Effective Public Health Interventions in the UK Assignment Sample

Role of Screening in Identifying Asymptomatic Diseases and Promoting Healthier Lifestyles

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Introduction Of Effective Public Health Interventions in the UK: Screening for Improved Community Health Assignment

Part A

1. Identification of 4 different interventions in public health which are working together with primary care.

Public health intervention is a practice that is an effort by the "public health nurses" to encourage some particular habits or behaviors which is valuable for the improvement of the mental and physical health of an individual. Accordingly, with the help of the identification of the unhealthy habits of people, the intervention is effective to reassess those habits and change the view of individuals about unhealthy behavior. However, with the change in the present situation in healthcare, everybody understood that rather than focusing on treatment, prevention of an illness is important for a healthy lifestyle. Accordingly, these interventions have a crucial role in the health, lifespan, and productivity of a community as they improve the quality of life and also help humans to not suffer in the future. Therefore it can be said that the workers and the programs which are involved in this public health are working to build the healthiest nation. Some basic interventions are taken by the health worker for the improvement of public health, which are epidemiology and surveillance, screening, social marketing, and health teaching.

Discussion of concepts and principles of these 4 interventions

These four interventions which are taken here for the improvement of public health are crucial for the identification of the cause of a disease, change in human habits, and providing knowledge to the comminute about the necessity for those changes. However, these four have different concepts and principles which work together for the improvement of public health.

Concepts

Epidemiology and Surveillance: The concept of epidemiology is the identification of the reason for the spreading of disease and taking steps that are effective for the prevention of the disease. There are many people involved in this practice of epidemiology, such as epidemiologists, health policymakers, nurses, and physicians who work for public health improvement (Tang et al. 2020). However, effective research by epidemiologists can fall a positive impact on various health issues, and the whole of environmental health.

Screening: The practice of screening does not only based on the individual, however, but it also takes the whole population to identify the individuals who are suffering from symptoms free diseases and help to recognize the risk factors from the disease. This practice has main two-goal, the first one is to identify the disease at the very early stage, and the second one is to find out the possible risk states (Hunter et al. 2020). However, this screening process is just not only focused on finding the disease cause but also on taking the necessary steps which are important for the prevention of the disease.

Social marketing: The most common intervention is social marketing which seeks to implement the change in human behavior that is crucial for the improvement of public health (Bukanov et al. 2019). This social marketing in health care shows how humans’ habit is liable for health issues, and how can the changes in these habits are beneficial for a healthy life.

Health teaching: The people who are related to this practice talk about the ideas and facts which are effective for the change in knowledge, habits, and behavior of the community and individuals too. In other words, this exercise of healthcare teaching is crucial for the identification of the health risk that can arise from the habit of a person, and give them a valuable lesson about the changes which are necessary for healthy living.

Principles

Epidemiology and Surveillance

This study is based on the distribution and determinants of issues which is related to the public health of a particular population and the application of the study is focused to control health issues. However there are a few basic principles to this intervention which are

Distribution: The first principle of epidemiology is created with the commonness and the path of health issues in the population (Singal et al. 2020). Accordingly, the risk which can arise from those health events is also being rated by epidemiologists.

Determinates: The epidemiologist tries to identify the reason that are influences the health-related issues and causing various health problems of human being. The occurrence of the health-related issue is connected with the various determinants which should be concerned first.

Specified population: This practice is not only concerned with the specific community, but it takes the entire population as a whole to identify the impact of the health issue (Martins et al. 2019).

Application: Epidemiologist use various kinds of scientific methods to understand the actual impact of the health issue on the public health of the entire community. The application of various tools and experience is beneficial for the prevention of diseases.

ScreeningApplication:

The basic principle of this intervention is focused to identify the cause of the disease and take the necessary steps which are crucial for the prevention of the spread of the disease (Gómez-Ochoa et al. 2021). Accordingly, the main objective of screening is based on the identification of the asymptomatic disease, and the risk factors are also determined.

Social marketing

Social marketing is a practice where the public health worker uses various kinds of methods to aware people of the necessity of the change in habits (Purcarea, 2019). However, to improve the quality of life the change in the daily behavior of a human is important, accordingly, the effectiveness of these changes is also identified by the participants.

Health teaching

While teaching people about health care and the help them understand the positive impact of these changes one must be aware that the people should have the interest to participate. Accordingly, when education on health care takes place the educator should have knowledge about the participant's perspective on the matter (Grosser et al. 2020). Moreover, educators must have knowledge about the cultural background of the group and the way they communicate which is important for effective healthcare education. Healthcare teaching should be like that which is easy to understand by the community and the people to whom it is addressed. Accordingly, the communication between the participants and the educator should be clear which can bring the success of the health care program.

