Disease Related To Protein Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Disease Related To Protein Assignment Sample

According to the global diabetes community, protein is interlinked with requirements of insulin followed by development of type 1 diabetes (Diabetes.co.uk, 2019). Purpose of this assignment is to focus on protein-related diseases followed by Type -1 diabetes. Insulin deficiency diabetes or Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease, whichis developed due to loss of insulin-producing beta β cells and infiltration of islets (DiMeglioet al. 2018). This assignment is going to discuss the prevalence of T1D and an overview of insulin production. Pathophysiology of insulin deficiency diabetes is going to be covered in this study. Symptoms and possible treatment will also be covered in this study.

Prevalence and Cost of Insulin Deficiency Diabetes

The prevalence of T1D is increasing in the UK based on an alarming rate. This section is going to cover provinces and the cost of T1D in UK.

Above figure indicates that during 2008-2019 around 2.2 million people in England have been registered with T1D (Statista.com, 2018). The number of T1D has jumped to 2.9 million during 2014-2015. In addition, from 2016 to 2017, around 3.1 million people in the UK have faced the issue of T1D. Approximately 3.2 million people in the UK have faced the issue of T1D during 2017-2018 (Statista.com, 2018). By focusing on the above information, it can be stated that the prevalence of T1D has gradually increased among UK people from 2008 to 2018.

In current situation, around 4.6 million people live in the UK with the issue of T1D. In addition, among 4.6 people, almost 3.7 people in the UK have been diagnosed with the issue of T1D (Diabetes.org.uk, 2018). However, the above figure indicates that 12.3 million people lived in the UK with the issue of type 2 Diabetes (Diabetes.org.uk, 2018).

Above figure indicates that from 2019 to 2020, around 2.5% of people in the UK from 80 or above age group have been faced with the issue of T1D (Statista.com, 2020). However, around 11.5% of people among the 65-79 age group have faced the issue of T1D in the UK. Approximately 40.8% of people from 40-64 age group and 45.1% of people from 40 or under have faced the issue of T1D during 2019-2020 (Statista.com, 2020). By focusing on above focus information, it can be stated that 40 and under 40 age group in the UK have faced the issue of T1D.

Complication with diabetes

It has been identified that incidents of diabetes gradually increased in the UK among every age group. According to Diabetes UK, diabetes is associated with multiple complications, which may increase with a delay of diagnosis.

  • Leg, toe and foot amputation are common consequences identified with T1D. In UK, every year, around 960 people face leg, toe amputation due to T1D (Diabetes.org.uk, 2019).
  • Sight loss and premature death are other common consequences identified with T1D. In the UK, around 1700 people experience sight loss due to T1D every year (Diabetes.org.uk, 2019). In addition, every week, around 700 people in UK experience premature death due to T1D (Diabetes.org.uk, 2019).

Overview of Insulin Production and Blood-Glucose Level Control

Postprandial storage of nutrients played an emerging role to secrete insulin from pancreatic beta cells (SkelinKlemenet al. 2017). This section is going to discuss insulin production from pancreatic beta cells and its role in controlling blood glucose levels.

Pancreatic beta cell is a response to blood circulating nutrients such as glucose. In the first stage of the glucose sensor pancreatic beta cell, it expresses one of its members Glucose Transporter 2(GLUT 2). By utilising the glycolysis process, citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation GLUT 2 trigger the import of glucose into pancreatic beta cells and develop ATP in the cell (SkelinKlemenet al. 2017). It has to be mentioned here that the glycolysis pathway in the beta cell is quite different from normal glycolytic pathway in the context of the nature of hexokinase. The hexokinase enzyme is not regulated; rather, it follows MichaelsMenden type of enzyme. This enzyme is not regulated by feedback inhibition of Glucose-6-phosphate. Here, the purpose of the glycolysis process is to increase the number of ATP in the cell. It has been identified that low amounts of glucose in blood will develop a minimum amount of ATP through the glycolysis process.

In the next stage, inside beta cells, elevated ATP inhibits ATP dependent K+ channels (KATP channels). As a result, it creates membrane depolarisation and decrees K+ efflux. SkelinKlemen et al. (2017) stated that depolarisation membranes activate voltage-dependent calcium channels. The captivated Ca2+ channel activates secretory machinery and insulin-containing vessels followed by a plasma membrane. It has been identified that these calcium channels trigger insulin exocytosis and it releases insulin in the blood and it helps to control blood glucose levels.

On the other hand, if a low level of glucose enters into a beta cell and it develops a low level of ATP, which fails to inhibit KATP channels; as a result, it increases the number of potassium and hyperpolarisation in the membrane to inhibit voltage dependent calcium channels (Chen et al. 2018). Consequently, it reduces the number of calcium and fails to produce insulin, which affects the level of blood glucose.

Pathophysiology of Insulin-Deficiency Diabetes

This section is going to cover pathophysiology of insulin deficiency diabetes.

In the first stage, destruction of the beta cell is identified due to the autoimmune process. During the cell destruction, beta-cell antigen and cellular fragments are released, and macrophages or dendritic cells engulf these. It is recognised as an Antigen presenting cell (APC). In pancreas, T lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes bind with APC and T-lymphocytes activate immense responses on the other side B cells start producing antibodies (Burracket al. 2017). Interleukin-12 (IL-12) was released from APCs, and it activated the CD4+T cell through the T helper 1 cell. This TH1 cell activates by cell–specific pre cytotoxic T cells through releasing IL-2, and it develops cytotoxic macrophages. In order to cytotoxic beta cells, T helper cells release cytokines. In the next stage, Cytotoxic T cell identified expression of beta cell and MHC class 1 molecule. It has to be mentioned that Cytotoxic T cell is a toxic beta cell through releasing granzyme and performance (Burracket al. 2017). On other hand, TNFR and FAS apoptosis mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells (Tomita, 2017). As a result, abnormalities are identified in the immune system because the immune system should not be triggered by outer antigen. Consequently, it destroys pancreatic beta cells and affects insulin production, followed by it developing autoimmune or insulin deficiency diabetes.

