access the new page's content. This was nothing more than a ruse to get the user's account and password. Her Facebook was hacked, and she had full access to anything on it, including any information or postings she had made. This young woman was shocked to learn that her Facebook page had been hacked just minutes after being confronted by her friends about the weird changes and postings she was making (DeLiema, Burnes, and Langton, 2021). The genuine account holders are still unable to log in again when the password is changed. As a result, the original account user is unable to tell his or her friends about the true storey because of the hacking of the hacked account. In addition, the victim's friends are now getting similar offers to visit a site and see incredible movies or photographs. Thus, it is not recommended to have too much faith in someone in the online realm. In order to keep the accounts secure, users should change their password periodically.

Privacy Concerns relating to Social Media Usage

Content sharing is at the core of OSN (Online Social Network) platforms, which are primarily designed to reach a wider audience as possible. Facebook, Twitter and Facebook are popular places for people to share their daily routines (Kalvet, Tiits, and Ubakivi-Hadachi, 2018). OSN users sometimes provide personal details about themselves to their friends and co-workers. However, a few of the OSN-revealed material should not be released at all in these public data. Status updates and the uploading of photos and videos are common ways for users to document and share aspects of their everyday lives. It is a common practise for OSN users to use smartphones to shoot photos and record movies and then post them on OSNs (Voorveld, 2019). Location information and metadata may be included in these datasets. A variety of data on OSN customers is collected by OSN providers in order to deliver customised services, but this data may also be utilised for commercial gain. Furthermore, other parties may be granted with access to user data, resulting in privacy leaks. This data may be used by criminals to get access to an individual's private information. In computer science, information retrieval as well as data privacy are two expanding domains that have distinct objectives information retrieval (Tsay-Vogel, Shanahan, and Signorielli, 2018). A collection of tools and methods for analysing data and making choices based on that data is also available. Unauthorized and harmful access to, disclosure, modification, attack, or destruction of, data saved or shared online are all prevented by data privacy. Privacy concerns are often overlooked by researchers in the field of information retrieval and management, for example. When it comes to defending personal information, academics that focus on data privacy tend to limit the use of information-retrieval tools. As social media and online communication through OSNs gain in prominence, more personal information about people is becoming publicly accessible (Appel et al., 2020). Regardless of the fact that most of the information that is published on OSNs is not classified as sensitive, some users choose to expose their personal details. Users' privacy may be compromised if they have their sensitive data made publicly available. When public data may be tracked and their actions linked to these data for mining as well as extracting confidential material from it, the privacy of users is increasingly at risk.

As stated by Voorveld (2019) There seem to be a number of different sorts of social media sharing platforms that enable its users to create and provides different types of material. Video and music sharing services like YouTube and Vimeo, as well as photo-sharing services like Instagram and Flikr, are instances. In this article, the focus is on the privacy concerns that occur when various types of material are shared on these networks rather than a comprehensive look at the numerous sharing service providers, platforms, applications, and so on. Posting Due to its context disclosing facts about the subject's physical and social setting, media content like pictures and videos raise new questions concerning privacy for users (Nyoni and Velempini, 2018). Users are now confronted with a new set of privacy problems given the proliferation of personal material online.

Uploading personal information to the web is becoming simpler due to digital cameras and, more recently, a new class of camera phone apps. The user's personal and social surroundings might be revealed by a multimedia collection, which raises privacy issues to a new level. In most cases, people don't give a second thought to or aren't even aware of the dangers of posting anything online. However, the truth is that a statement may be copied, saved, and transmitted after it has been entered. Furthermore, the information shared on social networks does not belong solely to the individual. So, whether you're using Gmail or Yahoo mail or Flickr etc (Appel et al., 2020). By subscribing to YouTube or Facebook, one has relinquished total control over any personal information.' Because of their vulnerability, teens and young people might be at risk from video and picture sharing sites. However, a number of examples of children being harassed online by paedophiles must be mentioned, some of which have resulted in suicide.


Appel, G., Grewal, L., Hadi, R. and Stephen, A.T., 2020. The future of social media in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science48(1), pp.79-95.

Beigi, G. and Liu, H., 2018. Privacy in social media: Identification, mitigation and applications. arXiv preprint arXiv:1808.02191.

Beigi, G., 2018. Social media and user privacy. arXiv preprint arXiv:1806.09786.

Chen, Z.T. and Cheung, M., 2018. Privacy perception and protection on Chinese social media: A case study of WeChat. Ethics and Information Technology20(4), pp.279-289.

Choi, T.R. and Sung, Y., 2018. Instagram versus Snapchat: Self-expression and privacy concern on social media. Telematics and informatics35(8), pp.2289-2298.

DeLiema, M., Burnes, D. and Langton, L., 2021. Identity Theft and Older Adults: How Minorities and the Poor Suffer the Worst Consequences. Innovation in Aging5(Supplement_1), pp.324-324.

Irshad, S. and Soomro, T.R., 2018. Identity theft and social media. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security18(1), pp.43-55.

Kalvet, T., Tiits, M. and Ubakivi-Hadachi, P., 2018, November. Risks and Societal Implications of Identity Theft. In International Conference on Electronic Governance and Open Society: Challenges in Eurasia (pp. 67-81). Springer, Cham.

Li, Y., Yazdanmehr, A., Wang, J. and Rao, H.R., 2019. Responding to identity theft: A victimization perspective. Decision Support Systems121, pp.13-24.

Nyoni, P. and Velempini, M., 2018. Privacy and user awareness on Facebook. South African Journal of Science114(5-6), pp.1-5.

Saura, J.R., Ribeiro-Soriano, D. and Palacios-Marqués, D., 2021. From user-generated data to data-driven innovation: A research agenda to understand user privacy in digital markets. International Journal of Information Management60, p.102331.

Trepte, S., 2021. The social media privacy model: Privacy and communication in the light of social media affordances. Communication Theory31(4), pp.549-570.

Tsay-Vogel, M., Shanahan, J. and Signorielli, N., 2018. Social media cultivating perceptions of privacy: A 5-year analysis of privacy attitudes and self-disclosure behaviors among Facebook users. new media & society20(1), pp.141-161.

Vella, E., 2020. Is data theft from social media a preparatory act for other crimes?: the Maltese experience (Bachelor's thesis, University of Malta).

Voorveld, H.A., 2019. Brand communication in social media: A research agenda. Journal of Advertising48(1), pp.14-26.

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