Part B

2. Discuss the importance of screening and Identify the effectiveness of this in the local area of the UK

There are various kinds of intervention involved in the part of health care practice where the health care educators or the participants believe that the prevention of a disease is more beneficial than treatment. However to improve people's health quality and to provide them with a better lifestyle the health care department of many countries is participating in these interventions. One of the best interventions among these four is screening which is focused on the identification of disease at the first stage and is important for the prevention of the disease (Berland et al. 2019). Accordingly, screening is effective to find out the reason for any diseases that do not have any kind of symptoms. It has been found that there are many diseases that are both symptomatic and asymptomatic, and it is difficult to identify the impact of the disease on people's health. However, to simplify this it can be said that a survey showed that 12% of people from the city of London and 19% of southeast England have been suffering from seropositive diseases which are asymptomatic (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023). The screening process is not just to find out the reason for the disease but also to measure the risk factors. There are some benefits of this intervention that are effective for the improvement of public health.

Early detection: Screening is an effective method where the healthcare workers take the necessary steps to identify the disease at its early stage. However, with the help of the identification of a disease a person or the health care department can take further steps to stop the spread of the virus. When this screening process takes place in overall a community it also helps to identify the habits or practices of the people which is a reason for the occurrence of the disease. Moreover, with the help of identification of the main reason for the event of disease, the health care department or the health workers can implement appropriate methods which are crucial for the stop of the disease spread.

Improvement of lifestyle; A basic practice or habit of an individual or a community is liable for health-related issues. However the cultural belief or wrong perspective of a community or a person is creating barriers for healthcare workers to implement changes in their lifestyle. The screening is effective to identify the practice of a human which is the main cause of health-related issues, and with the help of this, the health care worker can easily make changes in the habits. Chang in bad habits is valuable for the improvement of the lifestyle of every person which is also beneficial for the prevention of diseases.

The positive impact of this process is valuable for the prevention of diseases and also for the improvement of human life quality. Therefore it can be said that in the country UK this intervention is effective for the identification of asymptomatic diseases and also for the change in human habits. However, the reports show that an increased rate of asymptomatic diseases is been found among people in the country UK. Therefore it can be said that this intervention in the UK is effective to identify the main reason for the disease which can help the workers to take necessary steps to prevent it

3. Redesign health care teaching and discuss the changes which are made for a better outcome in the future.

Health care education is important to address people about the change in habits and adaptation of good behavior in lifestyle which is important for the improvement of health. There are various kinds of challenges have been faced by healthcare educators to teach or to give appropriate education to a community about the change in habit which is valuable for them. While teaching individuals about the health care importance and their behavior of them which is liable for the occurrence of diseases an educator should abide by the cultural beliefs and the lifestyle of the community. Accordingly, health care education basically takes place among a huge community or some educational institutes where people are not aware of the importance of health care. Therefore there are some necessary steps that must be followed by an educator in the case of health care teaching,

Health talks: Health talks have an involvement of discussion about the possible health-related issues that can be arisen from the habits or behavior of the community. The health talks should be related to finding problems in the community habits and the educator should be knowledgeable about the belief of the community person (Tun, 2019). Before starting a talk about health care the people's knowledge and their understanding ability should be understood by the educator. Accordingly, the cultural belief of the community should not be hurt during the health care talk, which must be seen by the educator.

Lecture: After understanding the knowledge and views of the community persons about a healthcare problem the educator must deliver an overall lecture on the topic of healthcare benefits. Accordingly, the lecture should be simple and must be spoken in a manner that is easier to understand by the people whom it addresses to. Moreover, the lecture should discuss the approaches to the habits which is crucial for the improvement of the life quality of a human being. However, while giving lectures the educator must be aware that the cultural beliefs and the community does not hurt which is important for the success of healthcare education.

Buzz group: Buzz group is the process where the educator selects some people from the whole group and made another small group for better communication among them. However, to simplify this it can be said that when a large group is creating problems to provide effective education to the people then it is better to segregate the entire group into small groups. This method is beneficial for the success of an education process, where the both educator and the participants have the opportunity to communicate better and ask questions. The concept of health care education is appropriate for better communication and the understanding of the importance of health care activity which is necessary for the improvement of health quality.

Role play: Role play is an education process where the participants act on the basis of the real-life practice of the community. In this case, the educator and the worker who is related to the health care department try to give a health care education by taking the community practice as a base. However, while taking this method as an educational tool the educator must be aware that the people who are part of this whole process or those to whom this role apply is addressed must not understand this differently. Moreover, this role play should focus on delivering important information about the healthcare necessity rather than taking unnecessary practices into concern.

Drama: Drama is a similar kind of role play, however in a role-play the real-life activity of the community tasks palace, whereas the drama is based on a story that is focused on delivering healthcare importance to the people. In a drama, the participants act such a way that is appropriate to show the importance of changing a habit and adopting good habits for the improvement of life quality. However, in this case, the script and communication among the participants should be that which is easy to understand by the people to whom it is addressed. Accordingly, the drama should have not been involved in such kind of activity which can harm the cultural belief of the community and may not address such things which is irrelevant to the main goal of the healthcare program.