Symptoms and Possible Treatments

Based on symptoms, T1D can classified into two forms such as pre-symptomatic T1D and Symptomatic T1D.

By focusing on the above figure, it has been identified that in stage three, symptoms of T1D are identified (Katsarouet al. 2017). On the other hand, Dheiret al. (2019) stated that frequent urination, thirst, increased hunger, and tiredness are common symptoms identified with T1D. 

Possible treatment

  • Insulin injection

In order to control T1D, insulin injection is one of the common stages, which help to maintain insulin levels in the body, followed by it maintaining blood glucose level (Heinemann et al. 2018). It has been identified that this treatment helps to reduce the issue of T1D. Here, it can be stated that insulin injection is one of a significant processes to control T1D.

  • Beta cell replacement therapy

Beta cell replacement therapy is one of advanced treatments of T1D, which allow controlling insulin production and level of blood glucose (Vantyghem et al. 2019). Beta cell therapy allows an individual to control insulin production, followed by maintaining blood glucose levels. Therefore, it can be stated that beta-cell therapy is one of common methods to control T1D.

Conclusion

This study can be concluded that T1D is an autoimmune disease, which is developed due to destruction in pancreatic beta cells. This study has discussed the prevalence and cost of T1D. In this section, this study has identified that the prevalence of T1D has gradually increased in the UK since 2008. Overview of insulin production has been covered in this study. In this section, this study has identified that pancreatic beta cells develop insulin and control blood glucose levels. In next stage, this study has been analysed pathophysiology of T1D. In this section, this study has been identified that destruction of beta cells due to autoimmune reasons, apoptosis identified, and it develops T1D. In final section, this report has been provided treatment of T1D to improve health and wellbeing of people. This study has been identified insulin injection and beta cell replacements are a common therapy for controlling T1D.

Reference list

Journals

Burrack, A.L., Martinov, T. and Fife, B.T., 2017.T cell-mediated beta cell destruction: autoimmunity and alloimmunity in the context of type 1 diabetes. Frontiers in endocrinology8, p.343.

Chen, Z., Wang, J., Sun, W., Archibong, E., Kahkoska, A.R., Zhang, X., Lu, Y., Ligler, F.S., Buse, J.B. and Gu, Z., 2018. Synthetic beta cells for fusion-mediated dynamic insulin secretion. Nature chemical biology14(1), pp.86-93.

Dheir, I.M., Abu Mettleq, A.S., Elsharif, A.A., Abu Al-qumboz, M.N. and Abu-Naser, S.S., 2019. Knowledge Based System for Diabetes Diagnosis Using SL5 Object. International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR).3(4).

DiMeglio, L.A., Evans-Molina, C. and Oram, R.A., 2018.Type 1 diabetes. The Lancet391(10138), pp.2449-2462.

Heinemann, L., Freckmann, G., Ehrmann, D., Faber-Heinemann, G., Guerra, S., Waldenmaier, D. and Hermanns, N., 2018. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 1 diabetes and impaired hypoglycaemia awareness or severe hypoglycaemia treated with multiple daily insulin injections (HypoDE): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet391(10128), pp.1367-1377.

Katsarou, A., Gudbjörnsdottir, S., Rawshani, A., Dabelea, D., Bonifacio, E., Anderson, B.J., Jacobsen, L.M., Schatz, D.A. and Lernmark, Å., 2017. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews Disease primers3(1), pp.1-17.

SkelinKlemen, M., Dolenšek, J., SlakRupnik, M. and Stoer, A., 2017.The triggering pathway to insulin secretion: functional similarities and differences between the human and the mouse β cells and their translational relevance. Islets9(6), pp.109-139.

Tomita, T., 2017.Apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells in type 1 diabetes. Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences17(3), p.183.

Vantyghem, M.C., de Koning, E.J., Pattou, F. and Rickels, M.R., 2019.Advances in β-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The Lancet394(10205), pp.1274-1285.

Websites

Diabetes.co.uk, 2019.Type 1 diabetes study shows dietary protein is linked with additional insulin need. Available from: https://www.diabetes.co.uk/news/2019/jan/type-1-diabetes-study-shows-dietary-protein-is-linked-with-additional-insulin-need-94221545.html#:~:text=Type%201%20diabetes%20study%20shows%20dietary%20protein%20is%20linked%20with%20additional%20insulin%20need,-AddThis%20Sharing%20Buttons&text=A%20new%20study%20shows%20that,people%20with%20type%201%20diabetes. [Accessed 26 November 2021].

Diabetes.org.uk, 2018.number of people living with diabetes doubles in twenty years. Available from:https://www.diabetes.org.uk/about_us/news/diabetes-prevalence-statistics /[Accessed 26 November 2021].

Diabetes.org.uk, 2019.diabetes statistics. Available from: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/professionals/position-statements-reports/statistics [Accessed 26 November 2021].

Statista.com, 2018.Number of patients on diabetes register in England from 2008/09 to 2017/18.Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/387322/individuals-with-type-1-diabetes-by-age-in-england-and-wales/[Accessed 26 November 2021].

Statista.com, 2020.Distribution of people registered with type 1 diabetes in England in 2019/20, by age*.Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/387322/individuals-with-type-1-diabetes-by-age-in-england-and-wales/ [Accessed 26 November 2021].

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