Visual materials: While teaching a person about the health care importance it is also important to show them which is the negative impact of the habits that they follow and how can they make changes in the habit. However many times it has been found that a program that is only based on the lecture and communication may not be effective for understanding the actual reason for the program (Balogun, 2020). Accordingly, it also has been found that people can understand better when they show something in general. Therefore the visual display can be effective to provide knowledge to the community about the importance of health care.

4. Discussion of the steps which is taken to evaluate the intervention and appropriateness of the taken methods.

Public health intervention is a practice where the necessary steps have been taken by healthcare educators to find out the cause of the disease and try to take steps that are important for prevention. The appropriateness of screening as an intervention is found more effective in the case of finding out the reason for the disease and which also helps to measure the possible risk states. However, the chosen topic in this part is basically based on secondary data. The increased rate of asymptomatic disease has been found a huge impact on people's health in the country UK. Accordingly, a study shows that more than 19% of the city of London is suffering from seropositive diseases which do not have any kind of symptoms. Moreover in South East England, 12% of the suffering people of this same disease also do not have any symptoms (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023). Therefore it can be said that with the help of this method, the issues which are mainly related to the disease can be found easily. Moreover, the changes in human behavior which are necessary for prevention is also can be deleted by the health care department.

However, with the help of the article and research of many authors, the chosen intervention is been found appropriate for the country Uk where a major number of people are suffering from an asymptomatic disease. Accordingly, the screening process is effective for understanding people's habits which is liable for the health-related issues of human, and help to bring out changes that are necessary for the improvement of people's health. In addition, the information regarding the process and effectiveness of screening behind the improvement of people's health is being analyzed with the help of various articles and journals. However, screening is not just only aware people of health issues it also helps to find out the necessary steps which can be taken to prevent diseases. Therefore it can be said that this process is beneficial for the change in an individual's habits that can improve the life quality of the person. Accordingly, this intervention is not only focused on the improvement of an individual life but is also focused on the change in the habit of the whole community which is crucial for the creation of the healthiest nation.

References

Balogun, J.A., 2020. Healthcare education in Nigeria: Evolutions and emerging paradigms. Routledge.

Berland, L.L., Monticciolo, D.L., Flores, E.J., Malak, S.F., Yee, J. and Dyer, D.S., 2019. Relationships between health care disparities and coverage policies for breast, colon, and lung cancer screening. Journal of the American College of Radiology, 16(4), pp.580-585.

Bukanov, H.M., Bukanov, H., Kolesnyk, A.V., Tashkinova, O.A., Kotlubai, V.O. and Koval, V.V., 2019. Social marketing in public administration of social service institutions.

Gómez-Ochoa, S.A., Franco, O.H., Rojas, L.Z., Raguindin, P.F., Roa-Díaz, Z.M., Wyssmann, B.M., Guevara, S.L.R., Echeverría, L.E., Glisic, M. and Muka, T., 2021. COVID-19 in health-care workers: a living systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes. American journal of epidemiology, 190(1), pp.161-175.

Grosser, J., Bientzle, M. and Kimmerle, J., 2020. A literature review on the foundations and potentials of digital teaching scenarios for interprofessional health care education. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10), p.3410.

Hunter, E., Price, D.A., Murphy, E., van der Loeff, I.S., Baker, K.F., Lendrem, D., Lendrem, C., Schmid, M.L., Pareja-Cebrian, L., Welch, A. and Payne, B.A., 2020. First experience of COVID-19 screening of health-care workers in England. The Lancet, 395(10234), pp.e77-e78.

Martins, F., Sofiya, L., Sykiotis, G.P., Lamine, F., Maillard, M., Fraga, M., Shabafrouz, K., Ribi, C., Cairoli, A., Guex-Crosier, Y. and Kuntzer, T., 2019. Adverse effects of immune-checkpoint inhibitors: epidemiology, management and surveillance. Nature reviews Clinical oncology, 16(9), pp.563-580.

Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (2023) asymptomatic seropositive group Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557299/ [Accessed on 14th March 2023]

Ogunride, M.E., Fasoro, O.J., Ojo, E., Alagbada, B. and Oluwatuyi, S.V., 2020. Critical Assessment of Two-Teaching Methods on the Academic Performance of Community Health Students of Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero, South-Western, Nigeria. Creative Education, 11(9), pp.1730-1740.

Purcarea, E.V.L., 2019. The impact of marketing strategies in healthcare systems. Journal of medicine and life, 12(2), p.93.

Singal, A.G., Lampertico, P. and Nahon, P., 2020. Epidemiology and surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma: New trends. Journal of hepatology, 72(2), pp.250-261.

Tang, B., Wang, X., Li, Q., Bragazzi, N.L., Tang, S., Xiao, Y. and Wu, J., 2020. Estimation of the transmission risk of the 2019-nCoV and its implication for public health interventions. Journal of clinical medicine, 9(2), p.462.

Tun, S., 2019. Fulfilling a new obligation: teaching and learning of sustainable healthcare in the medical education curriculum. Medical Teacher, 41(10), pp.1168-1177.

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